United States embargoes
As of 2014[update] the federal government of the United States imposes several embargoes and economic sanctions against different countries and activities, the most notable of them aimed against countries which the U.S. government has declared "State Sponsors of Terrorism".
Sanctions imposed by the United States government include:
- no arms-related exports
- controls over dual-use technology exports
- restrictions on economic assistance
- financial restrictions:
- requiring the United States to oppose loans by the World Bank and other international financial institutions
- diplomatic immunity waived to allow families of terrorist victims to file for civil damages in U.S. courts
- tax credits for companies and individuals denied for income earned in listed countries
- duty-free goods exemption suspended for imports from those countries
- authority to prohibit a U.S. citizen from engaging in financial transactions with the government on the list without a license from the U.S. government
- prohibition of U.S. Defense Department contracts above $100,000 with companies controlled by countries on the list.
- Bureau of Industry and Security
- Directorate of Defense Trade Controls
- Office of Foreign Assets Control
- U.S. Customs and Border Protection
- United States Department of Commerce (Export Administration Regulations, EAR)
- United States Department of Defense
- United States Department of Energy (nuclear technology)
- United States Department of Homeland Security (border crossings)
- United States Department of Justice
- United States Department of State (International Traffic in Arms Regulations, ITAR)
- United States Department of the Treasury
Several laws delegate embargo power to the President:
- Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917
- Foreign Assistance Act of 1961
- International Emergency Economic Powers Act of 1977
- Export Administration Act of 1979
Several laws specifically prohibit trade with certain countries:
- Cuban Assets Control Regulations of 1963
- Cuban Democracy Act of 1992
- Helms–Burton Act of 1996 (Cuba)
- Iran and Libya Sanctions Act of 1996
- Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000 (Cuba)
- Iran Freedom and Support Act of 2006
- Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010
As of May 2018, the United States has sanctions against:
|Iran||1979||United States sanctions against Iran||Near total economic embargo on all economic activities, including a ban on all Iranian imports, sanctions on Iranian financial institutions as well as restriction on the sale of aircraft and repair parts as well as arms embargoes. This policy began in 1979 as a response to the Iranian Revolution, but has been rapidly expanded over recent years due to the Iranian Nuclear Program and Iran's poor human rights record. Iran and the US have no diplomatic relations. Listed as state sponsor of terrorism. |
On May 30, 2013, OFAC issued Iranian General License D, authorizing the exportation or reexportation, directly or indirectly, from the United States or by U.S. persons, wherever located, to persons in Iran of "certain services, software, and hardware incident to personal communications". General License D enumerates certain categories allowed to be exported to Iran. For scope and further details, see General License D and the Annex to General License D.
|North Korea||1950||North Korea–United States relations||Severe sanctions justified by extreme human rights abuses by North Korea and the North Korean nuclear program. North Korea and the US currently have no diplomatic relations.|
|Syria||1986||Syria–United States relations||Reasons cited for sanctions include Syria's poor human rights record, the present Civil War, and being listed as a state sponsor of terrorism. Syria and the US currently have no diplomatic relations as of 2012.|
|Sudan||1993||Sudan-United States relations||Reasons cited for sanctions include Sudan's poor human rights record, the present War in Darfur, and being listed as a state sponsor of terrorism. Most US sanctions on Sudan were lifted in October 2017 by Executive Order of the President of the United States.|
|Cuba||1958||United States embargo against Cuba||Reasons cited for the Embargo include Cuba's poor human rights record.|
|Venezuela||2018||United States-Venezuela relations||Reasons cited for sanctions includes Venezuela's poor human rights record, links with illegal drug trade, high levels of state corruption and electoral rigging|
||Persons who the US government alleges threaten international stabilisation in the Western Balkans and some states of the former Yugoslavia|
|Belarus||Certain persons the US government believes to be undermining democratic processes or institutions in Belarus (including President Alexander Lukashenko and other officials)|
|Burundi||Persons who the US government claims threaten peace, security, or stability in Burundi|
|Central African Republic||Persons the US government believes contribute to the conflict in the Central African Republic|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||Certain persons the US government believes are contributing to the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo|
|Iraq||Specific individuals and entities associated with the former Saddam Hussein regime, as well as parties the US government believes have committed, or pose a significant risk of committing acts of violence that threaten the peace or stability of Iraq or the Government of Iraq or undermine efforts to promote economic reconstruction and political reform in Iraq or make it more difficult for humanitarian workers to operate in Iraq.|
|Lebanon||Persons the US government believes undermine the sovereignty of Lebanon or its democratic processes and institutions|
|/ Libya||Persons associated with Muammar Gaddafi's regime|
|Myanmar||Officials associated with the Rohingya crisis|
|Nicaragua||Persons associated with contributing to the 2018 Nicaraguan protests|
|Russia||Persons believed to be responsible for the detention, abuse, and death of Sergei Magnitsky and other reported violations of human rights in Russia (see Magnitsky Act of 2012). Since 2014, International sanctions during the Ukrainian crisis, since 2017 Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act|
|Somalia||Certain persons the US government believes are contributing to the conflict in Somalia|
|South Sudan||Persons the US government alleges have contributed to the conflict in South Sudan or committed human rights abuses|
|Persons the US government believes undermine the peace, security, stability, territorial integrity and the democratic processes and institutions of Ukraine. Also persons administering areas of Ukraine without central government consent, also a number of senior Russian Officials close to President Vladimir Putin.|
|Yemen||Persons who the US government claims threaten peace, security, or stability in Yemen|
|Zimbabwe||Persons the US government believes undermine democratic processes or institutions in Zimbabwe, including a number of Government Officials|
There are also list-based sanctions related to countering terrorism, rough diamond trade controls (see Kimberley Process), counter narcotics, nuclear proliferation and transnational criminal organizations.
Some countries listed are members of the World Trade Organization, but WTO rules allow trade restrictions for non-economic purposes.
Combined, the Treasury Department, the Commerce Department and the State Department list embargoes against 30 countries or territories: Afghanistan, Balkans, Belarus, Burundi, Central African Republic, China (PR), Côte d'Ivoire, Crimea Region, Cuba, Cyprus, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Fiji, Haiti, Iran, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Myanmar, North Korea, Palestine, Russia, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zimbabwe.
- State Sponsors of Terrorism - placement on the list puts severe restrictions on trade with that nation
- Economic sanctions
- United States steel tariff 2002
- Permanent Normal Trade Relations
- Arms Export Control Act
- Haidar, Jamal Ibrahim (2016-08-16). "Sanctions and Exports Deflection: Evidence from Iran" (PDF). Paris School of Economics. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
- "Chapter 3: State Sponsors of Terrorism". Country Reports on Terrorism 2009. United States Department of State. 2010-08-05. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
- "Sanctions Programs and Country Information". United States Department of the Treasury. 2017-03-09. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
- "Iran Sanctions: Statement Relating to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action "Implementation Day" of January 16, 2016". United States Department of the Treasury. 2017-03-09. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
- "United States Eases Sudan Sanctions - White & Case LLP International Law Firm, Global Law Practice". www.whitecase.com. Retrieved 5 October 2018.
- Meredith, Sam (21 May 2018). "US likely to slap tough oil sanctions on Venezuela — and that's a 'game changer' for Maduro". Retrieved 5 October 2018.
- News, A. B. C. (17 August 2018). "US sanctions Myanmar military over Rohingya ethnic cleansing". ABC News. Retrieved 5 October 2018.
- CNN, Laura Koran,. "US slaps new sanctions on Nicaragua over violence, corruption". Retrieved 5 October 2018.
- "Balkans: What You Need to Know About U.S. Sanctions". U.S. Department of the Treasury. 2003-05-29. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
- "Country Policies and Embargoes". United States Department of State. 2017-01-24. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
- "Export Controlled or Embargoed Countries, Entities and Persons". Stanford University. 2016-12-15. Retrieved 2017-03-11.