United States national rugby union team

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United States of America
Shirt badge/Association crest
Nickname(s) Eagles
Emblem American bald eagle
Union USA Rugby
Head coach John Mitchell
Captain Todd Clever
Most caps Todd Clever (68)
Top scorer Mike Hercus (465)
Top try scorer Vaea Anitoni (26)
First colours
Second colours
World Rugby ranking
Current 16 (as of 15 February 2016)
Highest 14 (2007)
Lowest 20 (2008)
First international
United States 8–12 Australia
(16 November 1912)
Biggest win
United States 91–0 Barbados
(1 July 2006)
Biggest defeat
England 106–8 United States
(21 August 1999)
World Cup
Appearances 7 (First in 1987)
Best result Pool stage, 1987, 1991, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2011, 2015

The United States men's national rugby union team, nicknamed the Eagles, represents the United States in the sport of rugby union. The national team is controlled by USA Rugby, which is a member of Rugby Americas North, one of six regional governing bodies under World Rugby. Until sevens made its debut at the 2016 Rio Games, the United States was the reigning Olympic champion in rugby, having won gold at the 1920 and 1924 Summer Olympics.

As of 21 September 2015, the Eagles are ranked 16th in the world by the World Rugby Rankings.[1] Their highest ranking, achieved ahead of the 2007 World Cup, was 14th; their lowest ranking was 20th, following a winless campaign in the 2008 Churchill Cup.

The highest profile tournament in which the Eagles play is the Rugby World Cup. The Eagles have played in all but one Rugby World Cup since the tournament began in 1987. The United States has expressed interest in hosting the 2027 Rugby World Cup.[2]

The United States has competed in the Pacific Nations Cup every summer since 2013. Previously, the U.S. has competed in the now-defunct Churchill Cup and the Pan American Championship.[3] In April 2015, USA Rugby announced the creation of a new, annual International Championship to be contested among the top-6 ranked rugby nations in the Americas: Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Uruguay and the United States. The contest has been named the Americas Rugby Championship and will begin in 2016.[4]

Early history[edit]

Early years: 1872–1912[edit]

Informal football games such as rugby became popular in the United States in the mid-19th century. Rugby union was played as early as 1872 among rugby clubs in the San Francisco Bay Area composed mainly of British expatriates. On December 2, 1882, the first Californian representative rugby team to play an outside opponent, took on a group of rugby-playing ex-Britons, who called themselves the Phoenix Rugby Club of San Francisco. California lost to the Phoenix club 7–4.

The first recorded rugby game in the U.S. place in May 1874 when Harvard University hosted McGill University.[5] The game sparked an interest on college campuses nationwide. In 1876 Yale, Harvard, Princeton, and Columbia formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, which largely used the rugby code.[6] In 1886 Harvard's Oscar Shafter Howard introduced these rules to the campus of the University of California, Berkeley.

American football was fierce, and as injuries mounted, the public became alarmed at its brutalities and President Theodore Roosevelt threatened to outlaw the sport.[7] Beginning in 1906, rugby union became the game of choice at Stanford University, University of California, Berkeley and several other colleges in California.[8] Rugby's popularity, however, was short lived, and the sport had died out by the outbreak of World War I.

USA rugby team for the October 1920 test match vs France

A California student team toured Australia and New Zealand in 1910, and invited their hosts to return the visit.[9] Australia obliged by touring North America in 1912, and the U.S. national team played its first international match on November 16, 1912 against Australia in Berkeley, California. The visitors won 12–8.[10] A year later, the U.S. hosted New Zealand at the same venue on November 15, 1913, but the Kiwis ran away with the contest 51–3.[9]

Olympic Gold: 1920 and 1924[edit]

The USA team that won gold in the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris.
France vs USA rugby match during the 1924 Summer Olympics

Rugby union had not been played competitively in most of the USA for more than a decade before the 1920 Olympics. The U.S. Olympic committee decided that because "California is the only state playing Rugby in the US, the Committee will give sanction but no financial aid". The U.S. assembled mostly a California-based team, with six players from the University of California, Berkeley.[11] The Olympic Games Committee of the Amateur Athletic Union paid the expenses to transport the team from California to the games in Antwerp.[12] By the time the US Rugby team arrived in Europe, Czechoslovakia and Romania had withdrawn from the competition. France and the U.S. were the only teams left to compete. The USA won a shock 8–0 victory over France to earn the gold medal.

The stunned French suggested that the U.S. team tour France, which they did; winning three out of the four matches they played. Between 1920 and 1924, however, rugby union virtually disappeared once again in the U.S., as American football soared in popularity.

The 1924 Paris Olympics caused France to challenge the U.S. to defend its title. Once again, the U.S. Olympic Committee granted permission but no funds. Nonetheless, seven players of the 1920 team dusted off their boots, raised $20,000, found 15 new players including some American football players who had never played in a rugby union match. The assembled U.S. team was again based heavily from Northern California, with 9 Stanford alumni, 5 from Santa Clara, and 3 from Cal.[11] The team headed for England to play some tuneup matches, where they were beaten four times.

The French Olympic Committee (FOC) had scheduled the rugby event to kick off the 1924 Paris Games at Colombes Stadium in Paris. Romania and the U.S. were expected to provide only token opposition for the European champions. On Sunday, May 11, the U.S. pounded Romania 39 to 0, including nine tries.

The final was played at Colombes Stadium on May 18 before an estimates crowd of 30,000 - 50,000 that had gathered to watch the rugby final and the awarding of the first medal of the 1924 Olympics.[11][13] Bookmakers set the odds at five to one with a 20-point spread.[14] However, the Americans were not intimidated, and the American captain Babe Slater wrote in his diary before the match "we are sure going to let them know they have been in a battle."[11] Despite the odds, the U.S. team started well, led by captain Colby "Babe" Slater, and led 3-0 at the half. Heavy tackling by the Americans, derived from American football, intimidated and exhausted the French, as the U.S. scored four tries in the second half to defeat the French 17-3.[15] Rare vintage film footage of the 1924 gold medal match was released in the documentary, "A Giant Awakens: the Rise of American Rugby".

Shortly after the 1924 Olympics, however, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) removed rugby union as an Olympic sport. Without the Olympic incentive, the sport's growth in America collapsed and the game remained dormant.

Modern history[edit]

The 1960s and 1970s[edit]

The sport then enjoyed a renaissance, beginning in the 1960s and continuing through the 1970s. This created the need for a national governing body to represent the United States in the international rugby community. The United States of America Rugby Football Union (now known as USA Rugby) was formed in 1975 by four territorial organizations (Pacific Coast, West, Midwest, and East).[16] The first Eagles match was played in Anaheim in 1976 against Australia, the Wallabies won 24–12.[16]

The USA also performed well against France in Chicago, losing the game 33–14. The next season the Eagles played two internationals, one against England (XV-not capped) at Twickenham on their 1977 United States rugby union tour of England, which they lost 37–11, and the other against Canada, which they also lost, 17–6. The USA played the Canadians again in 1978, and defeated them 12–7 in Baltimore. They then travelled to Canada in 1979 and lost 19–12 in Toronto.

The 1980s[edit]

The U.S. national team came to further prominence during the 1980s, and from the start of the decade, were playing a notably larger number of games every season. They did however lose all three of their games in 1980, all at home. They could not muster up a win in 1981 either, losing 3–6 to Canada, and 7–38 to South Africa. In 1982, the U.S. drew Canada 3-3. They travelled to Australia in 1983 to play the Wallabies, and lost 49–3 in Sydney. The U.S. played its first-ever match against Japan in 1985, winning 16-15 at the Prince Chichibu Memorial Stadium.[17]

The U.S. participated in 1987 in the first ever Rugby World Cup in New Zealand and Australia. The U.S. were in Pool 1, alongside co-hosts Australia, England and Japan. The U.S. won their first ever World Cup game, defeating Japan 21–18 at Ballymore Stadium in Brisbane, with fullback Ray Nelson scoring 13 points.[18] The U.S. lost both subsequent matches; 47–12 against the Wallabies and 34–6 against England. The U.S. finished third in the pool, out of contention for the quarterfinals.

The Eagles first met Wales at Cardiff in November 1987 as the final match of their 1987 tour, where Wales, who had just finished third in the inaugural Rugby World Cup, enjoyed a 46–0 win. In 1988, the Eagles had mixed success in their tour of Europe, defeating Romania but losing to the Soviet Union.[19]

The 1990s[edit]

The U.S. notched three consecutive wins from September 1990 to May 1991 — all against Japan — for the first three-match win streak in U.S. team history.[20]

The U.S. made their way through a qualifying tournament to reach the 1991 Rugby World Cup in the United Kingdom, pooled with defending champions New Zealand, hosts England, and Italy in a tough group. In their first match of the tournament, Italy defeated them 30–9. Next, New Zealand defeated them 46–6. Hosts England won 37–9 at Twickenham. The U.S. finished fourth in the pool.

In round one of the Americas qualifying tournament for the 1995 Rugby World Cup the U.S. defeated Bermuda 60–3 to advance to round two. Argentina defeated the Eagles twice in close games in the series to qualify, leaving the U.S. missing out on the 1995 Rugby World Cup in South Africa.

The Eagles went close to beating a major rugby nation in a match against Australia at Riverside in 1993 when the U.S. lost 22–26.

The Eagles had a successful tour of Europe in 1998, beating Spain and Portugal.[19] Also in 1998, the U.S. played Fiji for the first time, losing 9-18 in Suva.[21]

The Eagles set out to qualify for the 1999 Rugby World Cup in Wales. In round four of the Americas qualifying tournament in Buenos Aires, the United States lost 52–24 to Argentina and 31–14 to Canada, but defeated Uruguay 21–16 in their last game to qualify for the 1999 tournament. The U.S. played in the 1999 Pacific Rim Championship, notching its first-ever victories over Fiji (25-14) and Tonga (30-10).[21]

The Eagles entered the 1999 Rugby World Cup in pool E alongside Australia, Ireland and Romania. In their first game, the United States went down 53–8 to Ireland. They then lost to Romania 27–25. Australia defeated the Eagles 55–19 in their final game of the tournament, seeing the Eagles finish fourth in the pool. The Eagles, however, had the honor of being the only side to score a try against the eventual champions, Australia, during the entire tournament.[22]

The 2000s[edit]

In qualifying matches for the 2003 Rugby World Cup the U.S. finished third in the Americas. The U.S. won the repechage and qualified for the 2003 tournament by beating Spain 62–13 and 58–13. The Super Powers Cup was first contested in 2003 between Japan, Russia and the United States.[23] The U.S. then followed up with victories over Japan and Canada. This was the first time the Eagles had won four consecutive tests since making their international debut in 1976.[20]

At the 2003 Rugby World Cup the Eagles finished fourth of five in their pool. In the first match against Fiji, the Americans led 13–3 early in the second half, but Fiji regained the lead and secured a 19–18 win, with the Eagles suffering their ninth consecutive World Cup loss. The U.S. then lost to Scotland. The Americans defeated Japan 39–26, behind 17 points by Mike Hercus, for their first win in a Rugby World Cup since 1987 (also against Japan).[24] The U.S. closed the tournament with a loss to France, concluding the tournament with a 1–3 record.

The 2004 Super Powers Cup saw the addition of Canada. The U.S. beat Russia in the third-place play-off. The U.S. toured Europe in November 2004, losing 55–6 to Ireland and 43–25 to Italy. The 2005 Super Cup took part between the U.S., Canada, Japan and Romania. The U.S. lost 30–26 to Canada but beat a Romanian team stripped of their France-based players 23–16 in the third place play-off.

USA Eagles mascot during 2010 Churchill Cup.

The U.S. campaign to qualify for the 2007 Rugby World Cup began in 2006. The U.S. lost 56–7 to Canada, resulting in a home/away play-off against Uruguay. The U.S. defeated Uruguay 42–13 in the first match and 26–7 in the second to send them through to the Rugby World Cup.[25]

In the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the U.S. joined England, Samoa, South Africa and Tonga in Pool A. The Eagles, ranked 13th in the world standings, lost all 4 games in Pool A, scoring 1 bonus point in the game against Samoa. Coached by New Zealander Peter Thorburn, the Eagles started off with tough match against the defending world champions England, losing 28–10. The U.S. was then beaten by Tonga 25–15, lost to Samoa 25–21, and lost their final match to highly favored South Africa 64–15. The Eagles, however, had a major highlight in the South Africa match. After a Todd Clever interception and a pair of passes, Takudzwa Ngwenya sped down the sideline and outran the speedster Bryan Habana to score a try that received Try of the Year honors at the 2007 IRB Awards.[26]

Following the resignation of Scott Johnson, on March 5, 2009 Eddie O'Sullivan was named the new national coach.[27]

The Eagles finished a solid 2009 campaign at a mark of 4–5, with a 4–3 record in full internationals. In the 2009 Churchill Cup, the Eagles lost to Ireland and Wales, but defeated Georgia to take home the Bowl.[28]

The 2011 Rugby World Cup cycle[edit]

The Eagles split a World Cup qualifying series with Canada, but lost on aggregate points. The Eagles then faced Uruguay in a two-game playoff. In November 2009, the United States booked their place at the 2011 Rugby World Cup with two wins against Uruguay, winning the home leg 27–6 in Florida.[29]

The Eagles played 7 matches in 2010: 3 home matches in June at the Churchill Cup, finishing with a 1-2 record, and 4 matches in Europe in the Fall, finishing 1-3. In the June 2010 Churchill Cup, the US beat Russia 39–22, before losing to the England Saxons 32–9 and France A 24–10. For the November 2010 tests, the Eagles traveled to Europe. The Eagles defeated Portugal 22–17,[30] but lost to Scotland A 25–0,[31] and lost to Georgia 19-17.[32] The Eagles finished 2010 ranked 16th in the world,[33] and with a record in test matches of 2 wins (Russia, Portugal) and 1 loss (Georgia).

The buildup to the 2011 Rugby World Cup started in June with three matches in the Churchill Cup. The Eagles dropped their first matches to the England Saxons 87–8[34] and to Tonga 44–13,[35] before defeating Russia 32–25.[36] 2011 was the final Churchill Cup.[37] The Eagles finalized their 2011 Rugby World Cup preparations with three test matches in August.[38] The Eagles lost to Canada 28–22,[39] lost their second match against Canada 27–7.[40] and lost to Japan 20–14. The Eagles had a 1–5 record in test matches for the year in their preparations for the 2011 Rugby World Cup.[41]

Australia scrum against the USA at the 2011 RWC.

In their 2011 Rugby World Cup opening match against Ireland the Eagles defense initially held, before conceding their first try at the 39' mark. The final tally was 22–10.[42] The Eagles came into the World Cup with their measuring mark for success as being a win over Russia. The Americans took a 10–3 lead into the half, and held on to win 13–6.[43] For their third match, Australia dominated, leading to the final result of 67–5, the worst defeat a U.S. team has ever suffered to Australia.[44] The final match saw the Eagles playing Italy for a third-place finish in Pool C. The Italians finished with a 27–10 victory.[45] The defeat marked the end of the 2011 Rugby World Cup for the U.S.

The Eagles finished 2011 with a record of 2–7 in full tests. The performances in the Rugby World Cup showed improvement, and the win over Russia left the team with a 1–3 RWC record and feeling as a modest success. The World Cup also saw prop Mike MacDonald become both the most capped Eagle in World Cup play (11 caps) and the most capped Eagle of all time at 65 caps. Also notable was the performance of lock John van der Giessen, who achieved the most lineout steals of all players in the 2011 Rugby World Cup, despite appearing in only three matches.[46]

The 2015 Rugby World Cup cycle[edit]

The Eagles played three matches in North America during the 2012 June international window. This was a regular series of international tests for the United States against Tier 1 (Italy) and Tier 2 (Canada, Georgia) opponents, as the Churchill Cup is no longer held. The highlights of the June tests were a win over higher-ranked Georgia, and a match against Italy at BBVA Compass Stadium in Houston that drew a record crowd of 17,214.[47] The Eagles also played three matches in Europe during the November 2012 tests. The Eagles finished their European tour with 2 wins (Romania, Russia) and 1 loss (Tonga) — the first time since 1998 that the Eagles had concluded a European tour with a winning record — and improved in ranking from 17th to 16th.[19]

USA v. Māori All Blacks at PPL Park (2013).

The USA played five matches during the June 2013 international test window, with one test match against Ireland and four matches as part of the 2013 IRB Pacific Nations Cup. The U.S. started with competitive matches against Canada (9-16), Ireland (12-15), and Tonga (9-18), but finished with double-digit losses against Fiji (10-35) and Japan (20-38), and sliding to #18 in the rankings. In August 2013, the U.S. played a home-and-away series against Canada as part of qualifying for the 2015 Rugby World Cup. The U.S. lost both matches by an aggregate score of 20-40, meaning the U.S. must play Uruguay in 2014 as part of 2015 RWC qualifying. In November 2013, the U.S. lost 19-29 to the Māori All Blacks at PPL Park in Philadelphia before a sold-out crowd of 18,500.[48]

Throughout late 2013 and early 2014, a number of U.S. players signed contracts to play professionally overseas. Of the players called into the U.S. national team in March 2014 for two home-and-away 2015 Rugby World Cup qualifying matches against Uruguay, 14 of the 26 were playing professionally overseas, with 10 playing professionally in England.[49] The Eagles defeated Uruguay 59-40 on aggregate over two tests during 2014 to qualify for the 2015 Rugby World Cup. During the June 2014 test window, the U.S. played competitive matches against higher ranked Scotland and Japan, and the test window culminated with a 38-35 victory over Canada. Subsequently in November 2014 the Eagles were defeated 74-6 by New Zealand in a match played in front of a crowd of more than 61,000 spectators at Soldier Field, Chicago.[50]

The Eagles began a lengthy assembly in build up to the 2015 Rugby World Cup with the 2015 Pacific Nations Cup. On July 18, team USA dropped the opening PNC match 21-16 to Samoa.[51] The team bounced back to upset Japan 23-18. The Eagles, however, fell to Tonga in the final preliminary match for the PNC 33-19. In the resulting fifth-place match, the Eagles edged rival Canada 15-13. The victory was the second consecutive over team Canada. Three weeks later, Canada and team USA met again in a World Cup warmup match. For the first time, team USA laid claim to a three-match win streak over team Canada after defeating the Canadians 41-23.[52] The Eagles returned to Soldier Field to compete against the #2 ranked Australia Wallabies. The Americans trailed 14-10 at the half. In the second half, the Wallabies capitalized on American errors and pushed the match out of reach: Australia 47, USA 10.[53]

The professional era[edit]

Main article: PRO Rugby

In November 2015, the Professional Rugby Organization (PRO Rugby) announced a USA Rugby-sanctioned professional rugby championship.[54] Five teams — San Francisco, Sacramento, San Diego, Denver, and Ohio — play at medium-size venues, with a 10-match schedule from April to July. Each PRO Rugby team has a centrally contracted squad, with quotas for overseas players and U.S. Eagles internationals.[55] This could allow the U.S. to field a fully professional national team for the first time in 2016.[56] The team included 14 professionals in the starting lineup for the June tests — six U.S.-based professionals and eight overseas professionals.[57]

Recent results[edit]

The following table shows the results of the U.S. national team in official test matches during the previous 24 months, as well as upcoming fixtures.

Date Opponent Opp Rank Result Venue Attend Event Top U.S. Scorer
2016-11-04  Māori All Blacks N/A United States Toyota Park end-of-year tests
2016-06-25  Russia 20 W (25–0) United States Bonney Field mid-year tests AJ MacGinty (20)
2016-06-18  Italy 14 L (20–24) United States Avaya Stadium mid-year tests AJ MacGinty (10)
2016-03-05  Uruguay 20 L (25–29) Uruguay Estadio Charrúa 9,500 Americas Rugby Championship J. Bird (7)
2016-02-27  Brazil 42 L (23–24) Brazil Arena Barueri 2,000 Americas Rugby Championship N. Kruger (8)
2016-02-20  Chile 24 W (64–0) United States Lockhart Stadium 13,591 Americas Rugby Championship JP Eloff (19)
2016-02-13  Canada 19 W (30–22) United States Dell Diamond 7,415 Americas Rugby Championship T. Clever (15)
2016-02-06 Argentina Argentina XV N/A T (35–35) United States BBVA Compass Stadium 10,241 Americas Rugby Championship J. Bird (12)
2015-10-11  Japan 11 L (18–28) England Kingsholm Stadium 14,578 Rugby World Cup AJ MacGinty (8)
2015-10-07  South Africa 4 L (0–64) England Olympic Stadium 54,658 Rugby World Cup
2015-09-27  Scotland 12 L (16–39) England Elland Road 33,521 Rugby World Cup AJ MacGinty (11)
2015-09-20  Samoa 12 L (16–25) England Brighton Stadium 29,178 Rugby World Cup AJ MacGinty (6)
2015-09-05  Australia 2 L (10–47) United States Soldier Field 23,212 RWC warm-up MacGinty / Petri (5)
2015-08-22  Canada 18 W (41–23) Canada Twin Elm Rugby Park 5,168 RWC warm-up AJ MacGinty (16)
2015-08-03  Canada 18 W (15–13) Canada Swangard Stadium Pacific Nations Cup AJ MacGinty (15)
2015-07-29  Tonga 13 L (19–33) Canada BMO Field 9,600 Pacific Nations Cup A. Durutalo (10)
2015-07-24  Japan 12 W (23–18) United States Bonney Field 11,000 Pacific Nations Cup AJ MacGinty (18)
2015-07-18  Samoa 9 L (16–21) United States Avaya Stadium 10,017 Pacific Nations Cup AJ MacGinty (11)
2014-11-21  Fiji 13 L (14–20) France Stade de la Rabine end-of-year tests Ngwenya / Kelly (5)
2014-11-15  Tonga 13 L (12–40) England Kingsholm Stadium 8,949 end-of-year tests Stanfill / Quill (5)
2014-11-08  Romania 16 W (27–17) Romania Stadionul Arcul de Triumf end-of-year tests A. Siddall (9)
2014-11-01  New Zealand 1 L (6–74) United States Soldier Field 61,500 end-of-year tests A. Siddall (6)

Notes:

  • Opponent rank is listed as of the date of the match.
  • Green shading indicates a win or tie against a higher ranked opponent. Red shading indicates a loss or tie against a lower ranked opponent.
  • Bolded attendance figures indicate the match is one of the top five highest attended home matches in U.S. national team history.

Coaches[edit]

Players[edit]

Current squad[edit]

The following table represents the squad for the June international tests against Italy (18 June) and Russia (25 June).[58]

Head Coach: New Zealand John Mitchell

  • Caps Updated: 26 June 2016

Note: Flags indicate national union for the club/province as defined by World Rugby.

Player Position Date of Birth (Age) Caps Club/province
Coolican, TomTom Coolican Hooker (1988-08-26) August 26, 1988 (age 28) 8 United States San Francisco Rush
Hilterbrand, JamesJames Hilterbrand Hooker (1989-05-21) May 21, 1989 (age 27) 3 Australia NSW Waratahs
Taufete'e, JoeJoe Taufete'e Hooker (1992-10-04) October 4, 1992 (age 23) 7 United States San Diego Breakers
Baumann, ChrisChris Baumann Prop (1987-05-18) May 18, 1987 (age 29) 11 United States Denver Stampede
Lamositele, TitiTiti Lamositele Prop (1995-02-11) February 11, 1995 (age 21) 19 England Saracens
MacLellan, AngusAngus MacLellan Prop (1992-08-24) August 24, 1992 (age 24) 2 United States Ohio Aviators
Tarr, BenBen Tarr Prop (1994-03-17) March 17, 1994 (age 22) 4 United States Denver Stampede
Dolan, CamCam Dolan Lock (1990-03-07) March 7, 1990 (age 26) 22 Wales Cardiff Blues
King, JamesJames King Lock (1987-03-16) March 16, 1987 (age 29) 2 Japan Yakult Levins
Peterson, GregGreg Peterson Lock (1991-03-26) March 26, 1991 (age 25) 12 Scotland Glasgow Warriors
Brakeley, NateNate Brakeley Lock (1989-08-31) August 31, 1989 (age 27) 5 United States NYAC
Durutalo, AndrewAndrew Durutalo Flanker (1987-10-25) October 25, 1987 (age 28) 13 Japan Sunwolves
Higgins, HarryHarry Higgins Flanker (1991-10-08) October 8, 1991 (age 24) 1 United States Old Blue
Lamborn, TonyTony Lamborn Flanker (1991-07-31) July 31, 1991 (age 25) 2 New Zealand Hurricanes
Clever, ToddTodd Clever Number 8 (1983-01-16) January 16, 1983 (age 33) 68 England Newcastle Falcons
Haupeakui, LangilangiLangilangi Haupeakui Number 8 (1989-07-03) July 3, 1989 (age 27) 1 United States Sacramento Express
Augspurger, NateNate Augspurger Scrum-half (1990-01-31) January 31, 1990 (age 26) 2 United States United States Sevens
Tomasin, StephenStephen Tomasin Scrum-half (1994-09-25) September 25, 1994 (age 22) 1 United States United States Sevens
Bird, JamesJames Bird Fly-half (1989-01-14) January 14, 1989 (age 27) 3 United States Old Blue
MacGinty, AJAJ MacGinty Fly-half (1990-02-26) February 26, 1990 (age 26) 10 England Sale Sharks
Suniula, ShalomShalom Suniula Centre (1988-06-05) June 5, 1988 (age 28) 18 United States United States Sevens
Halliman, SethSeth Halliman Centre (1995-05-24) May 24, 1995 (age 21) 0 United States Central Washington
London, ChadChad London Centre (1988-09-27) September 27, 1988 (age 27) 6 United States Denver Stampede
Palamo, ThrettonThretton Palamo Centre (1988-09-22) September 22, 1988 (age 28) 15 United States United States Sevens
Hume, LukeLuke Hume Wing (1988-01-26) January 26, 1988 (age 28) 20 United States Old Blue
Ngwenya, TakudzwaTakudzwa Ngwenya Wing (1985-07-22) July 22, 1985 (age 31) 36 United States San Diego Breakers
Tiberio, PeterPeter Tiberio Wing (1989-04-26) April 26, 1989 (age 27) 0 United States United States Sevens
Scully, BlaineBlaine Scully Wing (1988-02-29) February 29, 1988 (age 28) 31 Wales Cardiff Blues
Te'o, MikeMike Te'o Fullback (1993-07-23) July 23, 1993 (age 23) 6 United States San Diego Breakers
Holder, WillWill Holder Fullback (1988-01-01) January 1, 1988 (age 28) 5 United States United States Sevens

Recent callups[edit]

The following players were called into the June 2016 camp, but did not make the roster.

Note: Flags indicate national union for the club/province as defined by World Rugby.

Player Position Date of Birth (Age) Caps Club/province
Kilifi, OliveOlive Kilifi Prop (1986-09-28) September 28, 1986 (age 29) 19 United States Sacramento Express
Orth, BrodieBrodie Orth Lock 4 United States Denver Stampede
Schirmer, AladdinAladdin Schirmer Flanker (1992-12-31) December 31, 1992 (age 23) 2 United States Central Washington
Davies, ShaunShaun Davies Scrum-half (1989-06-20) June 20, 1989 (age 27) 1 United States Ohio Aviators
Mikesell, DeionDeion Mikesell Wing 1 United States Lindenwood Lions

Stadium and attendance[edit]

The Eagles do not have an official home stadium. The Eagles used to play several of their home games at Infinity Park in Denver, Colorado, but with the increasing popularity of the U.S. national team, the Eagles have not played there since June 2012. Since 2012, the U.S. national team has often played in larger Major League Soccer stadiums across the country. The Eagles have played a home match against a Tier 1 nation each June since 2012 before large crowds at BBVA Compass Stadium in Houston, Texas.[59] Since 2012, the Eagles have played at other MLS stadiums, such as PPL Park in Philadelphia and the StubHub Center in Los Angeles. The Eagles play some of their less high-profile matches at minor league soccer stadiums.

The highest attended matches in the U.S. involving the U.S. national team are:[60]

Rank Attendance Opponent Date Venue
1 61,500 New Zealand 2014-11-01 Soldier Field, Chicago, IL
2 23,212 Australia 2015-09-05 Soldier Field, Chicago, IL[61]
3 20,181 Ireland 2013-06-08 BBVA Compass Stadium, Houston, TX
4 20,001 Scotland 2014-06-08 BBVA Compass Stadium, Houston, TX
5 18,500 New Zealand Maori 2013-11-09 PPL Park, Philadelphia, PA[62]
6 17,214 Italy 2012-06-03 BBVA Compass Stadium, Houston, TX
7 16,000 South Africa 2001-12-01 Robertson Stadium, Houston, TX[63]
8 14,000 New Zealand XV 1980-10-08 San Diego Stadium, San Diego, CA
9 10,241 Argentina XV 2016-02-06 BBVA Compass Stadium, Houston, TX
10 10,017 Samoa 2015-07-18 Avaya Stadium, San Jose, CA[51]

Rivalry with Canada[edit]

The United States' biggest rival in rugby is Canada. The US has played more test matches against Canada than any other country. The two teams first met in 1977, and have played every year since then with the exception of 2010. As of September 2015, the two sides have met 54 times, with 15 wins for the U.S., 38 wins for Canada, and 1 draw.

The USA and Canada routinely play in each other in qualifying matches for the Rugby World Cup. They have met in the qualification stages for every tournament except for the 1987 tournament, for which teams were invited rather than going through qualification matches, and the 1995 tournament, for which Canada had automatically qualified by finishing as a quarterfinalist in the 1991 Rugby World Cup.

The USA has won their last three matches against Canada, with the most recent being a 41-23 victory in a Rugby World Cup warm-up match on August 22, 2015. This match marks both the longest winning streak against and the largest margin of victory over the Canadians. The first victory of the current winning streak ended a seven match winning streak by Canada that lasted from 2009 through 2013.

Tournament records[edit]

Honors

Rugby World Cup[edit]

The United States has qualified for every Rugby World Cup except the 1995 tournament. The best result that the U.S. has managed at a Rugby World Cup is to win one game, which it accomplished in 1987, 2003, and again in 2011.

Tournament Host USA Win/Loss
(Bonus Pts)[o 1]
USA Finish USA Defeated Leading US scorer
1987  Australia
 New Zealand
1–2 3rd in Pool A Japan (21–18) Ray Nelson (24)
1991  England
 France
 Ireland
 Scotland
 Wales
0–3 4th in Pool A Mark Williams (16)
1995  South Africa US did not qualify
1999  Wales 0–3 4th in Pool 5 Kevin Dalzell (22)
2003  Australia 1–3 (2 BP) 4th in Pool B Japan (39–26) Mike Hercus (51)
2007  France 0–4 (1 BP) 5th in Pool A Mike Hercus (26)
2011  New Zealand 1–3 (0 BP) 4th in Pool C Russia (13–6) Chris Wyles (18)
2015  England 0–4 (0 BP) 5th in Pool B AJ MacGinty (25)
2019  Japan
  1. ^ A bonus point is awarded for scoring 4 tries or for losing by 7 points or less.

Pacific Nations Cup[edit]

The Pacific Nations Cup has been played every year since 2006, and has been played in its current format since 2013, when the United States and Canada joined Japan, Fiji, Samoa and Tonga.

Tournament USA record USA finish Leading US scorer USA Wins
2013 0–4 5th / 5 Chris Wyles (19)
2014 1–1 3rd / 6 Chris Wyles (32) Canada
2015 2–2 5th / 6 AJ MacGinty (44) Japan, Canada

Americas Rugby Championship[edit]

Main article: Americas Rugby Cup

The Americas Rugby Championship pits the six highest ranked rugby nations in North and South America (Argentina XV, Brazil, Canada, Chile, United States, and Uruguay). It was first contested in 2016.

Tournament USA record USA finish Leading US scorer USA Wins
2016 2–1-2 2nd / 6 James Bird (32) Canada, Chile

Summer Olympics[edit]

Main article: Rugby union at the Summer Olympics

Rugby was included an Olympic sport four times from 1900 to 1924, with the United States winning the last two of those tournaments — 1920 and 1924. After a lengthy absence, rugby will return to the Summer Olympics in 2016, albeit in the rugby sevens format.

Olympics USA Finish USA Record Defeated
France 1900 Paris (USA did not participate)
United Kingdom 1908 London (USA did not participate)
Belgium 1920 Antwerp Gold 1–0 France
France 1924 Paris Gold 2–0 France, Romania

Defunct competitions[edit]

Churchill Cup[edit]

Main article: Churchill Cup
Year Host nation(s) USA Record USA Finish /
# Teams
2003 Canada Canada 1–2 2nd / 3
2004 Canada Canada 0–2 4th / 4
2005 Canada Canada 1–1 3rd / 4
2006 Canada United States Canada & United States 0–3 6th / 6
2007 England England 0–3 6th / 6
2008 Canada United States Canada & United States 0–3 6th / 6
2009 United States United States 1–2 5th / 6
2010 United States United States 1–2 4th / 6
2011 England England 1–2 5th / 6

Super Cup[edit]

Main article: Super Cup
Year Champion Second Third Fourth US Record (W–L)
2003 Russia United States Japan N/A 1–1
2004 Japan Canada United States Russia 1–1
2005 Canada Japan United States Romania 1–1

Player records[edit]

Most caps[edit]

All Time

Rank Player Pos Span Caps Starts
1 Mike MacDonald Prop 2000–2012 67 56
2 Todd Clever Flanker 2003– 64 62
3 Luke Gross Lock 1996–2003 62 61
4 Alec Parker Lock 1996–2009 58 51
5 Mike Petri Scrum-half 2007– 57 40
6 Louis Stanfill Lock 2005–2015 56 45
7 Paul Emerick Centre 2003–2012 53 49
Dave Hodges Flanker 1996–2004 53 48
9 Chris Wyles Fullback 2007– 54 51
10 Kort Schubert Flanker 2000–2008 49 48

Last updated: February 19, 2016. Statistics include officially capped matches only.

Active Players

Rank Player Pos Debut Caps
1 Todd Clever Flanker 2003 64
2 Mike Petri Scrum-half 2007 57
3 Chris Wyles Fullback 2007 54
4 Andrew Suniula Center 2008 38
5 Eric Fry Prop 2011 37

Previous record holders:

  • Mike Purcell — 1980–1987, 14 caps (U.S. record co-holder at time of retirement), 14 starts, 4 tries. 2 tries at the 1987 Rugby World Cup.
  • Kevin Swords — 1985–1994, 36 caps (U.S. record holder at the time of his retirement), USA captain, Barbarians (2).
  • Chris Lippert — 1989–1998, 38 caps (U.S. record holder at the time of his retirement), USA captain (3), Barbarians (3).

Most tries[edit]

All Time

Rank Player Pos Span Mat Tries
1 Vaea Anitoni Wing 1992-2000 46 26
2 Paul Emerick Centre 2003-2012 53 17
3 Chris Wyles Fullback 2007– 54 16
4 Taku Ngwenya Wing 2007– 35 14
5 Todd Clever Flanker 2003– 63 14
6 Philip Eloff Centre 2000-2007 35 10
7 David Fee Wing 2002-2005 28 9
Mike Hercus Fly-half 2002-2009 48 9
Riaan van Zyl Wing 2003-2004 13 9
10 3 players with 8 tries

Last updated: June 26, 2016. Statistics include officially capped matches only.

Active Players

Rank Player Pos Debut Tries
1 Chris Wyles Fullback 2007 16
2 Taku Ngwenya Wing 2007 14
3 Todd Clever Flanker 2003 14
4 Blaine Scully Fullback / Wing 2011 7
5 Andrew Suniula Centre 2008 7

Most points[edit]

All Time

Rank Player Pos Span Mat Points
1 Mike Hercus Fly-half 2002-2009 48 465
2 Matt Alexander Fly-half 1995-1998 24 286
3 Chris Wyles Fullback 2007– 54 222
4 Chris O'Brien Fly-half 1988-1994 20 144
5 Mark Williams Centre 1987-1999 37 143
6 Vaea Anitoni Wing 1992-2000 46 130
7 Kevin Dalzell Scrumhalf 1996-2003 42 109
8 AJ MacGinty Fly-half 2015– 9 100
9 Grant Wells Fly-half 2000-2001 12 100
10 Paul Emerick Centre 2003-2012 53 85

Last updated: June 26, 2016. Statistics include officially capped matches only.

Active Players

Rank Player Pos Debut Mat Pts
1 Chris Wyles Fullback 2007 54 222
2 AJ MacGinty Fly-half 2015 9 100
3 Taku Ngwenya Wing 2007 36 70
4 Todd Clever Flanker 2003 67 70
5 Adam Siddall Fly-half 2013 8 52

Previous head coaches[edit]

  1. New Zealand John Mitchell (2016–Present). 2 wins, 3 losses, 1 draw.
  2. United States Mike Tolkin (2012–2015). 10 wins, 23 losses, 1 draw. 0–4 at the 2015 RWC.
  3. Republic of Ireland Eddie O'Sullivan (2009–2011). 8 wins, 17 losses. 1–3 at the 2011 RWC
  4. Australia Scott Johnson (2008–2009)
  5. New Zealand Peter Thorburn (2006–2007). 0–4 at the 2007 RWC
  6. United States Tom Billups (2001–2005). 12 wins, 21 losses. 1–3 at the 2003 RWC
  7. Australia Duncan Hall (2000–2001). 3 wins, 9 losses
  8. United States Jack Clark (1993–1999). Most victories (16) among U.S. national team coaches.[64]
  9. England Jim Perkins (1987–1991)
  10. Republic of Ireland George Hook (1987)
  11. United States Bing Dawson (dates unknown)[65]
  12. United States Ray Cornbill (1976–1983)
  13. United States Dennis Storer (1976–1982)[16] — first U.S. national team coach in the modern era

Last updated: February 14, 2016.

Overall record and rankings[edit]

Top 30 rankings as of 19 September 2016[66]
Rank Change* Team Points
1 Steady  New Zealand 96.30
2 Steady  England 89.49
3 Steady  Australia 85.53
4 Steady  South Africa 84.30
5 Steady  Wales 82.49
6 Steady  Ireland 81.67
7 Steady  Argentina 80.93
8 Steady  France 80.75
9 Steady  Scotland 80.44
10 Steady  Fiji 75.49
11 Steady  Georgia 75.23
12 Steady  Japan 74.95
13 Steady  Italy 72.23
14 Steady  Samoa 71.37
15 Steady  Tonga 69.47
16 Steady  Romania 68.74
17 Steady  United States 65.60
18 Steady  Canada 64.53
19 Steady  Uruguay 63.56
20 Steady  Namibia 62.78
21 Steady  Russia 61.91
22 Steady  Kenya 59.28
23 Steady  Spain 58.79
24 Steady  Belgium 57.94
25 Steady  Hong Kong 57.84
26 Steady  Germany 57.71
27 Steady  Ukraine 56.95
28 Steady  Chile 55.73
29 Steady  South Korea 54.85
30 Steady  Portugal 54.29
*Change from the previous week
United States's Historical Rankings
United States IRB World Rankings.png
Source: World Rugby - Graph updated to 1 November 2015[66]

Below is table of the representative rugby matches played by a United States national XV at test level up until 26 June 2016.[67]

Opponent Played Won Lost Drawn Win % For Aga Diff
 Argentina 8 0 8 0 0% 119 247 -128
Argentina Argentina XV 1 0 0 1 0% 35 35 +0
 Australia 8 0 8 0 0% 78 368 -290
 Australia XV 1 0 1 0 0% 22 26 -4
 Barbados 1 1 0 0 100% 91 0 +91
 Bermuda 1 1 0 0 100% 60 3 +57
 Brazil 1 0 1 0 0% 23 24 -1
 Canada 55 16 38 1 29.09% 840 1284 -444
 Chile 3 2 1 0 66.67% 112 43 +69
 England 5 0 5 0 0% 52 253 -201
 England XV 2 0 2 0 0% 11 96 -107
England England Saxons 4 0 4 0 0% 29 194 -165
 Fiji 6 1 5 0 16.67% 97 143 -46
 France 7 1 6 0 14.29% 93 181 -88
 France XV 1 1 0 0 100% 8 0 +8
 Georgia 4 3 1 0 75% 109 75 +34
 Hong Kong 7 3 4 0 42.86% 152 191 -39
 Ireland 8 0 8 0 0% 82 306 -224
 Ireland XV 1 0 1 0 0% 7 32 -25
Ireland Ireland Wolfhounds 2 0 2 0 0% 22 74 -52
 Italy 5 0 5 0 0% 74 154 -80
 Japan 23 13 9 1 56.52% 655 526 +129
 New Zealand 3 0 3 0 0% 15 171 -156
 New Zealand XV 1 0 1 0 0% 6 53 -47
 Māori 1 0 1 0 0% 6 74 -68
 Portugal 2 2 0 0 100% 83 22 +61
 Romania 7 6 1 0 85.71% 189 76 +113
 Russia 7 7 0 0 100% 218 97 +121
 Samoa 5 0 5 0 0% 85 117 -32
 Scotland 5 0 5 0 0% 66 220 -154
 Scotland XV 1 0 1 0 0% 12 41 -29
 Scotland A 1 0 1 0 0% 9 13 -4
 South Africa 4 0 4 0 0% 42 209 -167
 Soviet Union 1 0 1 0 0% 16 31 -15
 Spain 3 3 0 0 100% 169 29 +140
 Tonga 8 1 7 0 12.50% 117 221 -104
 Tunisia 1 1 0 0 100% 47 13 +34
 Uruguay 15 12 2 1 80.00% 463 240 +223
 Wales 7 0 7 0 0% 86 315 -229
 Wales XV 1 0 1 0 0% 18 24 -6
Total 227 74 150 3 32.60% 4413 6210 -1797

Record against Tier 1 teams[edit]

The following table shows the USA's best results against Tier 1 opponents.[68]

Pts Diff Result Opponent Date
+14 W (17–3)  France 1924-05-18
+8 W (8–0)  France 1920-09-05
–3 L (26–29)  Argentina 1996-09-14
–3 L (12–15)  Ireland 2013-06-08
–4 L (8–12)  Australia 1912-11-16
–4 L (20–24)  Italy 2016-06-18

Other U.S. national teams[edit]

USA Selects[edit]

Americas Rugby Championship
Year Champion USA Result
2009 Argentina Jaguars 4th
2010 Argentina Jaguars 3rd
2011 Not held due to the 2011 Rugby World Cup
2012 Argentina Jaguars 4th
2013 Argentina Jaguars 2nd
2014 Argentina Jaguars 2nd
2015 Not held due to the 2015 Rugby World Cup
Main article: USA Selects

The USA Selects is a second national rugby team for the United States. The USA Selects is a developmental team, usually fielding younger players looking to break into the U.S. national team, and sometimes including amateur domestic U.S. national team players who need more high-level matches.

The USA Selects participates in the Americas Rugby Championship, a tournament featuring the "A" sides for Argentina, Canada, the United States, and Uruguay. The ARC is an annual tournament that has been played every year since 2009 (except for Rugby World Cup years), and replaces the North America 4 competition. The USA Selects best result in the ARC was in 2013, when the USA Selects beat Canada A to take second place.[69]

Women's national team[edit]

The U.S. women's national team, officially formed in 1987, has been an international powerhouse since its inception, although more recently have fallen behind other powerhouses such as England and New Zealand on the world rankings. The Eagles won the first official World Cup in 1991, and finished second in the two following World Cups (1994, 1998). The Eagles have set a high standard for international competition, leading an ensuing wave of women's rugby growth and game development worldwide. The US finished 7th in the 2002 tournament. The women's national team traveled to the United Kingdom in January 2006 to play Scotland, Ireland and England, winning all three games. The 2006 Women's Rugby World Cup was held in Edmonton, Canada.

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "World Rugby". Retrieved September 21, 2015. 
  2. ^ "United States ready to launch bid to host 2023 Rugby World Cup", The Guardian, December 1, 2011.
  3. ^ "Canada and USA to join Pacific Nations Cup", Stuff.co.nz, January 23, 2013. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  4. ^ "Americas' top Six Rugby Nations Planning for Bright Future", Nick Sero, April 24, 2015.
  5. ^ Rugby in USA, Rugby Football History. Accessed September 26, 2015.
  6. ^ Gridiron football, Encylopaedia Brittannica. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
  7. ^ "The president who saved football", CNN, February 5, 2012. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
  8. ^ "Can American rugby move beyond the college campus?", The Guardian, September 25, 2015.
  9. ^ a b "The tour that killed American rugby", ESPN Scrum, Huw Richards, October 29, 2013.
  10. ^ The Rugby History Society. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
  11. ^ a b c d "1924 Rugby: A Wild Olympic Rematch", California Golden Blogs, June 20, 2012.
  12. ^ "A.A.U. to pay expenses of Rugby Team to Olympics", N.Y. Times, June 4, 1920.
  13. ^ U.S. Team is Hissed by French When it Wins Olympic Title, N.Y. Times, May 19, 1924
  14. ^ Rugby at the 1924 Olympics. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  15. ^ "Olympic Rugby: Rugby and the Olympics", ESPN Scrum, July 26, 2012.
  16. ^ a b c SCRFU History, Southern California RFU. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
  17. ^ IRB Match Preview: Japan v USA Archived June 26, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., June 2013.
  18. ^ "USA play a different ball game", BBC Sport, September 26, 2003.
  19. ^ a b c "Notes on USA v Romania", Rugby Mag, November 23, 2012.
  20. ^ a b Test matches - Team records - USA, ESPN Scrum. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
  21. ^ a b IRB Match Preview: Fiji v USA, June 2013.
  22. ^ "Retro Friday: Juan Grobler scores for USA v Australia in 1999", Rugby World Cup - Argentina 2023, May 22, 2015.
  23. ^ "USA hammers Japan", ESPN Scrum, May 18, 2003.
  24. ^ "Wallabies send All Blacks home", ESPN Scrum. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
  25. ^ "USA secures place at RWC'07", ESPN Scrum, October 8, 2006. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
  26. ^ "Rugby World Cup 2011: USA’s story", Rugby World, August 1, 2011. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
  27. ^ "O'Sullivan lands Eagles job". ESPN. March 5, 2009. Retrieved December 14, 2014. 
  28. ^ "Churchill Cup returns to America", Rugby 365, February 22, 2010. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  29. ^ "Eagles claim 2011 World Cup berth". BBC Sport. 2009-11-22. Retrieved 2009-11-22. 
  30. ^ UNITED STATES OF AMERICA TOUR. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  31. ^ "Loading....". Retrieved September 21, 2015. 
  32. ^ "Loading....". Retrieved September 21, 2015. 
  33. ^ "International Rugby Board – World Rankings: Archive – Detail". Irb.com. December 27, 2010. Retrieved October 17, 2011. 
  34. ^ "Rugby Union – ESPN Scrum – England Saxons v United States of America at Northampton, Jun 4, 2011". ESPN Scrum. Retrieved October 17, 2011. 
  35. ^ "USA Poor in Loss to Tonga". Rugbymag.com. June 8, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011. 
  36. ^ "USA Wins Bowl at Churchill Cup". Rugbymag.com. June 18, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011. 
  37. ^ "Churchill Cup 2011 News : Final bow for Churchill Cup | Live Rugby News". ESPN Scrum. Retrieved October 17, 2011. 
  38. ^ "50-Player Pool for World Cup". Rugbymag.com. June 21, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011. 
  39. ^ "Canada Comes Back to Beat USA". Rugbymag.com. August 6, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011. 
  40. ^ "Eagles Squander Opportunity Against Canada". Rugbymag.com. August 13, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011. 
  41. ^ "Japan Edges USA in Rain". Rugbymag.com. August 22, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011. 
  42. ^ "Irish in Battle with Eagles, but Win". Rugbymag.com. September 11, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011. 
  43. ^ "USA Edges Russia in World Cup". Rugbymag.com. September 15, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011. 
  44. ^ "Wallabies Much Too Much for Eagles". Rugbymag.com. September 23, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011. 
  45. ^ "USA Brave in 27–10 Loss to Italy". Rugbymag.com. September 27, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011. 
  46. ^ Rugby World, Dec. 2011, page 40.
  47. ^ "For Houston rugby fans, home turf is gaining ground", Houston Chronicle, June 6, 2014.
  48. ^ Shannon, Kris (November 10, 2013). "NZ Maori escape against Eagles". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved November 10, 2013. 
  49. ^ "Eagles Selected For First Uruguay Match", This Is American Rugby, March 15, 2014. Retrieved March 20, 2014.
  50. ^ "Wallaby greats say US 'sleeping giant' of rugby and hail All Blacks' Chicago Test". theguardian.com. November 7, 2014. Retrieved November 8, 2014. 
  51. ^ a b "USA Comeback Falls Short", Goff Rugby Report, July 18, 2015.
  52. ^ "USA down Canada 41-23 in World Cup tune-up", ESPN UK, August 22, 2015.
  53. ^ "Eagles Fall to Wallabies in Last RWC Tune-Up", Rugby Today, September 5, 2015.
  54. ^ http://www.prorugby.org/
  55. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/sport/2015/nov/09/us-professional-rugby-union-league
  56. ^ http://www.americasrugbynews.com/2015/11/20/4875/#comment-648
  57. ^ "LINEUPS NAMED FOR USA VS. ITALY", Rugby Today, Pat Clifton, June 16, 2016.
  58. ^ MEN’S EAGLES ASSEMBLY FOR JUNE SUMMER SERIES ANNOUNCED
  59. ^ "It's Official: USA Eagles vs Italy", Texas Rugby Union.
  60. ^ Highest Attendance – United States of America, ESPN Scrum.
  61. ^ "Wallabies comfortable winners after improved performance in second half at Soldier Field", ESPN Scrum.
  62. ^ United States of America v New Zealand Maori at Philadelphia, ESPN scrum, November 9, 2013.
  63. ^ "Not a New Dawn, But Nice Anyway", ERugbyNews, June 1, 2009.
  64. ^ "Cal coach Clark named to U.S. Rugby Hall of Fame", CSN Bay Area, February 13, 2014.
  65. ^ "History". Retrieved September 21, 2015. 
  66. ^ a b "World Rankings". World Rugby. Retrieved 29 August 2016. 
  67. ^ "Rugby Union - ESPN Scrum - Statsguru - Test matches - Team records". ESPN scrum. Retrieved September 21, 2015. 
  68. ^ United States test matches. ESPNscrum. Accessed July 2, 2016.
  69. ^ "Eagles Select XVs defeat Canada 30-10 at Americas Rugby Championship", USA Rugby, October 15, 2013. Retrieved September 13, 2014.

External links[edit]