United States Space Command
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|United States Space Command|
U.S. Space Command emblem
|Country||United States of America|
|Type||Unified Combatant Command|
|Garrison/HQ||Peterson AFB, Colorado|
The United States Space Command (USSPACECOM) was a Unified Combatant Command of the United States Department of Defense, created in 1985 to help institutionalize the use of outer space by the United States Armed Forces. The Commander in Chief of U.S. Space Command (CINCUSSPACECOM), with headquarters at Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado, also functioned as the Commander in Chief of the binational U.S.-Canadian North American Aerospace Defense Command (CINCNORAD), and for the majority of time during USSPACECOM's existence also as the Commander of the U.S. Air Force major command Air Force Space Command. Military space-operations coordinated by USSPACECOM proved to be very valuable for the U.S.-led coalition in the 1991 Persian Gulf War.
It was announced in December 2018 that it will be reactivated.
The U.S. military has relied on satellite communications, intelligence, navigation, missile-warning and weather systems in areas of conflict since at least the early 1990s, including in the Balkans, in Southwest Asia and in Afghanistan. Space systems have since then been considered[by whom?] as indispensable providers of tactical information to U.S. forces.
As part of an ongoing initiative to transform the U.S. military, on June 26, 2002, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld announced that U.S. Space Command would merge with USSTRATCOM. The Unified Command Plan directed that Unified Combatant Commands be capped at ten, and with the formation of the new United States Northern Command, one would have to be deactivated in order to maintain that level. Thus the USSPACECOM merged into an expanded USSTRATCOM, which would retain the U.S. Strategic Command name and would be headquartered at Offutt Air Force Base in Nebraska. The merger aimed to improve combat effectiveness and to speed up information collection and assessment needed for strategic decision-making.
Within STRATCOM, responsibilities for space were first held by the Joint Functional Component Command for Space and Global Strike until July 2006 when the command was divided. As of 2016[update] the Joint Functional Component Command for Space oversees U.S. military space operations.
On August 13, 2018, President Trump signed into law, the John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 which includes the re-establishment of the U.S. Space Command by the end of 2018. U.S. Space Command will be led by a four-star general or admiral, and will temporarily be a sub-unified combatant command under U.S. Strategic Command, until it can be separated as a full unified combatant command. On 18 December 2018, President Trump formally directed the establishment of a United States Space Command as a new Unified Combatant Command, assuming the space-related responsibilities of Commander, United States Strategic Command and Joint Force Provider and Joint Force Trainer for Space Operations Forces.
Awards and decorations
Joint Meritorious Unit Award: 2 August 1990 – 2 March 1991; 1 July 1992 – 26 August 1996; 1 January 1999 – 30 September 2002.
|Name||Photo||Start||End||Notable offices held before or after|
|1||General Robert T. Herres, USAF||1985||1987||1st Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1987–1990)|
|2||General John L. Piotrowski, USAF||1987||1990||22nd Vice Chief of Staff of the Air Force (1985–1987)|
|3||General Donald J. Kutyna, USAF||1990||1992||Member of the Rogers Commission (1986–1988)|
|4||General Charles A. "Chuck" Horner, USAF||June, 1992||September, 1994||Commander, 9th Air Force, and Commander, U.S. Central Command Air Forces (1987–1992), he led U.S. and allied air operations for Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm.|
|5||General Joseph W. Ashy, USAF||September, 1994||August, 1996|
|6||General Howell M. Estes III, USAF||August, 1996||August 14, 1998|
|7||General Richard B. Myers, USAF||August 14, 1998||February 22, 2000||5th Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (2000–2001)|
15th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (2001–2005)
|8||General Ralph E. "Ed" Eberhart, USAF||February 22, 2000||October 1, 2002||27th Vice Chief of Staff of the Air Force (1997–1999)|
Commander, United States Northern Command (2002–2005)
- Handberg, Roger (2000). Seeking New World Vistas: The Militarization of Space. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 109. ISBN 0275962954.
- Pike, John. "United States Space Command". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- "Trump Signs National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019". AIP. 17 August 2018. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- Donald J Trump (18 December 2018). "Text of a Memorandum from the President to the Secretary of Defense Regarding the Establishment of the United States Space Command". The White House. Retrieved 20 December 2018.