Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing (United States)

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For other Thoroughbred Triple Crowns, see Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing.
Sir Barton, the first Triple Crown winner, at the 1919 Preakness Stakes
American Pharoah, the 12th and latest winner, at the 2015 Preakness Stakes

In the United States, the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing, commonly known as the "Triple Crown", is a title awarded to a three-year-old Thoroughbred horse who wins the Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes, and Belmont Stakes. The three races were inaugurated in different years, the last being the Kentucky Derby in 1875. These races are now run annually in May and early June of each year. The Triple Crown Trophy, commissioned in 1950 but awarded to all previous winners as well as those after 1950, is awarded to a Triple Crown winner.

The first winner of all three Triple Crown races was Sir Barton in 1919. Some journalists began using the term Triple Crown to refer to the three races as early as 1923, but it was not until Gallant Fox won the three events in 1930 that Charles Hatton of the Daily Racing Form put the term into common use.

As of 2015, only 12 horses have ever won the Triple Crown. The 12 Triple Crown winners are Sir Barton (1919), Gallant Fox (1930), Omaha (1935), War Admiral (1937), Whirlaway (1941), Count Fleet (1943), Assault (1946), Citation (1948), Secretariat (1973), Seattle Slew (1977), Affirmed (1978), and American Pharoah (2015).

James E. "Sunny Jim" Fitzsimmons was the only trainer to win the Triple Crown more than once; he trained both Gallant Fox and his son Omaha for the Belair Stud breeding farm. Gallant Fox and Omaha are the only father-son duo to win the Triple Crown. Belair Stud and Calumet Farm are tied for the owner with the most Triple Crown victories with two apiece. Calumet Farms won with Whirlaway and Citation. Eddie Arcaro rode both of Calumet Farms' Triple Crown champions. Arcaro is the only jockey to win more than one Triple Crown.

Secretariat holds the stakes record time for each of the three races. His time of 2:24 for 1 12 miles in the 1973 Belmont Stakes also set a world record that still stands.[1]

Individual races[edit]

Since 1931, the order of Triple Crown races has been the Kentucky Derby first, followed by the Preakness Stakes, and then the Belmont Stakes.[2] Prior to 1931, the Preakness Stakes was run before the Kentucky Derby eleven times. On May 12, 1917, and May 13, 1922, the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes were run on the same day. The Triple Crown series technically became possible with the inauguration of the Kentucky Derby in 1875. The Belmont Stakes was first run in 1867 and the Preakness in 1873.[3] While Daily Racing Form writer Charles Hatton is commonly credited with originating the term to reference these races in 1930, they were referred to by that name at least as early as 1923.[4]

Triple Crown races
Race Date Current Track Location Distance Background Cite Trophy
Kentucky Derby
"The Run for the Roses"
First Saturday in May Churchill Downs Louisville, Kentucky 1 14 miles (2,000 m) Inaugurated in 1875, the race was originally 1 12 miles (2,400 m) until 1896 when it was shortened to its current distance. It is the only one of the three races to have been continuously run from its origin. Colts and geldings carry 126 pounds (57 kg) and fillies 121 pounds (55 kg). The field has been limited to 20 horses since 1975. [5] Ky Derby Trophy.jpg
The Kentucky Derby Trophy
Preakness Stakes
"The Run for the Black-Eyed Susans"
Third Saturday in May Pimlico Race Course Baltimore, Maryland 1 316 miles (1,900 m) Started in 1873 and continuously run since 1894, it is the shortest of the three races. Pimlico was the home of the race from 1873 to 1888 and again from 1908 until the present. The Preakness was not run from 1891 to 1893. Weights are the same as for the Derby. Field is limited to 14 horses. [6][7] Woodlawn Vase Preakness Stakes.jpg
The Woodlawn Vase
Belmont Stakes
"The Test of the Champion"
Third Saturday following the Preakness
(first or second Saturday in June)
Belmont Park Elmont, New York 1 12 miles (2,400 m) Begun in 1867, it is the oldest of the three races and the longest, though not held in 1911 and 1912 due to anti-gambling legislation in New York. Race was held at various New York tracks until 1905 when Belmont Park became the permanent location. Distance varied from 1 58 to 1 18 miles until set at 1 12 miles in 1926. Weight assignments are the same as the other two races. Field is limited to 16 horses. [8][9][10] Belmont Cup.png
The August Belmont Trophy

While there is a similar series of races specifically for fillies, the "Triple Tiara", each Triple Crown race is open to both colts and fillies. Unlike the British and all but one of the French Classics, the races are also open to geldings. All the races are held on dirt tracks, rather than the turf commonly used for important races in Europe.

Winners[edit]

The sixth winner, Count Fleet, in the 1943 Kentucky Derby
The seventh winner, Assault in 1946 with Warren Mehrtens, jockey
The ninth winner, Secretariat, winning the 1973 Belmont Stakes by 31 lengths
Triple Crown winners[11]
Year Winner Jockey Trainer Owner Breeder Colors
1919 Sir Barton Johnny Loftus H. Guy Bedwell J. K. L. Ross John E. Madden Owner John E Madden.svg
1930 Gallant Fox Earl Sande Jim Fitzsimmons Belair Stud Belair Stud Owner Belair Stud.svg
1935 Omaha Willie "Smokey" Saunders Jim Fitzsimmons Belair Stud Belair Stud Owner Belair Stud.svg
1937 War Admiral Charles Kurtsinger George Conway Samuel D. Riddle Samuel D. Riddle Owner Samuel D Riddle.svg
1941 Whirlaway Eddie Arcaro Ben A. Jones Calumet Farm Calumet Farm Owner Calumet Farm original.svg
1943 Count Fleet Johnny Longden Don Cameron Fannie Hertz Fannie Hertz Owner Fannie Hertz.svg
1946 Assault Warren Mehrtens Max Hirsch King Ranch King Ranch Assault
1948 Citation Eddie Arcaro Horace A. "Jimmy" Jones Calumet Farm Calumet Farm Owner Calumet Farm original.svg
1973 Secretariat Ron Turcotte Lucien Laurin Meadow Stable Meadow Stable Owner Meadow Stable.svg
1977 Seattle Slew Jean Cruguet William H. Turner, Jr. Mickey and Karen L. Taylor,
Tayhill Stable/Jim Hill, et al.
Ben S. Castleman Owner Ben S Castleman.svg
1978 Affirmed Steve Cauthen Laz Barrera Harbor View Farm Harbor View Farm Affirmed
2015 American Pharoah Victor Espinoza Bob Baffert Ahmed Zayat Ahmed Zayat American Pharoah

At completion of the 2015 season, the three Triple Crown races have attracted 4,180 entrants. Of these, 289 horses have won a single leg of the Triple Crown, 52 horses have won two of the races (23 the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes, 18 the Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes, and 11 the Kentucky Derby and Belmont Stakes), and 12 horses have won all three races. Pillory won both the Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes in 1922, a year when it was impossible to win the Triple Crown because the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes were run on the same day.

10 of the 12 winners have been "homebreds," owned at the time of their win by their breeders.[12]

Jim Fitzsimmons is the only trainer to have two horses win the Triple Crown, training the sire/son combination of 1930 winner Gallant Fox and 1935 winner Omaha. This also marked the first time that an owner and the first time that a breeder, Belair Stud holding both duties, had a repeat win of the Triple Crown. Calumet Farm is the only other owner with two Triple Crown horses, 1941 winner Whirlaway and 1948 winner Citation. Eddie Arcaro is the only jockey to ride two horses to the Triple Crown, both for Calumet, Whirlaway and Citation. Those two horses' trainers, Ben Jones and Jimmy Jones, were father and son.

All 12 horses, and most owners, trainers and jockeys were born in the United States. The exceptions were jockey Johnny Longden, born in England and raised in Canada; French-born jockey Jean Cruguet; trainer Laz Barrera, from Cuba; and jockey Victor Espinoza, from Mexico. Secretariat's trainer, Lucien Laurin and jockey, Ron Turcotte were both Canadians. Owner Fannie Hertz was married to John D. Hertz, who was born in Slovakia; owner Ahmed Zayat was born in Egypt. Jockey Willie Saunders is considered a Canadian jockey because he grew up and established his career there, but was born in Montana. The horse Sir Barton was foaled in the United States but had a Canadian owner, J. K. L. Ross, at the time of his Triple Crown win.

Records[edit]

Secretariat holds the stakes record for each of the Triple Crown races, the Kentucky Derby (1:59 2/5), the Preakness Stakes (1:53), and the Belmont Stakes (2:24).[13][14]

At 18, Steve Cauthen became the youngest jockey to win the Triple Crown, riding Affirmed in 1978. At 43, Victor Espinoza became the oldest jockey to win the Triple Crown, riding American Pharoah in 2015.

Other notable achievements[edit]

Only one horse, Alydar, has placed (finished second) in all three races. He was defeated by Affirmed in all three races in 1978 by a combined margin of two lengths. His trainer John Vietch is the only trainer to have done this with one horse. In 1995, D. Wayne Lukas became the first and only major figure (owner, jockey, or trainer) to win all three Triple Crown races with different horses, Thunder Gulch in the Derby and Belmont, Timber Country in the Preakness. Lukas also is the only trainer to have won six straight Triple Crown races, adding his 1995 wins, having won the 1994 Preakness and Belmont with Tabasco Cat and the 1996 Derby with Grindstone.[15]

Like Vietch, only with two different horses, Bob Baffert also had second-place finishes in all three legs of the Triple Crown, both owned by Ahmed Zayat: in 2012, Bodemeister finished second in the Kentucky Derby and Preakness stakes to I'll Have Another, then Paynter was entered and finished second to Union Rags.[16] Baffert and Zayat teamed up again for the 2015 Triple Crown victory of American Pharoah.

Gallant Fox is the only Triple Crown winner to sire another U.S. Triple Crown winner, Omaha. Affirmed sired Peteski, winner of the 1993 Canadian Triple Crown.[17]

Gaps between wins[edit]

Horses leaving the Belmont Park starting gate at the beginning of a horse race
California Chrome (second from right) was stepped on by the number 3 horse while leaving the starting gate at the 2014 Belmont Stakes

After the first Triple Crown winner, Sir Barton, in 1919, there was not another winner until Gallant Fox in 1930, a gap of 11 years. Between 1930 and 1948, seven horses won the Triple Crown, with five years being the longest gap between winners. However, following the 1948 win of Citation, there was a considerable gap of 25 years before Secretariat ended the drought of Triple Crown champions in 1973.

The longest drought in Triple Crown history began in 1979 with Spectacular Bid's failed Triple Crown attempt at the Belmont Stakes, and lasted until American Pharoah won in 2015. Between those wins, thirteen horses won both the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes, but not the Belmont. Of those, Real Quiet came the closest to winning the Triple Crown, losing the Belmont Stakes by a nose in 1998. Charismatic led the Belmont Stakes in the final furlong in 1999, but fractured his left front leg in the final stretch and fell back to third. The seven most recent horses to win the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes but either lost or withdrew from the Belmont Stakes were War Emblem in 2002, Funny Cide in 2003, Smarty Jones in 2004, Big Brown in 2008, I'll Have Another in 2012, and California Chrome in 2014.

In the 1979-2015 period, horses who contested all three races, losing the Kentucky Derby but winning the Preakness and the Belmont were Risen Star in 1988, Hansel in 1991, Tabasco Cat in 1994, Point Given in 2001, and Afleet Alex in 2005. In 1984, Swale and in 1995, Thunder Gulch ran all three races, winning the Derby and the Belmont, but not the Preakness.

The 37-year gap between the Triple Crown wins of Affirmed and American Pharoah drew criticism of the system. As far back as 1986, reporters noted that horses who were fresh for the Belmont had an advantage.[18] In 2003, Gary Stevens stated in an interview with Charlie Rose that he did not believe there would be another Triple Crown winner because of the tendency for owners to put fresh horses in the Preakness and Belmont Stakes.[19] California Chrome co-owner Steve Coburn was particularly critical of the Triple Crown system in post-Belmont remarks in 2014; he considered the system to be unfair, arguing that there would never be another Triple Crown winner in his lifetime unless only horses that competed in the Kentucky Derby and Preakness competed at the Belmont. By 2014, six of the previous eight Belmont winners had not competed in either of the first two legs of the Triple Crown.[20] Additionally, from 2006 to 2014, the Belmont winner was a horse who had not competed in the Preakness.[21] American Pharoah was the first Belmont winner since Afleet Alex in 2005 to have run all three Triple Crown races.[22]

Unsuccessful bids[edit]

Big Brown, the winner of the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes, at the 2008 Belmont Stakes, where he was pulled up and did not finish.

Since all three races were inaugurated, 23 horses as of 2015 have won the Derby and Preakness but not the Belmont:

Sponsorship and broadcasting[edit]

Originally, the three races largely organized their own nominations procedure, marketing and television broadcast rights. In 1985, Triple Crown Productions was created when the owner of Spend a Buck chose not to run in the other two Triple Crown races because of a financial incentive offered to any Kentucky Derby winner who could win a set of competing races in New Jersey. The organizers of the three races realized that they needed to work together.[38]

Efforts to unify the sponsorship and marketing of all three Triple Crown races began in 1987 when ABC Sports negotiated a deal with Chrysler to pay $5 million to any horse that swept all three races, and $1 million each year there was no Triple Crown sweep to the horse with the highest combined Triple Crown finish.[39] This sponsorship lasted until 1993. The end of the $1 million participation bonus was linked to the breakdown of Prairie Bayou at the Belmont Stakes that year and the uncomfortable situation that arose when the Kentucky Derby winner, Sea Hero, was given the bonus following a seventh-place finish.[38]

In 1995, Visa USA took over the sponsorship with a 10-year contract, naming the series the Visa Triple Crown and offering only the $5 million bonus to a horse that could sweep the Triple Crown.[40] Along with sponsorship by VISA, NBC Sports paid $51.5 million for broadcast rights to all three races, with the revenue split giving 50% of the total to Churchill Downs and 25% each to Pimlico and to the New York Racing Association (NYRA).[38]

The Visa deal—and the cooperative effort—ended after 2005. The NYRA felt that they did not get a fair share of the revenue, particularly when the Belmont had the highest ratings of all three races in the years where a Triple Crown was on the line.[38] From 2001 through 2013, average viewership for the Belmont was 7 million when the Triple Crown was not at stake, whereas viewership averaged 13 million when it was.[41] With the contract term ending, the NYRA went to ESPN on ABC for the 2006 Belmont, while the broadcasts of the Derby and Preakness remained with NBC.[38] Visa chose to remain as a sponsor of only Kentucky Derby for the next five years.[40] As a result of the divided broadcast, Triple Crown Productions was unable to obtain a new sponsor,[38][a] and as of 2015 the Triple Crown series has not had a unified sponsorship since.

Years Sponsor Bonuses
1987–1993 Chrysler Corporation $1 million (best overall record)
$5 million (three wins)
1995–2005 Visa USA $5 million (three wins)
2006–present Triple Crown Productions None

In February 2011, ABC/ESPN dropped out of the negotiations to renew broadcast rights to the Belmont Stakes. NBC obtained the contract through 2015, once again uniting all three races on the same network.[42][43][44] In 2014, NBC extended their contract for the Kentucky Derby through 2025.[45] As of June 2015, NBC obtained a broadcast contract for the Belmont through 2020. The contract for the 2016 Preakness and subsequent years is still under negotiation and yet to be awarded.[46]

Individual race winners[edit]

Key for full list of race winners
dagger Denotes winners of the Triple Crown
* Denotes winners of the Derby and Preakness but not the Belmont
# Denotes other winners of any other combination of 2 out of the 3 Triple Crown races
Full list of race winners
Year Kentucky Derby Preakness Stakes Belmont Stakes
1867 Ruthless[Fy]
1868 General Duke
1869 Fenian
1870 Kingfisher
1871 Harry Bassett
1872 Joe Daniels
1873 Survivor Springbok
1874 Culpepper Saxon
1875 Aristides Tom Ochiltree Calvin
1876 Vagrant Shirley Algerine
1877 Baden-Baden # Cloverbrook # Cloverbrook
1878 Day Star # Duke of Magenta # Duke of Magenta
1879 Lord Murphy Harold Spendthrift
1880 Fonso # Grenada # Grenada
1881 Hindoo # Saunterer # Saunterer
1882 Apollo Vanguard Forester
1883 Leonatus Jacobus George Kinney
1884 Buchanan Knight of Ellerslie Panique
1885 Joe Cotton Tecumseh Tyrant
1886 Ben Ali The Bard Inspector B
1887 Montrose Dunboyne Hanover
1888 Macbeth II Refund Sir Dixon
1889 Spokane Buddhist Eric
1890 Riley Montague[b] Burlington
1891 Kingman RNR Foxford
1892 Azra RNR Patron
1893 Lookout RNR Commanche
1894 Chant Assignee[c] Henry of Navarre
1895 Halma # Belmar[c] # Belmar
1896 Ben Brush Margrave[c] Hastings
1897 Typhoon II Paul Kauvar[c] Scottish Chieftain
1898 Plaudit Sly Fox[c] Bowling Brook
1899 Manuel Half Time[c] Jean Bereaud
1900 Lieut. Gibson Hindus[c] Ildrim
1901 His Eminence The Parader[c] Commando
1902 Alan-a-Dale Old England[c] Masterman
1903 Judge Himes Flocarline[Fy][c] Africander
1904 Elwood Bryn Mawr[c] Delhi
1905 Agile Cairngorm[c] Tanya[Fy]
1906 Sir Huon Whimsical[Fy][c] Burgomaster
1907 Pink Star Don Enrique[c] Peter Pan I
1908 Stone Street Royal Tourist[c] Colin
1909 Wintergreen Effendi Joe Madden
1910 Donau Layminster Sweep
1911 Meridian Watervale RNR
1912 Worth Colonel Holloway RNR
1913 Donerail Buskin Prince Eugene
1914 Old Rosebud Holiday Luke McLuke
1915 Regret[Fy] Rhine Maiden[Fy] The Finn
1916 George Smith Damrosch Friar Rock
1917 Omar Khayyam[d] Kalitan[d] Hourless
1918 Exterminator War Cloud[e]
Jack Hare, Jr.[e]
Johren
1919 winner of the Triple Crown Sir Barton winner of the Triple Crown Sir Barton winner of the Triple Crown Sir Barton
1920 Paul Jones # Man o' War # Man o' War
1921 Behave Yourself Broomspun Grey Lag
1922 Morvich[d] # Pillory[d] # Pillory
1923 # Zev Vigil # Zev
1924 Black Gold Nellie Morse[Fy] Mad Play
1925 Flying Ebony Coventry American Flag
1926 Bubbling Over Display Crusader
1927 Whiskery Bostonian Chance Shot
1928 Reigh Count Victorian Vito
1929 Clyde Van Dusen Dr. Freeland Blue Larkspur
1930 winner of the Triple Crown Gallant Fox winner of the Triple Crown Gallant Fox winner of the Triple Crown Gallant Fox
1931 # Twenty Grand Mate # Twenty Grand
1932 * Burgoo King * Burgoo King Faireno
1933 Brokers Tip Head Play Hurryoff
1934 Cavalcade High Quest Peace Chance
1935 winner of the Triple Crown Omaha winner of the Triple Crown Omaha winner of the Triple Crown Omaha
1936 * Bold Venture * Bold Venture Granville
1937 winner of the Triple Crown War Admiral winner of the Triple Crown War Admiral winner of the Triple Crown War Admiral
1938 Lawrin Dauber Pasteurized
1939 # Johnstown Challedon # Johnstown
1940 Gallahadion # Bimelech # Bimelech
1941 winner of the Triple Crown Whirlaway winner of the Triple Crown Whirlaway winner of the Triple Crown Whirlaway
1942 # Shut Out Alsab # Shut Out
1943 winner of the Triple Crown Count Fleet winner of the Triple Crown Count Fleet winner of the Triple Crown Count Fleet
1944 * Pensive * Pensive Bounding Home
1945 Hoop Jr. Polynesian Pavot
1946 winner of the Triple Crown Assault winner of the Triple Crown Assault winner of the Triple Crown Assault
1947 Jet Pilot Faultless Phalanx
1948 winner of the Triple Crown Citation winner of the Triple Crown Citation winner of the Triple Crown Citation
1949 Ponder # Capot # Capot
1950 # Middleground Hill Prince # Middleground
1951 Count Turf Bold Counterpoint
1952 Hill Gail Blue Man One Count
1953 Dark Star # Native Dancer # Native Dancer
1954 Determine Hasty Road High Gun
1955 Swaps # Nashua # Nashua
1956 # Needles Fabius # Needles
1957 Iron Liege Bold Ruler Gallant Man
1958 * Tim Tam * Tim Tam Cavan
1959 Tomy Lee Royal Orbit Sword Dancer
1960 Venetian Way Bally Ache Celtic Ash
1961 * Carry Back * Carry Back Sherluck
1962 Decidedly Greek Money Jaipur
1963 # Chateaugay Candy Spots # Chateaugay[f]
1964 * Northern Dancer * Northern Dancer Quadrangle[f]
1965 Lucky Debonair Tom Rolfe Hail To All[f]
1966 * Kauai King * Kauai King Amberoid[f]
1967 Proud Clarion # Damascus # Damascus[f]
1968 * Forward Pass[g] * Forward Pass Stage Door Johnny
1969 * Majestic Prince * Majestic Prince Arts and Letters
1970 Dust Commander Personality High Echelon
1971 * Canonero II * Canonero II Pass Catcher
1972 # Riva Ridge Bee Bee Bee # Riva Ridge
1973 winner of the Triple Crown Secretariat winner of the Triple Crown Secretariat winner of the Triple Crown Secretariat
1974 Cannonade # Little Current # Little Current
1975 Foolish Pleasure Master Derby Avatar
1976 # Bold Forbes Elocutionist # Bold Forbes
1977 winner of the Triple Crown Seattle Slew winner of the Triple Crown Seattle Slew winner of the Triple Crown Seattle Slew
1978 winner of the Triple Crown Affirmed winner of the Triple Crown Affirmed winner of the Triple Crown Affirmed
1979 * Spectacular Bid * Spectacular Bid Coastal
1980 Genuine Risk[Fy] Codex Temperence Hill
1981 * Pleasant Colony * Pleasant Colony Summing
1982 Gato Del Sol Aloma's Ruler Conquistador Cielo
1983 Sunny's Halo Deputed Testamony Caveat
1984 # Swale Gate Dancer # Swale
1985 Spend A Buck Tank's Prospect Creme Fraiche
1986 Ferdinand Snow Chief Danzig Connection
1987 * Alysheba * Alysheba Bet Twice
1988 Winning Colors[Fy] # Risen Star # Risen Star
1989 * Sunday Silence * Sunday Silence Easy Goer
1990 Unbridled Summer Squall Go And Go
1991 Strike the Gold # Hansel # Hansel
1992 Lil E. Tee Pine Bluff A.P. Indy
1993 Sea Hero Prairie Bayou Colonial Affair
1994 Go for Gin # Tabasco Cat # Tabasco Cat
1995 # Thunder Gulch Timber Country # Thunder Gulch
1996 Grindstone Louis Quatorze Editor's Note
1997 * Silver Charm * Silver Charm Touch Gold
1998 * Real Quiet * Real Quiet Victory Gallop
1999 * Charismatic * Charismatic Lemon Drop Kid
2000 Fusaichi Pegasus Red Bullet Commendable
2001 Monarchos # Point Given # Point Given
2002 * War Emblem * War Emblem Sarava
2003 * Funny Cide * Funny Cide Empire Maker
2004 * Smarty Jones * Smarty Jones Birdstone
2005 Giacomo # Afleet Alex # Afleet Alex
2006 Barbaro Bernardini Jazil
2007 Street Sense Curlin Rags to Riches[Fy]
2008 * Big Brown * Big Brown Da' Tara
2009 Mine That Bird Rachel Alexandra[Fy] Summer Bird
2010 Super Saver Lookin at Lucky Drosselmeyer
2011 Animal Kingdom Shackleford Ruler on Ice
2012 * I'll Have Another * I'll Have Another Union Rags[h]
2013 Orb Oxbow Palace Malice
2014 * California Chrome * California Chrome Tonalist
2015 winner of the Triple Crown American Pharoah winner of the Triple Crown American Pharoah winner of the Triple Crown American Pharoah

Notes

  1. ^ These were 2002 for War Emblem, 2003 for Funny Cide in 2003 and 2004 for Smarty Jones.[38]
  2. ^ The 1890 Preakness Stakes was held at Morris Park Racecourse in The Bronx, New York.[47]
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o From 1894 to 1908, the Preakness Stakes were held at Gravesend Race Track on Coney Island, New York.[47]
  4. ^ a b c d In 1917 and 1922, the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes were held on the same day.
  5. ^ a b The 1918 Preakness Stakes was held in two divisions due to a large field. War Cloud won one and Jack Hare, Jr. the other.
  6. ^ a b c d e Due to reconstruction at Belmont Park, the Belmont Stakes were held at Aqueduct Racetrack in Queens, New York from 1963 to 1967.
  7. ^ Dancer's Image was disqualified as the winner of the 1968 Kentucky Derby due to a post-race failed drug test.
  8. ^ I'll Have Another was scratched the afternoon prior to the Belmont due to tendonitis and was unable to attempt to win the race.
  • [Fy] Denotes a filly. Fillies won the Kentucky Derby in 1915, 1980, and 1988, Preakness Stakes in 1903, 1906, 1915, 1924, and 2009, and Belmont Stakes in 1867, 1905, and 2007.
  • RNR Race not run. The Belmont was not run in 1911 and 1912 due to anti-betting legislation passed in New York State. The Preakness did not run 1891–1893.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://espn.go.com/sportscentury/features/00016464.html
  2. ^ "History & Tradition of the Triple Crown". OD Action. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Christine, Bill (June 4, 1989). "The Spoilers: Last Jewel of Triple Crown Has Been Stolen 11 Times--Will Sunday Silence Be Next Victim of an Upset?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 2, 2015. 
  4. ^ Liebman, Bennett (April 24, 2008). "The Rail: The Race for the Triple Crown - Origins of Triple Crown". The New York Times (New York, NY). Retrieved May 9, 2009. 
  5. ^ Drager, Marvin. "Kentucky Derby". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved May 29, 2015. 
  6. ^ Drager, Marvin. "Preakness Stakes". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved June 13, 2015. 
  7. ^ "The Preakness Stakes". Triple Crown Productions. Retrieved May 29, 2015. 
  8. ^ Drager, Marvin. "Belmont Stakes". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved May 29, 2015. 
  9. ^ "Belmont Stakes". Triple Crown Productions. Retrieved May 29, 2015. 
  10. ^ "Belmont Stakes History". Belmont-Stakes Info. Retrieved May 29, 2015. 
  11. ^ "Triple Crown Winners". The New York Racing Association. June 8, 2015. Retrieved June 8, 2015. 
  12. ^ Angst, Frank (June 10, 2015). "The Figs: American Pharoah's Triple Crown". Blood-Horse. Retrieved June 11, 2015. 
  13. ^ "Sham: In the Shadow of a Superhorse". California Thoroughbred. Retrieved May 24, 2012. 
  14. ^ Hegarty, Matt (June 19, 2012). "Secretariat awarded Preakness record at 1:53 after review". Daily Racing Form. Retrieved June 19, 2012. 
  15. ^ Christine, Bill (December 29, 2011). "10 most unbreakable records (10-6)". Daily Racing Form. Retrieved June 11, 2015. 
  16. ^ "2012 Kentucky Derby -- I'll Have Another rallies to win at Churchill Downs - ESPN". ESPN.com. Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  17. ^ "Canadian Triple Crown Winner Peteski Dies from Colic". BloodHorse.com. April 8, 2001. Retrieved August 11, 2010. 
  18. ^ "The Courier - Google News Archive Search". Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  19. ^ Charlie Rose (July 21, 2003). "A rebroadcast of a discussion about the film Seabiscuit". Charlie Rose. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. 
  20. ^ "Brennan: Cherry-pick races and Triple Crown extinct". USA Today. Retrieved June 8, 2014. 
  21. ^ "Betting against California Chrome? Fresh horses typically win Belmont Stakes". Newsday. Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  22. ^ ESPN News Service (June 6, 2015). "American Pharoah claims first Triple Crown since 1978". ESPN. Retrieved June 6, 2015. 
  23. ^ a b c Drape, Joe (2008). To the swift : classic Triple Crown horses and their race for glory (1st ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 9780312357955. 
  24. ^ Drager, Marvin. "Majestic Prince". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved June 2, 2015. 
  25. ^ Glauber, Bill (May 19, 1991). "Canonero II came close to Triple Crowning glory". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved June 2, 2015. 
  26. ^ a b c d Staff (June 1, 2015). "American Pharoah Eyes Triple Crown Sweep". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2015. 
  27. ^ Oakford, Glenye Cain (September 17, 2011). "Spectacular Bid, 27, dead". Daily Racing Form. Retrieved June 2, 2015. 
  28. ^ Hovdey, Jay (May 31, 2012). "Triple Crown near-misses: Pleasant Colony, 1981". Daily Racing Form. Retrieved June 2, 2015. 
  29. ^ Finn, Robin (June 7, 1987). "BELMONT STAKES; On Bumpy Road to Crown, Alysheba Is Left Behind". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2015. 
  30. ^ Durso, Joseph (June 8, 1997). "Touch Gold Sneaks In to Steal Silver Charm's Crown". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2015. 
  31. ^ Durso, Joseph (June 7, 1998). "THE 130TH BELMONT STAKES; Victory Gallop's Charge Keeps Real Quiet Short of Posterity". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2015. 
  32. ^ Durso, Joseph. "HORSE RACING; Charismatic's Bid Ends in Injury and Defeat". The New York Times. Retrieved June 2, 2015. 
  33. ^ Drape, Joe (June 9, 2002). "Early Stumble Dooms War Emblem's Triple Crown Bid". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2015. 
  34. ^ Drape, Joe (June 8, 2003). "Empire Maker Ends Funny Cide's Triple Crown Bid". The New York Times. Retrieved June 2, 2015. 
  35. ^ Drape, Joe (June 6, 2004). "At Smarty Jones's Coronation, Birdstone Makes Off With the Crown". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2015. 
  36. ^ Beyer, Andrew (June 11, 2008). "The Story Behind Big Brown's Bad Belmont May Never Be Known". Washington Post. Retrieved June 2, 2015. 
  37. ^ Claire Novak (June 8, 2014). "'Chrome' Co-Owner Has No Regrets for Comments". BloodHorse.com. Retrieved October 3, 2014. 
  38. ^ a b c d e f g Paulick, Ray (November 17, 2010). "Selling Triple Crown As A Package Deal". Paulick Report. Retrieved June 13, 2015. 
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