United States of Venezuela

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United States of Venezuela
Estados Unidos de Venezuela

1864–1953
Coat of Arms of Venezuela (1871)
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
Spanish: 'Dios y Federación' ("God and Federation")
Anthem
Gloria al Bravo Pueblo ("Glory to the Brave People") (since 1881)
Capital Caracas
Languages Spanish
Religion Freedom of religion
Government Republic
Legislature Unicameral Congress
Historical era Mid 19th - Mid 20th centuries
 •  Established 1864
 •  Disestablished 1953
Currency Venezuelan peso (until 1871)
Venezolano (1871 – 1879)
Venezuelan bolívar (since 1879)
Demonym: Venezolano (male), Venezolana (female)
Warning: Value not specified for "common_name"[[Category:Former federations|]]

The United States of Venezuela (Spanish: Estados Unidos de Venezuela) was the official name of Venezuela, adopted in its 1864 constitution under the Juan Crisóstomo Falcón government. This remained the official name until 1953, when the constitution of that year renamed it the Republic of Venezuela.

Flag[edit]

Main article: Flag of Venezuela

The United States of Venezuela used three official flags in its time:

1863 – 1905
Decree of Juan Crisóstomo Falcón 
1905 – 1930
Decree of Cipriano Castro 
1930 – 1954
Decree of Juan Vicente Gómez 

History[edit]

Main article: History of Venezuela

Original name[edit]

From 1830 to 1857 the official name of the country was Spanish: Estado de Venezuela ("State of Venezuela").[1] The 1858 constitution gave it the official name Spanish: República de Venezuela ("Republic of Venezuela").[2] After the Liberal Party (Partido Liberal) won power in the Federal War it called for a constitutional convention, to establish the constitution on federal principles. On 28 March 1864, members of the convention met in Caracas to sign it. President Falcón ordered its publication and circulation on 13 April, and on 22 April it was finally ratified by the Ministers of the Interior and Justice, Finance, Development, and War and Sea.[3]

Change of name[edit]

The 1953 constitution included a transitional provision to change the official name from Estados Unidos de Venezuela ("United States of Venezuela") to República de Venezuela ("Republic of Venezuela").[4] The next constitution, of 1961, confirmed the new name.[5]

Geography[edit]

Borders[edit]

Map of Venezuela by L. Robelin (1890)

The 1864 constitution established the borders of the United States of Venezuela to be the same of those of the 1810 Captaincy General of Venezuela.[3] This statement has been preserved throughout subsequent constitutions.

Because of long-running territorial dispute between the United States of Venezuela and the United Kingdom over Guayana Esequiba several countries called for an international court of justice to settle the matter, which was held in Paris in 1899, and ruled in the UK's favour. From 1900 to 1905, Venezuela participated in the Joint Committee of the British-Venezuelan Border for the final demarcation between the two countries, which was signed in September 1907. In 1932, Juan Vicente Gómez agreed a point on the summit of Mount Roraima as the three-way boundary between Brazil, British Guiana and Venezuela.

In 1941 President Eleazar López Contreras and the Colombian President signed the Tratado de Límites de 1941 entre Colombia and Venezuela, the border treaty between the two countries, which ceded 108,000 square kilometres (42,000 square miles) of territory to Colombia.

Subdivisions[edit]

1864[edit]

The 1864 constitution gave these former provinces the status as states:

It was stated that the boundaries would remain as in 1856.[3]

1881[edit]

The 1881 constitution merged the states created in 1864 into eight, larger states:[6]

1891[edit]

The 1891 constitution established new state boundaries:[7]

  • Bermúdez: comprising Barcelona, Cumaná and Maturín.
  • Miranda: comprising Bolívar, Guzmán Blanco, Guárico and Nueva Esparta.
  • Carabobo: comprising Carabobo and Nirgua.
  • Zamora: comprising Cojedes, Portuguesa and Zamora.
  • Lara: comprising Barquisimeto and Yaracuy, but excluding the Nirgua department.
  • Los Andes: comprising Guzmán, Trujillo and Táchira.
  • Bolívar: comprising Guayana and Apure.
  • Zulia: unitary state.
  • Falcón: unitary state.

1901[edit]

The 1901 constitution established new divisions of the states:[8]

  • Apure
  • Aragua
  • Bolívar (previously Guayana)
  • Barcelona
  • Carabobo
  • Cojedes
  • Falcón (antes Coro)
  • Guárico
  • Lara (antes Barquisimeto)
  • Mérida
  • Miranda (antes Caracas)
  • Maturín
  • Sucre (antes Cumaná)
  • Nueva Esparta (antes Margarita)
  • Portuguesa
  • Táchira
  • Trujillo
  • Yaracuy
  • Zamora (antes Barinas)
  • Zulia (antes Maracaibo)

1904[edit]

New division of territory:[9]

  • Aragua
  • Bermúdez
  • Bolívar
  • Carabobo
  • Falcón
  • Guárico
  • Lara
  • Mérida
  • Miranda
  • Táchira
  • Trujillo
  • Zamora
  • Zulia

1909[edit]

Another division of territory, and new names for some of the states:[10]

  • Distrito Federal
  • Anzoátegui
  • Apure
  • Aragua
  • Bolívar
  • Carabobo
  • Cojedes
  • Falcón
  • Guárico
  • Lara
  • Mérida
  • Miranda
  • Monagas
  • Nueva Esparta
  • Portuguesa
  • Sucre
  • Táchira
  • Trujillo
  • Yaracuy
  • Zamora
  • Zulia
  • Federal territories: Amazonas and Delta Amacuro

1925[edit]

Creation of the Federal Dependencies of Venezuela (Spanish: Dependencias federales), shore islands belonging to Venezuela in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Venezuela.

However, Margarita Island (Spanish: Isla Margarita or Isla de Margarita) became part of the State of Nueva Esparta.[11]

1928[edit]

Coche Island (Spanish: Isla de Coche) was incorporated into the State of Nueva Esparta. [12]

Minor changes under Juan V. Gòmez.

1947[edit]

the state of Zamora was renamed to Barinas and the island of Cubagua (Spanish: Isla de Cubagua) was incorporated into Nueva Esparta. [13]

Polítics and government[edit]

Constitutions[edit]

After the 1864 Constitution of the United States of Venezuela there were several revisions under different governments.

These were in 1874, 1881, 1891, 1893–94, 1901, 1909, 1914, 1922, 1925, 1928, 1929, 1931, 1936, 1945.

After a Decree of the Revolutionary Government, the constitution was revised further in 1947 and 1953.

Presidents[edit]

Legend: Partido Liberal Military dictatorship Independent Partido Democrático Acción Democrática
President Time in Office Means of Appointment Title
Juancrisostomofalcon.jpg Juan Crisóstomo Falcón 1863 – 1865 Victory in the Federal War (first term) General
Juancrisostomofalcon.jpg Juan Crisóstomo Falcón 1865 – April 1868 Indirect election (second term) General
Manuel Ezequiel Bruzual 1.jpg Manuel Ezequiel Bruzual 1868 – 1868 President-elect soldier
Guillermo Tell Villegas 1.jpg Guillermo Tell Villegas 1868 – 1869 President-elect Lawyer and soldier
José Ruperto Monagas.jpg José Ruperto Monagas 1869 – 1870 Revolution General
Guillermo Tell Villegas 1.jpg Guillermo Tell Villegas 1870 President-elect Lawyer and soldier
Martin Tovar y Tovar 20.JPG Antonio Guzmán Blanco 1870 – 1877 Revolution (first term) Lawyer and General
Martin Tovar y Tovar 20.JPG Antonio Guzmán Blanco 1870 – 1877 Indirect election (second term) Lawyer and General
Antonio Esteban Frías 1911 000.jpg Francisco Linares Alcántara 1877 – 1878 Indirect election General
José Gregorio Varela.jpg José Gregorio Varela 1878 – 1878 President-elect by Congress Soldier and politician
Martin Tovar y Tovar 20.JPG Antonio Guzmán Blanco 1879 – 1880 Election by the Federal States Lawyer and General
Martin Tovar y Tovar 20.JPG Antonio Guzmán Blanco 1880 – 1882 Election by the Federal States Lawyer and General
Martin Tovar y Tovar 20.JPG Antonio Guzmán Blanco 1882 – 1884 Election by the Federal States Lawyer and General
JoaquinCrespo.jpg Joaquín Sinforiano de Jesús Crespo 1884 – 1886 Election by the Federal States General
Martin Tovar y Tovar 20.JPG Antonio Guzmán Blanco 1886 – 1887 Election by the Federal States Lawyer and General
Hermógenes López.jpg Hermógenes López 1887 – 1888 Interim President General
Presidente Rojas Paúl (1890) by Cristobal Rojas.jpg Juan Pablo Rojas Paúl 1888 – 1890 Election by the Federal States Lawyer
Raimundo Andueza Palacio.jpg Raimundo Andueza Palacio 1890 – 1892 Election by the Federal States Lawyer
Guillermo Tell Villegas 1.jpg Guillermo Tell Villegas 1892 – 1892 Interim President Lawyer and soldier
JoaquinCrespo.jpg Joaquín Sinforiano de Jesús Crespo 1892 – 1894 Revolution General
JoaquinCrespo.jpg Joaquín Sinforiano de Jesús Crespo 1894 – 1898 Revolution General
Ignacio Andrade 2.jpg Ignacio Andrade 1898-1899 Direct election Politician
Cipriano Castro.jpg Cipriano Castro Ruiz 1899-1908 Revolution General
Juan Vicente Gómez, 1911.jpg Juan Vicente Gómez 1908 – 1914 Coup d'etat General
Presidente Victorino Marquez Bustillos.jpg Victorino Márquez Bustillos 1915 – 1922 President-elect Lawyer/politician
Juan Vicente Gómez, 1911.jpg Juan Vicente Gómez 1922 – 1929 Election by the National Congress General
Juan Bautista Pérez.jpg Juan Bautista Pérez 30 May 1929 – 13 June 1931 Election by the National Congress Lawyer/judge
Juan Vicente Gómez, 1911.jpg Juan Vicente Gómez 1931 – 1935 Election by the National Congress General
Eleazar López Contreras.jpg Eleazar López Contreras 1935 – 1936 Interim president (first term) General
Eleazar López Contreras.jpg Eleazar López Contreras 1936 – 1941 Indirect election (second term) General
Presidente Medina.jpg Isaías Medina Angarita 1941 – 1945 Indirect election General
Rómulo Betancourt.jpg Rómulo Ernesto Betancourt Bello 1945 – 1948 Coup d'etat Politician
Rómulo Gallegos.jpg Rómulo Gallegos reire 1948 – 1948 Direct election Writer/Novelist
Carlos Delgado Chalbaud1.jpg Carlos Delgado Chalbaud 1948 – 1950 Golpe de Estado Soldier
President Germán Suárez Flamerich.jpg Germán Suárez Flamerich 1950 – 1952 Interim President Lawyer
Marcos Pérez Jiménez 1952-1958 Coup d'etat (election declared invalid) Soldier

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Constitución del Estado de Venezuela de 1830". Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes (in Spanish).  |section= ignored (help)
  2. ^ "Constitución de 1858". Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes (in Spanish).  |section= ignored (help)
  3. ^ a b c "Constitución de 1864". Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes (in Spanish).  |section= ignored (help)
  4. ^ "Constitución de los Estados Unidos de Venezuela de 1953". Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes (in Spanish).  |section= ignored (help)
  5. ^ "Constitución de la República de Venezuela de 1961". Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes (in Spanish).  |section= ignored (help)
  6. ^ "Constitución de 1881". Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes (in Spanish).  |section= ignored (help)
  7. ^ "Constitución de 1891". Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes (in Spanish).  |section= ignored (help)
  8. ^ "Constitución de los Estados Unidos de Venezuela de 1918". Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes (in Spanish).  |section= ignored (help)
  9. ^ "Constitución de 1904". Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes (in Spanish).  |section= ignored (help)
  10. ^ "Constitución de los Estados Unidos de Venezuela de 1909". Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes (in Spanish).  |section= ignored (help)
  11. ^ "Constitución de 1925". Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes (in Spanish).  |section= ignored (help)
  12. ^ "Constitución de los Estados Unidos de Venezuela de 1928". Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes (in Spanish).  |section= ignored (help)
  13. ^ "Constitución de los Estados Unidos de Venezuela de 1947". Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes (in Spanish).  |section= ignored (help)