United States Senate elections, 1904 and 1905

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United States Senate elections, 1904 and 1905

← 1902/03 February 4, 1904 –
January 27, 1905
1906/07 →

30 of the 90 seats in the United States Senate
(as well as special elections)
46 seats needed for a majority

  Majority party Minority party
  William B. Allison - Brady-Handy.jpg Arthur Pue Gorman.jpg
Leader William B. Allison Arthur P. Gorman
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Iowa Maryland
Seats before 57 33
Seats won 22 5
Seats after 56 31
Seat change Decrease 1 Decrease 2
Seats up 23 7

Majority Party before election

Republican

Elected Majority Party

Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1904 and 1905 were elections that coincided with President Theodore Roosevelt's landslide election to a full term. Party share of seats remained roughly the same, when including vacancies and appointments, and the Republicans retained a significant majority over the Democrats.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment, senators were chosen by State legislatures.

This was the last election cycle until 1996 which featured a presidential candidate who won re-election without securing coattails in the Senate in either of his presidential runs.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 59th Congress (1905–1907)

  • Majority Party: Republican (58)
  • Minority Party: Democratic (32)
  • Other Parties: (0)
  • Total Seats: 90

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

At the beginning of 1904.

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5
D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6
D16 D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25
R56
Retired
R57
Retired
D33
Retired
D32
Ran
D31
Ran
D30
Ran
D29
Ran
D28
Ran
D27
Ran
D26
R55
Retired
R54
Retired
R53
Retired
R52
Retired
R51
Ran
but died
R50
Ran
R49
Ran
R48
Ran
R47
Ran
R46
Ran
Majority →
R36
Ran
R37
Ran
R38
Ran
R39
Ran
R40
Ran
R41
Ran
R42
Ran
R43
Ran
R44
Ran
R45
Ran
R35
Ran
R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27 R26
R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25
R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5

Result of the general elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5
D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6
D16 D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25
R53
Hold
R54
Hold
R55
Hold
R56
Gain
D31
Gain
D30
Re-elected
D29
Re-elected
D28
Re-elected
D27
Re-elected
D26
R52
Hold
R51
Hold
R50
Hold
R49
Hold
R48
Re-elected
R47
Re-elected
R46
Re-elected
R45
Re-elected
R44
Re-elected
V1
D Loss
Majority → V2
D Loss
R36
Re-elected
R37
Re-elected
R38
Re-elected
R39
Re-elected
R40
Re-elected
R41
Re-elected
R42
Re-elected
R43
Re-elected
V3
R Loss
R35
Re-elected
R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27 R26
R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25
R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5
D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6
D16 D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25
R54 R55 R56 D32
Appointed
D31 D30 D29 D28 D27 D26
R53 R52 R51 R50 R49 R48 R47 R46 R45 V1
Majority →
R36 R37 R38 R39 R40 R41 R42 R43 R44 V2
R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27 R26
R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25
R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5
Key:
D# Democratic
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 58th Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were seated during 1904 or in 1905 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Ohio
(Class 1)
Mark Hanna Republican 1877 (Appointed)
1898 (Special)
1898
Incumbent died February 15, 1904.
New senator elected March 2, 1904.[1]
Republican hold.
Winner was also elected to the next term, see below.
Charles W. F. Dick (Republican) 174 votes
John H. Clarke (Democratic) 25 votes[1]
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Matthew Quay Republican 1887
1893
1899 (Legislature failed to elect)
1899 (Re-elected but not qualified)
1901 (Special)
Incumbent died May 28, 1904.
New senator elected January 17, 1905.[2]
Republican hold.
Winner was also elected to the next term, see below.
Philander C. Knox (Republican) 100.00%
Massachusetts
(Class 2)
Winthrop M. Crane Republican 1904 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 18, 1905.[3] Winthrop M. Crane (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]

In this election, the winner was seated March 4, 1905.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Indiana
(Class 3)
Charles W. Fairbanks Republican 1897
1903
Incumbent resigned March 3, 1905 to become U.S. Vice President.
New senator elected January 18, 1905 begin service on the first day of the new Congress.
Republican hold.
James A. Hemenway (Republican) 100.00%

In these elections, the winners were seated March 4, 1907 in the 60th Congress; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Mississippi
(Class 2)
Anselm J. McLaurin Democratic 1894 (Special)
1900
Incumbent re-elected early January 19, 1904. Anselm J. McLaurin (Republican)
Unopposed[4]
Louisiana
(Class 2)
Murphy J. Foster Democratic 1900 Incumbent re-elected early May 18, 1904.[5] Murphy J. Foster (Democratic) 148 votes
Unopposed[5]

Races leading to the 59th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1905; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
California Thomas R. Bard Republican 1900 Incumbent lost renomination
New senator elected January 11, 1905.[3]
Republican hold.
Frank Putnam Flint (Republican) 111 votes
Theodore Arlington Bell (Democratic) 8 votes[3]
Connecticut Joseph Roswell Hawley Republican 1881
1887
1893
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 17, 1905.[6]
Republican hold.
Morgan Bulkeley (Republican) 228 votes
A. Heaton Robertson (Democratic) 37 votes[6]
Delaware L. Heisler Ball Republican 1903 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Legislature failed to elect.
Republican loss.
Seat would remain vacant until June 13, 1906.
J. Edward Addicks (Union Republican)
Willard Saulsbury Jr. (Democratic)
Henry A. du Pont (Republican)
James H. Hughes (Democratic)
Florida James Taliaferro Democratic 1899 (Special) Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic loss.
Incumbent would be appointed to start the term.
Appointee was later elected to finish the term, see below.
[Data unknown/missing.]
Indiana Albert J. Beveridge Republican 1899 Incumbent re-elected January 18, 1905.[3] Albert J. Beveridge (Republican)
Unopposed
Maine Eugene Hale Republican 1881
1887
1893
1899
Incumbent re-elected January 18, 1905.[3] Eugene Hale (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maryland Louis E. McComas Republican 1898 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected February 4, 1904.
Democratic gain.
Isidor Rayner (Democratic) 70.49%
Louis E. McComas (Republican) 29.51%
Massachusetts Henry Cabot Lodge Republican 1893
1899
Incumbent re-elected January 18, 1905.[3] Henry Cabot Lodge (Republican)
Unopposed
Michigan Julius C. Burrows Republican 1899 Incumbent re-elected January 18, 1905.[3] Julius C. Burrows (Republican)
Unopposed
Minnesota Moses E. Clapp Republican 1901 Incumbent re-elected January 18, 1905.[3] Moses E. Clapp (Republican)
Unopposed
Mississippi Hernando Money Democratic 1897 (Appointed)
1899
Incumbent re-elected January 19, 1904.[7] Hernando Money (Democratic)
Unopposed
Missouri Francis Cockrell Democratic 1874
1881
1887
1893
1899
Incumbent lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic loss.[3]
William Warner (Republican)
Francis Cockrell (Democratic)
Thomas K. Niedringhaus (Republican)[3]
Montana Paris Gibson Democratic 1901 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 16, 1905.[3]
Republican gain.
Thomas H. Carter (Republican) 62 votes
W.C. Conrad (Democratic) 28 votes
Martin Dee (Fusion) 6 votes
Scattering 6 votes[3]
Nebraska Charles Henry Dietrich Republican 1901 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 17, 1905.
Republican hold.
Elmer Burkett (Republican) 92.19%
Richard Lee Metcalfe (Democratic) 7.03%
Alfred Sorenson (Republican) 0.78%
Nevada William Morris Stewart Republican 1887
1893
1899
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 25, 1905.[3]
Republican hold.
George S. Nixon (Republican) 31 votes
John Sparks (Democratic) 25 votes[3]
New Jersey John Kean Republican 1899 Incumbent re-elected January 2, 1905. John Kean (Republican)
Unopposed
New York Chauncey Depew Republican 1899 Incumbent re-elected January 18, 1905.[3] Chauncey Depew (Republican) 136 votes
Smith M. Weed (Democratic) 57 votes[3]
North Dakota Porter J. McCumber Republican 1899 Incumbent re-elected January 18, 1905.[3] Porter J. McCumber (Republican)
Unopposed
Ohio Marcus A. Hanna Republican 1897 (Appointed)
1898 (Special)
1898
Incumbent ran for re-election, but died February 15, 1904.
New senator elected March 2, 1904.[1]
Republican hold.
Winner was also elected to finish the term, see above.
Charles W. F. Dick (Republican) 174 votes
John H. Clarke (Democratic) 25 votes[1]
Pennsylvania Philander C. Knox Republican 1904 (Appointed)
1905 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected January 18, 1905.[3] Philander C. Knox (Republican) 225 votes
James Knox Polk Hall (Democratic) 25 votes[3]
Rhode Island Nelson W. Aldrich Republican 1881 (Special)
1886
1892
1898
Incumbent re-elected January 18, 1905.[3] Nelson W. Aldrich (Republican) 93 votes
George W. Greene (Democratic) 17 votes[3]
Tennessee Washington C. Whitthorne Democratic 1887
1893
1899
Incumbent re-elected January 11, 1905.[3] William B. Bate (Democratic)
Walter P. Brownlow (Republican)[3]
Texas Charles Allen Culberson Democratic 1899 Incumbent re-elected January 25, 1905.[3] Charles Allen Culberson (Democratic)
Unopposed
Utah Thomas Kearns Republican 1901 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 18, 1905.[3]
Republican hold.
George Sutherland (Republican) 57 votes
William H. King (Democratic) 6 votes[3]
Vermont Redfield Proctor Republican 1891 (Appointed)
1892 (Special)
1892
1898
Incumbent re-elected October 18, 1904.[8] Redfield Proctor (Republican) 205 votes
John H. Senter (Democratic) 31 votes[8]
Virginia John W. Daniel Democratic 1887
1893
1899
Incumbent re-elected January 26, 1904.[4] John W. Daniel (Democratic)
Unopposed
Washington Addison G. Foster Republican 1899 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 27, 1905.[3]
Republican hold.
Samuel H. Piles (Republican) 125 votes
Addison G. Foster (Republican) 2 votes
George Turner (Democratic) 6 votes[3]
West Virginia Nathan B. Scott Republican 1899 Incumbent re-elected January 25, 1905.[3] Nathan B. Scott (Republican) 82 votes
John T. McGraw (Democratic) 27 votes[3]
Wisconsin Joseph V. Quarles Republican 1899 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 25, 1905.[9]
Republican hold.
Robert M. La Follette, Sr. (Republican)
Unopposed
Wyoming Clarence D. Clark Republican 1895 (Special)
1899
Incumbent re-elected January 25, 1905.[10] Clarence D. Clark (Republican)
Unopposed

Elections during the 59th Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were elected in 1905 after March 4; sorted by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Missouri
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
New senator elected March 18, 1905.
Republican gain.
William Warner (Republican) 91 votes
Francis Cockrell (Democratic) 83 votes
Thomas K. Niedringhaus (Republican) 1 vote[3]
Tennessee
(Class 1)
William B. Bate Democratic 1887
1893
1899
1905
Incumbent, having just been re-elected, died March 9, 1905.
New senator elected March 21, 1905.
Democratic hold.
James B. Frazier (Democratic)
W. P. Brownlow (Republican)[3]
Florida
(Class 1)
James Taliaferro Democratic 1899 (Special)
1905 (Appointed)
Legislature had failed to elect.
Predecessor was appointed to begin the term.
Interim appointee re-elected April 20, 1905.
James Taliaferro (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Connecticut
(Class 3)
Orville H. Platt Republican 1879
1885
1891
1897
1903
Incumbent died April 21, 1905.
New senator elected May 10, 1905.
Republican hold.
Frank B. Brandegee (Republican) 227 votes
Henry A. Bishop (Democratic) 34 votes

Complete list of races[edit]

New York[edit]

The 1905 election in New York was held on January 17, 1905, by the New York State Legislature. Republican Chauncey M. Depew had been elected to this seat in 1899, and his term would expire on March 3, 1905. At the State election in November 1904, large Republican majorities were elected for a two-year term (1905-1906) in the State Senate, and for the session of 1905 to the Assembly. The 128th State Legislature met from January 3, 1905, on at Albany, New York.

Late in 1904, Ex-Governor Frank S. Black tried to be nominated to succeed Depew. Black was supported by Governor Benjamin B. Odell, Jr., but after intense fighting behind the scenes, Odell finally dropped Black and accepted Depew's re-election which had been supported by his fellow Senator Thomas C. Platt and Speaker S. Frederick Nixon. The Republican caucus met on January 16. They re-nominated the incumbent U.S. Senator Chauncey M. Depew unanimously.

The Democratic caucus met also on January 16. They nominated again Smith M. Weed who had been the candidate of the Democratic minority in the U.S. Senate election of 1887.

1905 Democratic caucus for United States Senator result
Candidate First ballot
Smith M. Weed 42
D. Cady Herrick 14

Chauncey M. Depew was the choice of both the Assembly and the State Senate, and was declared elected.

1905 United States Senator election result
Office House Republican Democrat
State Senate
(50 members)
Chauncey M. Depew 36 Smith M. Weed 13
State Assembly
(150 members)
Chauncey M. Depew 100 Smith M. Weed 44

Note: The votes were cast on January 17, but both Houses met in a joint session on January 18 to compare nominations, and declare the result.

Pennsylvania[edit]

The election in Pennsylvania was held on January 17, 1905. Incumbent Philander C. Knox was elected by the Pennsylvania State Assembly to his first full term in the United States Senate.[11]

Republican Matthew Quay was elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to the United States Senate in the previous election in January 1901. He served until his death on May 28, 1904.[12] In June 1904, Republican Philander C. Knox was appointed to serve out the remainder of Quay's term, ending on March 4, 1905, when he began a term in his own right.[13]

The Pennsylvania General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and Senate, convened on January 17, 1905, to elect a Senator to serve the term beginning on March 4, 1905. The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

State Legislature Results[11][14]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Philander C. Knox (Inc.) 222 87.40
Democratic James K. P. Hall 23 9.06
N/A Not voting 9 3.54
Totals 254 100.00%

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "GEN. DICK SUCCEEDS HANNA". The New York Times. March 3, 1904. p. 9.
  2. ^ Byrd, p. 159.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af The World Almanac and Encyclopedia 1906. New York: The Press Publishing Co. New York World. 1905. p. 108.
  4. ^ a b Tribune (1905), p. 234.
  5. ^ a b Official Journal of the Proceedings of House of Representatives of the State of Louisiana at the Regular Session of the General Assembly. 1904. p. 76.
  6. ^ a b "BULKELEY IN CONNECTICUT". The New York Times. January 18, 1905. p. 2.
  7. ^ "Re-elect Senators McLaurin and Money" (PDF). The New York Times. January 20, 1904. p. 5.
  8. ^ a b "SENATOR PROCTOR RE-ELECTED" (PDF). The New York Times. October 19, 1904. p. 1.
  9. ^ "Gov. La Follette Elected Senator". The New York Times. January 25, 1905. p. 5.
  10. ^ "Clark Returned for Another Term". The New York Times. January 25, 1905. p. 5.
  11. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 17 January 1905" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
  12. ^ "QUAY, Matthew Stanley, (1833–1904)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
  13. ^ "KNOX, Philander Chase, (1853–1921)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
  14. ^ "PA US Senate - 1905". OurCampaigns. Retrieved December 22, 2012.

References[edit]