United States embargoes
As of 2014[update], there are several United States embargoes and sanctions in force by the United States against several countries and activities, the most notable of which are against countries the federal government of the United States considers State Sponsors of Terrorism.
Some sanctions imposed by the United States government are:
- No arms-related exports
- Controls over dual-use exports
- Restrictions on economic assistance
- Financial restrictions
- Requiring the United States to oppose loans by the World Bank and other international financial institutions.
- Diplomatic immunity waived to allow families of terrorist victims to file for civil damages in U.S. courts.
- Tax credits for companies and individuals denied for income earned in listed countries.
- Duty-free goods exemption suspended for imports from those countries.
- Authority to prohibit a U.S. citizen from engaging in financial transactions with the government on the list without a license from the U.S. government.
- Prohibition of Defense Department contracts above $100,000 with companies controlled by countries on the list.
- Bureau of Industry and Security
- Directorate of Defense Trade Controls
- Office of Foreign Assets Control
- U.S. Customs and Border Protection
- United States Department of Commerce (Export Administration Regulations, EAR)
- United States Department of Defense
- United States Department of Energy (nuclear technology)
- United States Department of Homeland Security (border crossings)
- United States Department of Justice
- United States Department of State (International Traffic in Arms Regulations, ITAR)
- United States Department of the Treasury
Several laws delegate embargo power to the President:
- Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917
- Foreign Assistance Act of 1961
- International Emergency Economic Powers Act of 1977
- Export Administration Act of 1979
Several laws specifically prohibit trade with certain countries:
- Cuban Assets Control Regulations of 1963
- Cuban Democracy Act of 1992
- Helms–Burton Act of 1996 (Cuba)
- Iran and Libya Sanctions Act of 1996
- Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000 (Cuba)
- Iran Freedom and Support Act of 2006
- Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010
As of October 2014, the United States has sanctions against:
|Iran||1979||U.S. sanctions against Iran||Near total economic embargo on all economic activities, including a ban on all Iranian imports, sanctions on Iranian financial institutions as well as restriction on the sale of aircraft and repair parts as well as arms embargoes. This policy began in 1979 as a response to the Iranian Revolution, but has been rapidly expanded over recent years due to the Iranian Nuclear Program On May 30, 2013, OFAC issued Iranian General License D, authorizing the exportation or reexportation, directly or indirectly, from the United States or by U.S. persons, wherever located, to persons in Iran of "certain services, software, and hardware incident to personal communications". General License D enumerates certain categories allowed to be exported to Iran. For scope and further details, see General License D and the Annex to General License D. Iran and the US have no diplomatic relations. Listed as state sponsor of terrorism.|
|North Korea||1950||North Korea–United States relations||Severe sanctions justified by accusations of human rights abuses by North Korea and the North Korean nuclear program. North Korea and the US currently have no diplomatic relations.|
|Syria||1986||Syria–United States relations||Reasons cited for sanctions include Syria's poor human rights record, the present Civil War, and being listed as a state sponsor of terrorism.|
|Sudan||1993||Sudan-United States relations||Reasons cited for sanctions include Sudan's poor human rights record, the present War in Darfur, and being listed as a state sponsor of terrorism.|
|Cuba||1962||Cuba–United States relations||Reasons cited for sanctions include Cuba's poor human rights record.|
|Belarus||Certain persons the US government believes to be undermining democratic processes or institutions in Belarus (including President Alexander Lukashenko and other officials)|
|Burundi||Persons who the US government claims threaten peace, security, or stability in Burundi|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||Certain persons the US government believes are contributing to the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo|
|Iraq||Specific individuals and entities associated with the former Saddam Hussein regime, as well as parties the US government believes have committed, or pose a significant risk of committing acts of violence that threaten the peace or stability of Iraq or the Government of Iraq or undermine efforts to promote economic reconstruction and political reform in Iraq or make it more difficult for humanitarian workers to operate in Iraq.|
|Lebanon||Persons the US government believes undermine the sovereignty of Lebanon or its democratic processes and institutions|
|Russia||Persons believed to be responsible for the detention, abuse, and death of Sergei Magnitsky and other reported violations of human rights in Russia (see Magnitsky Act)|
|Somalia||Certain persons the US government believes are contributing to the conflict in Somalia|
||Persons who the US government alleges threaten international stabilisation in the Western Balkans and some states of the former Yugoslavia|
|Yemen||Persons who the US government claims threaten peace, security, or stability in Yemen|
|Zimbabwe||Persons the US government believes undermine democratic processes or institutions in Zimbabwe, including a number of Government Officials|
|Persons the US government believes undermine the peace, security, stability, territorial integrity and the democratic processes and institutions of Ukraine. Also persons administering areas of Ukraine without central government consent, also a number of senior Russian Officials close to President Vladimir Putin.|
|Central African Republic||Persons the US government believes contribute to the conflict in the Central African Republic|
|South Sudan||Persons the US government alleges have contributed to the conflict in South Sudan or committed human rights abuses|
|/ Libya||Persons associated with Muammar Gaddafi's regime|
|Venezuela||Government officials linked to the 2014–15 Venezuelan protests and those who the US government alleges have committed human rights violations|
There are also list-based sanctions related to countering terrorism, rough diamond trade controls (see Kimberley Process), counter narcotics, nuclear proliferation and transnational criminal organizations.
Some countries listed are members of the World Trade Organization, but WTO rules allow trade restrictions for non-economic purposes.
Combined, the Treasury Department, the Commerce Department and the State Department list embargoes against 30 countries or territories: Afghanistan, Balkans, Belarus, Central African Republic, China (PR), Côte d'Ivoire, Crimea Region of Ukraine, Cuba, Cyprus, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Fiji, Haiti, Iran, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, North Korea, Russia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Syria, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zimbabwe.
- State Sponsors of Terrorism - placement on the list puts severe restrictions on trade with that nation
- United States steel tariff 2002
- Permanent Normal Trade Relations
- Arms Export Control Act
- Haidar, Jamal Ibrahim (2016-08-16). "Sanctions and Exports Deflection: Evidence from Iran" (PDF). Paris School of Economics. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
- "Chapter 3: State Sponsors of Terrorism". Country Reports on Terrorism 2009. United States Department of State. 2010-08-05. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
- "Sanctions Programs and Country Information". United States Department of the Treasury. 2017-03-09. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
- "Iran Sanctions: Statement Relating to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action “Implementation Day” of January 16, 2016". United States Department of the Treasury. 2017-03-09. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
- "Balkans: What You Need to Know About U.S. Sanctions". U.S. Department of the Treasury. 2003-05-29. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
- "Country Policies and Embargoes". United States Department of State. 2017-01-24. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
- "Export Controlled or Embargoed Countries, Entities and Persons". Stanford University. 2016-12-15. Retrieved 2017-03-11.