United States and the Haitian Revolution
||This article is written like a travel guide rather than an encyclopedic description of the subject. (June 2016)|
The Haitian Revolution provoked mixed reactions in the United States. In June, 1793 when the Haitian people led by Toussaint Louverture, overthrew the French colonial rule and declared themselves an independent colony, it made the neighboring, United States uneasy. The slaves in Saint-Domingue’s were able to observe the growing disunity among the white colonists and themselves. They realized that they would need to seek an opportunity to stop the tyranny that was being placed upon them, thus they took a stand and revolted. The Haitian Revolution of 1804 impacted the United States of America, led by Thomas Jefferson, instilling fear of racial instability in the US, and the possible problematic effect the revolution could have on the early foreign relations and trade between the US and the new independent Haiti. Thomas Jefferson realized that the Haitian Revolution had the potential to cause an upheaval against slavery in the US by not only the slaves themselves, but by white abolitionists as well. Southern slaveholders feared that the revolt might spread from the island of Hispaniola to the slave plantations of the Southern United States. The primary goal of the US was to maintain social order in the country, so the United States attempted to suppress the Haitian Revolution. The US even went as far as to refuse acknowledgement of Haitian independence, until 1862 which was during the heat of the North American civil war, coincidentally the main causal factor for the war between the States was slavery. The second major impact that the Haitian Revolution had on the United States was on early foreign relations and trade that had been conducted with Haiti. The United States had conducted trade and commerce with the Haitian island under French rule during the eighteenth century. Haiti was the main producer of the United States supply of sugar and coffee, and once the Haitian slave population had broken from slavery, the US was reluctant to continue trade with them in fear that they would upset the French and the Southern slaveholders. American merchants conducted a substantial trade with the plantations on Hispaniola (aka the French colony of Saint Domingue or Haiti). But there were anti-slavery advocates in northern cities who believed that consistency with the principles of the American Revolution — life, liberty and equality for all — demanded that the U.S. support the slave insurgents. An extremely beneficial aspect and real estate triumph that resulted from the Haitian Revolution and impacted the United States was the Louisiana Purchase. Once Napoleon had lost his control of the land holding in the Caribbean to the Haitian rebellion, he felt that the French territory in the southern part of the United States was useless to the French Empire. The US was only interested in the New Orleans area, however, the revolution enabled the sale of the entire territory west of the Mississippi River for around $15 million. This purchase more than doubled the United State’s territory.
When the news of the August 1791 slave revolt in Saint Domingue reached then-President Washington, he immediately sent aid to the white government there.
In 1791 Thomas Jefferson talked about gradual emancipation of U.S. slaves in his private correspondence with friends while publicly remaining silent on the issue. However, by the time that the revolution was coming to an end and the debate over an embargo began, Jefferson's attitude shifted to support for the continuation of slavery. Louis Andre Pichon, the chargé d’affaires of France, felt that Jefferson would help to put down the slaves due to the fear of black rebellion in the U.S. Jefferson had, in fact, pledged to help starve out Toussaint Louverture, Haïti's rebel leader, but due to fears of the ambitions of Napoleon Bonaparte Jefferson refrained from such action.
Haïti attempted to establish closer ties with the United States during the Jefferson administration, but this was difficult to do, in part because of the massacres of French whites in Haïti by Jean-Jacques Dessalines in the 1804 Haiti Massacre. Dessalines sent a letter to Thomas Jefferson calling for closer ties between the two nations but Jefferson ignored the letter.
Jefferson had wanted to align with the European powers in an effort to isolate Haïti, but was unsuccessful due to Britain's lack of interest in joining the proposed accord. France pressured for the end of American trade with Haïti, which they saw as aiding a rogue element in their colony. Jefferson agreed to cease trade in arms, but would not give up trade for noncontraband goods. Madison, commenting on the agreement to discontinue the arms trade, said that "it is probably the interest of all nations that they should be kept out of hands likely to make so bad use of them." The debate on an embargo on Haïti heated up in Congress and civil society, but it was not all one-sided. Many[who?] were at least sympathetic to the Haitian revolution, even those who would not characterize themselves as being anti-slavery. Federalist newspaper Columbian Centinel compared the Haitian revolution and the struggle for independence from a European power, with the United States' own revolution for independence.
However, in Congress the proponents of an embargo had the clear advantage. Though the policy of John Adams was more constrained than others, it was still in favor of an arms embargo on Haïti. Federalists were in favor of his policy because they felt it would help to solidify U.S. dominance over the politics and economy of the country, and would help to bring security to white people in the South who were fearful of a hemisphere-wide slave revolt. However, many white people in the South thought Adams' pragmatic policy went too far and was equivalent to full-scale relations with Haïti. While such white people ignored oppression, exploitation and atrocities against enslaved Africans by white slave-traders, and by white slave-owners in Haiti and the USA (and indeed, carried out such abuses themselves), they were adamantly against reaching an agreement with people who had committed atrocities against slave-owners. When George Logan introduced a bill that would outlaw all trade with Saint-Domingue that was not under French control, it signalled a shift to the side of the hard-liners. Weapons could only be aboard ships for their own protection, and any violators of the embargo would lose their cargo as well as their ships. The embargo bill introduced by George Logan was adopted in February 1806, and then renewed again the next year, until it expired in April 1808. Another embargo had been adopted in 1807 and this one lasted until 1810, though trade did not again take place until the 1820s. However, despite this, official recognition did not happen until 1862, after the southern states had seceded from the United States.
In the South, white planters viewed the revolution as a large-scale slave revolt and feared that violence in Haïti could inspire similar events in the United States. Haïti had an official policy of accepting any black person who arrived on their shores as a citizen.
The legislatures of Pennsylvania and South Carolina, as well as the Washington administration, sent help for the French whites of Saint-Domingue. In the debate over whether the U.S. should embargo Haïti, John Taylor of South Carolina spoke for much of the popular sentiment of white people in the South. To him the Haitian revolution was evidence for the idea that "slavery should be permanent in the United States." He argued against the idea that slavery had caused the revolution, by instead suggesting that "the antislavery movement had provoked the revolt in the first place." According to historian Tim Matthewson, John Taylor's comments in the debate shows how white attitudes shifted in the south from one of reluctantly accepting slavery as a necessity, to one of seeing it as a fundamental aspect of southern culture and the slave-owning planter class. As the years progressed Haïti only became a bigger target for scorn amongst the pro-slavery factions in the south. It was taken as proof that "violence was an inherent part of the character of blacks" due to the slaughtering of French whites, and the authoritarian rule that followed the end of the revolution - while this logical fallacy required ignoring the violent and authoritarian rule of white people over enslaved Africans, as well as its psychological effects on those Africans.
- Atlantic slave trade
- Slavery in the British and French Caribbean
- Haitian Revolution
- Haiti–United States relations
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- Calvin, Matthew, J. Toussaint Louverture and the American Civil War: The Promise and Peril of a Second Haitian Revolution. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010. ISBN 9780812242058.
- Popkin, Jeremy, D. A Concise History of the Haitian Revolution. John Wiley & Sons, 2012. ISBN 9781405198202.
- Dubois, Laurent. "Two Revolutions In The Atlantic World: Connections Between The American Revolution and The Haitian Revolution". Gilder Lehrman. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. Retrieved 3/10/15. Check date values in:
- Matthewson, Abraham Bishop, "The Rights of Black Men," and the American Reaction to the Haitian Revolution, pp. 148-149
- Stinchcombe, William. "Review of The Papers of George Washington: Revolutionary War Series, Volume 10; Presidential Series, Volume 9". The Papers of George Washington. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- Matthewson, Jefferson and the Nonrecognition of Haïti, p. 23
- Matthewson, Jefferson and the Nonrecognition of Haïti, p. 24
- Matthewson, Jefferson and the Nonrecognition of Haïti, p. 29
- Matthewson, Jefferson and the Nonrecognition of Haïti, p. 30
- Matthewson, Jefferson and the Nonrecognition of Haïti, p. 33
- Matthewson, Jefferson and the Nonrecognition of Haïti, p. 32
- Matthewson, Jefferson and the Nonrecognition of Haïti, p. 35
- Matthewson, Jefferson and the Nonrecognition of Haïti, p. 37
- Matthewson, Jefferson and the Nonrecognition of Haïti, p. 26
- Matthewson, Tim (Summer 1982). "Abraham Bishop, "The Rights of Black Men," and the American Reaction to the Haitian Revolution". The Journal of Negro History. 67 (2): 148–154. doi:10.2307/2717572. JSTOR 2717572.
- Matthewson, Tim (March 1996). "Jefferson and the Nonrecognition of Haïti". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 140 (1): 22–48. JSTOR 987274.
- Brown, Gordon (2005). Toussaint's Clause: The Founding Fathers and the Haitian Revolution. Jackson: University of Mississippi Press. ISBN 1-57806-711-1.
- Matthewson, Tim (2003). A Proslavery Foreign Policy: Haitian-American Relations During the Early Republic. Westport: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-98002-2.
- Hinks, Peter; et al. (2007). Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition. Westport: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-33144-8.