United States declaration of war upon Japan
On December 8, 1941, the United States Congress declared war upon the Empire of Japan in response to its surprise attack on Pearl Harbor the prior day. It was formulated an hour after the Infamy Speech of US President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Following the declaration, Japan's allies, Germany and Italy, declared war on the United States, bringing the United States fully into World War II.
The attack on Pearl Harbor took place before a declaration of war by Japan, but that was not the intent of the Japanese leadership. It was originally stipulated that the attack should not commence until thirty minutes after Japan had informed the United States that it was withdrawing from further peace negotiations. It was the intent of the Japanese to uphold the conventions of war while still achieving surprise, but the attack began before the notice could be delivered. Tokyo transmitted the 5,000-word notification (known as the "14-Part Message") in two blocks to the Japanese Embassy in Washington. However, transcription took too long for the ambassador to deliver it in time. Even so, the notification was worded so that it actually neither declared war nor severed diplomatic relations.
The United Kingdom declared war on Japan nine hours before the US did, partially due to Japanese attacks on Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong; and partially due to Winston Churchill's promise to declare war "within the hour" of a Japanese attack on the United States.
Vote and Presidential signature
President Roosevelt formally requested the declaration in his Infamy Speech, addressed to a joint session of Congress and the nation at 12:30 p.m. on December 8. The declaration was quickly brought to a vote; it passed the Senate, and then passed the House at 1:10 p.m. The vote was 82 – 0 in the Senate and 388 – 1 in the House. (Jeannette Rankin, a pacifist and the first woman elected to Congress, cast the only vote against the declaration; hisses could be heard in the gallery as Rankin cast the vote; several colleagues asked her to change it to make the resolution unanimous—or at very least, to abstain—but she refused. "As a woman, I can't go to war," she said, "and I refuse to send anyone else." After the vote, an angry mob followed her as she left the Capitol building, and she was forced to take refuge in a telephone booth until United States Capitol Police could rescue her. Two days later a similar war declaration against Germany and Italy came to vote; Rankin abstained. Nine other women voted in favor of the declaration of war.)
Roosevelt signed the declaration at 4:10 p.m the same day. The power to declare war is assigned exclusively to Congress in the United States Constitution, making it an open question whether his signature was technically necessary. However, his signature was symbolically powerful and resolved any doubts.
Text of the declaration
- Japanese declaration of war on the United States and the British Empire
- United States declaration of war upon Germany (1941)
- United States declaration of war upon Italy
- Declaration of war by the United States
- Hixson, Walter L. (2003), The American Experience in World War II: The United States and the road to war in Europe, Taylor & Francis, p. 73, ISBN 978-0-415-94029-0
- Calvocoressi et al., The Penguin History of the Second World War, p.952
- Prange, Gordon W. At Dawn We Slept: The Untold Story of Pearl Harbor. Dillon, 1982. pp. 424 & 475
- Prange, Gordon W. At Dawn We Slept: The Untold Story of Pearl Harbor. Dillon, 1982. pp. 493-494
- "The U.S. At War, The Last Stage" TIME. December 15, 1941.
- Kluckhorn, Frank L. "U.S. Declares War, Pacific Battle Widens" New York Times. A1, December 9, 1941. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
- "Jeannette Rankin". 125 Montana Newsmakers. Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20110926204630/http://www.hbci.com/~tgort/japan.htm Retrieved 2010-15-7