United States presidential debates
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During presidential election campaigns in the United States, it has become customary for the main candidates (almost always the candidates of the two largest parties, currently the Democratic Party and the Republican Party) to engage in a debate. The topics discussed in the debate are often the most controversial issues of the time, and arguably elections have been nearly decided by these debates. Candidate debates are not constitutionally mandated, but they are now considered an intrinsic part of the election process. The debates are targeted mainly at undecided voters; those who tend not to be partial to any political ideology or party.
Presidential debates are held late in the election cycle, after the political parties have nominated their candidates. The candidates meet in a large hall, often at a university, before an audience of citizens. The formats of the debates have varied, with questions sometimes posed from one or more journalist moderators and in other cases members of the audience. The debate formats established during the 1988 though 2000 campaigns were governed in detail by secret memoranda of understanding (MOU) between the two major candidates; the MOU for the 2004 debates was, unlike the earlier agreements, jointly released to the public by the participants.
Debates have been broadcast live on television, radio, and in recent years, the web. The first debate for the 1960 election drew over 66 million viewers out of a population of 179 million, making it one of the most-watched broadcasts in U.S. television history. The 1980 debates drew 80 million viewers out of a population of 226 million. Recent debates have drawn decidedly smaller audiences, ranging from 46 million for the first 2000 debate to a high of over 67 million for the first debate in 2012. A record-breaking audience of over 84 million people watched the first 2016 presidential debate between Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton, a number that does not reflect online streaming.
- 1 Background
- 2 Presidential debate history
- 3 Rules and format
- 4 Debate sponsorship
- 5 Timeline
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
While the first general presidential debate was not held until 1960, several other debates are considered predecessors to the presidential debates.
The series of seven debates in 1858 between Abraham Lincoln and Senator Stephen A. Douglas for U.S. Senate were true, face-to-face debates, with no moderator; the candidates took it in turns to open each debate with a one-hour speech, then the other candidate had an hour and a half to rebut, and finally the first candidate closed the debate with a half-hour response. Douglas was later re-elected to the Senate by the Illinois legislature. Lincoln and Douglas were both nominated for president in 1860 (by the Republicans and Northern Democrats, respectively), and their earlier debates helped define their respective positions in that election, but they did not meet during the campaign.
Early presidential primary candidate debates
Wendell Willkie became the first 20th century presidential candidate to challenge his opponent to a face to face debate when in 1940 he challenged President Franklin D. Roosevelt, but Roosevelt refused. In 1948, presidential candidate debates became a reality when a radio debate was held in Oregon between Republicans Thomas E. Dewey and Harold Stassen during the party's presidential primary. The Democrats followed suit in 1956 with a televised presidential primary debate between Adlai Stevenson and Estes Kefauver, and in 1960 by one between John F. Kennedy and Hubert Humphrey.
Presidential debate history
In 1956, University of Maryland student Fred Kahn led an effort to bring the two major presidential candidates—Adlai Stevenson, the Democratic nominee, and President Dwight Eisenhower, the Republican nominee—to the campus for a debate. Various newspapers were contacted and numerous letters were sent in an effort to generate interest and garner support for the proposal. Former first lady Eleanor Roosevelt was among those who received a letter. She replied, Kahn told Guy Raz, during an All Things Considered interview on NPR in 2012, saying, "not only would the students of the University of Maryland be interested, but also other students." Roosevelt also said that she was going to forward Kahn's letter to James Finnegan, Adlai Stevenson's campaign manager. In the end, no debate took place. However, Kahn's effort did receive national press exposure, and thus helped lay groundwork for the Kennedy–Nixon debates four years later during the 1960 presidential campaign.
1960 Kennedy–Nixon debates
The first general election presidential debate was held on September 26, 1960, between U.S. Senator John F. Kennedy, the Democratic nominee, and Vice President Richard Nixon, the Republican nominee, in Chicago at the studios of CBS's WBBM-TV. It was moderated by Howard K. Smith and included a panel composed of Sander Vanocur of NBC News, Charles Warren of Mutual News, Stuart Novins of CBS, and Bob Fleming of ABC News. At the outset, Nixon was considered to have the upper hand due to his knowledge of foreign policy and proficiency in radio debates. However, because of his unfamiliarity with the new format of televised debates, factors such as his underweight and pale appearance, his suit color blending in with the debate set background, and his refusal to use television makeup resulting in a five o'clock shadow, led to his defeat. Many observers have regarded Kennedy's win over Nixon in the first debate as a turning point in the election. After the first debate, polls showed Kennedy moving from a slight deficit into a slight lead over Nixon.
Three more debates were subsequently held between the candidates: On October 7 at the WRC-TV NBC studio in Washington, D.C., narrated by Frank McGee with a panel of four newsmen Paul Niven, CBS; Edward P. Morgan, ABC; Alvin Spivak, UPI; Harold R. Levy, Newsday; October 13, with Nixon at the ABC studio in Los Angeles and Kennedy at the ABC studio in New York, narrated by Bill Shadel with a panel of four newsmen; and October 21 at the ABC studio in New York, narrated by Quincy Howe with a panel of four including Frank Singiser, John Edwards, Walter Cronkite, and John Chancellor. Nixon regained his lost weight, wore television makeup, and appeared more forceful than in his initial appearance, winning the second and third debates while the fourth was a draw, however the viewership numbers of these subsequent events did not match the high set by the first debate.
After the Kennedy–Nixon debates, it was 16 years before presidential candidates again debated each other again face to face. During this interval intra-party debates were held during the 1968 Democratic primaries, between Robert F. Kennedy and Eugene McCarthy, and again during the in 1972 Democratic primaries, between George McGovern, Hubert Humphrey and others.
The next presidential candidates debates occurred during the 1976 campaign, when President Gerald Ford, who had entered office two years earlier after President Nixon resigned, agreed to three debates with his Democratic challenger, Jimmy Carter. The 1976 debates (one on domestic issues, one on foreign policy, and one on any topic) were held before studio audiences, and, like the 1960 debates, were televised nationally. The League of Women Voters sponsored the debates. This was a change from the Kennedy–Nixon debates, which had been sponsored by the television networks themselves. In addition to 1976, the League also sponsored the debates held in 1980 and in 1984. A single vice-presidential debate was also held that year between Democrat Walter Mondale and Republican Bob Dole.
Roughly an hour into the first televised debate, the broadcast audio coming from the Walnut Street Theatre and fed to all networks suddenly cut out, effectively muting the candidates in the middle of a statement by Carter. The two candidates were initially unaware of this technical glitch and continued to debate, unheard to the television audience. They were soon informed of this problem, and proceeded to stand still and silently at their podiums for about 27 minutes, until the problem, a blown capacitor, was located and fixed, in time for Carter to briefly finish the statement he had begun when the audio cut out, and for both candidates to issue closing statements.
The dramatic effect of televised presidential debates was demonstrated again in the 1976 debates between Ford and Carter. Ford had already cut into Carter's large lead in the polls, and was generally viewed as having won the first debate on domestic policy. Polls released after this first debate indicated the race was even. However, in the second debate on foreign policy, Ford made what was widely viewed as a major blunder when he said "There is no Soviet domination of Eastern Europe and there never will be under a Ford administration." After this, Ford's momentum stalled, and Carter won a very close election.
Debates were a major factor again in 1980. Earlier in the election season, President Carter had a lead over his opponent, Governor Ronald Reagan of California. Three debates between President Jimmy Carter, former California Governor Ronald Reagan and Illinois Congressman John B. Anderson were scheduled; along with a Vice Presidential debate between Vice President Walter Mondale, former CIA Director George H. W. Bush, and former Wisconsin Governor Patrick Joseph Lucey. Carter refused to debate if Anderson was present and Reagan refused to debate without Anderson, resulting in the first debate being between Reagan and Anderson only. The second debate and the Vice Presidential debate were both cancelled. Reagan conceded Carter's demands and the third debate took place with only Carter and Reagan. In the debate, with years of experience in front of a camera as an actor, Reagan came across much better than Carter and was judged by voters to have won the debate by a wide margin. This helped propel Reagan into a landslide victory. The Reagan campaign had access to internal debate briefing materials for Carter; the exposure of this in 1983 led to a public scandal called "Debategate".
In 1984, former Vice President Walter Mondale won the first debate over President Ronald Reagan, generating much-needed donations to Mondale's lagging campaign. The second presidential debate was held on October 21, 1984, where Ronald Reagan used a joke, "I will not make age an issue of this campaign. I am not going to exploit, for political purposes, my opponent's youth and inexperience", which effectively stalled Mondale's momentum.
Since 1976, each presidential election has featured a series of vice presidential debates. Vice presidential debates have been held regularly since 1984. Vice Presidential debates have been largely uneventful and have historically had little impact on the election. Perhaps the most memorable moment in a Vice Presidential debate came in the 1988 debate between Republican Dan Quayle and Democrat Lloyd Bentsen. Quayle's selection by the incumbent Vice-President and Republican Presidential candidate George Bush was widely criticized; one reason being his relative lack of experience. In the debate, Quayle attempted to ease this fear by stating that he had as much experience as John F. Kennedy did when he ran for President in 1960. Democrat Bentsen countered with the now famous statement: "Senator, I served with Jack Kennedy. I knew Jack Kennedy. Jack Kennedy was a friend of mine. Senator, you're no Jack Kennedy."
The year 1992 featured the first debate involving both major-party candidates and a third-party candidate, billionaire Ross Perot running against President Bush and the Democrat nominee Governor Bill Clinton. In that year, President Bush was criticized for his early hesitation to join the debates, and some described him as a "chicken." Furthermore, he was criticized for looking at his watch which aides initially said was meant to track if the other candidates were debating within their time limits but ultimately it was revealed that the president indeed was checking how much time was left in the debate.
Saint Anselm College has hosted four primary debates throughout 2004 and 2008; it is a favorite for campaign stops and these national debates because of the college's history in the New Hampshire primary.
Washington University in St. Louis, however, has hosted the presidential debates (organized by the Commission on Presidential Debates) three times (in 1992, 2000, and 2004), more than any other location prior to 2016, and it has been selected to host one of the 2016 debates. The university was also scheduled to host a debate in 1996, but it was later negotiated between the two presidential candidates to reduce the number of debates from three to two. The university hosted the only 2008 Vice Presidential debate, as well.
Hofstra University, originally an alternate site, was named the host of the first presidential debate in 2016, after Wright State University withdrew with eight weeks remaining. This positioned Hofstra to be the only school to host presidential debates in three consecutive campaign cycles.
Rules and format
Some of the debates can feature the candidates standing behind their podiums, or in conference tables with the moderator on the other side. Depending on the agreed format, either the moderator or an audience member can be the one to ask questions. Typically there are no opening statements, just closing statements.
A coin toss determines who gets to answer the first question and who will make their closing remarks first. Each candidate will get alternate turns. Once a question is asked, the candidate has 2 minutes to answer the question. After this, the opposing candidate has around 1 minute to respond and rebut her/his arguments. At the moderator's discretion, the discussion of the question may be extended by 30 seconds per candidate.
In recent debates, colored lights resembling traffic lights have been installed to aid the candidate as to the time left with green indicating 30 seconds, yellow indicating 15 seconds and red indicating only 5 seconds are left. If necessary, a buzzer may be used or a flag.
Control of the presidential debates has been a ground of struggle for more than two decades. The role was filled by the nonpartisan League of Women Voters (LWV) civic organization in 1976, 1980 and 1984. In 1987, the LWV withdrew from debate sponsorship, in protest of the major party candidates attempting to dictate nearly every aspect of how the debates were conducted. On October 2, 1988, the LWV's 14 trustees voted unanimously to pull out of the debates, and on October 3 they issued a press release:
The League of Women Voters is withdrawing sponsorship of the presidential debates...because the demands of the two campaign organizations would perpetrate a fraud on the American voter. It has become clear to us that the candidates' organizations aim to add debates to their list of campaign-trail charades devoid of substance, spontaneity and answers to tough questions. The League has no intention of becoming an accessory to the hoodwinking of the American public.
According to the LWV, they pulled out because "the campaigns presented the League with their debate agreement on September 28, two weeks before the scheduled debate. The campaigns' agreement was negotiated 'behind closed doors' ... [with] 16 pages of conditions not subject to negotiation. Most objectionable to the League...were conditions in the agreement that gave the campaigns unprecedented control over the proceedings.... [including] control the selection of questioners, the composition of the audience, hall access for the press and other issues."
The same year the two major political parties assumed control of organizing presidential debates through the Commission on Presidential Debates (CPD). The commission has been headed since its inception by former chairs of the Democratic National Committee and Republican National Committee.
Some have criticized the exclusion of third party and independent candidates as contributing to lower results for candidates such as the Libertarian Party or the Green Party. Others criticize the parallel interview format as a minimum of getting 15 percent in opinion polls is required to be invited. In 2004, the Citizens' Debate Commission (CDC) was formed with the stated mission of returning control of the debates to an independent nonpartisan body rather than a bipartisan body. Nevertheless, the CPD retained control of the debates that year and in 2008.
- Source: Commission on Presidential Debates – Debate history
|Election||Number of presidential debates||Number of vice presidential debates|
|1960||Four debates between Vice President Richard Nixon and Massachusetts Senator John F. Kennedy||None|
|1976||Three debates between President Gerald Ford and former Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter||One debate between Kansas Senator Bob Dole and Minnesota Senator Walter Mondale|
|1980||One debate between former California Governor Ronald Reagan and Illinois Representative John B. Anderson, and one debate between President Jimmy Carter and Reagan||None|
|1984||Two debates between President Ronald Reagan and former Vice President Walter Mondale||One debate between Vice President George H. W. Bush and New York Representative Geraldine Ferraro|
|1988||Two debates between Vice President George H. W. Bush and Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis||One debate between Indiana Senator Dan Quayle and Texas Senator Lloyd Bentsen|
|1992||Three debates among President George H. W. Bush, Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton and businessman Ross Perot||One debate among Vice President Dan Quayle, Tennessee Senator Al Gore and former Vice Admiral of the Navy James Stockdale|
|1996||Two debates between President Bill Clinton and former Kansas Senator Bob Dole||One debate between Vice President Al Gore and former Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Jack Kemp|
|2000||Three debates between Vice President Al Gore and Texas Governor George W. Bush||One debate between Connecticut Senator Joe Lieberman and former Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney|
|2004||Three debates between President George W. Bush and Massachusetts Senator John Kerry||One debate between Vice President Dick Cheney and North Carolina Senator John Edwards|
|2008||Three debates between Arizona Senator John McCain and Illinois Senator Barack Obama||One debate between Alaska Governor Sarah Palin and Delaware Senator Joe Biden|
|2012||Three debates between President Barack Obama and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney||One debate between Vice President Joe Biden and Wisconsin Representative Paul Ryan|
|2016||Three debates between former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and businessman Donald Trump||One debate between Virginia Senator Tim Kaine and Indiana Governor Mike Pence|
Sponsors, locations, moderators, panelists and viewership
|Election||Debate||Sponsor||Location||Moderators||Panelists, pool coverage, etc.||Viewship||Source|
|1960||First debate||Sponsored jointly by the "Big Three" television networks (ABC, CBS, and NBC)||WBBM-TV studios
|Howard K. Smith of CBS||Sander Vanocur (NBC), Charles Warren (Mutual), Stuart Novins (CBS)||66.4 million|||
|Second debate||WRC-TV studios
|Frank McGee of NBC||Paul Niven (CBS), Edward P. Morgan (ABC), Alvin Spivak (UPI), Harold R. Levy (Newsday)||61.9 million|
|Third debate||Split-screen telecast with Nixon and panelists in ABC studio in Los Angeles and Kennedy in ABC studio in New York||Bill Shadel of ABC||Frank McGee (NBC), Charles Van Fremd (CBS), Douglass Cater (The Reporter), Roscoe Drummond (New York Herald Tribune)
News: Bob Fleming (ABC)
|Fourth debate||ABC Studios
(New York City)
|Quincy Howe of ABC||Frank Singiser (Mutual), John Edwards (ABC), Walter Cronkite (CBS), John Chancellor (NBC)
News: Bob Fleming (ABC)
|1976||First debate||League of Women Voters||Walnut Street Theater
|Edwin Newman of NBC||Frank Reynolds (ABC), James P. Gannon (WSJ), Elizabeth Drew (New Yorker)||69.7 million|||
|Second debate||Palace of Fine Arts
(San Francisco, California)
|Pauline Frederick of NPR||Max Frankel (NYT), Henry L. Trewitt (Baltimore Sun), Richard Valeriani (NBC)||63.9 million|
|Third debate||Phi Beta Kappa Memorial Hall at College of William and Mary
|Barbara Walters of ABC||Joseph Kraft (syndicated columnist), Robert Maynard (Washington Post), Jack Nelson (LA Times)||62.7 million|
|VP Debate||Alley Theatre
|James Hoge of the Chicago Sun-Times||Hal Bruno (Newsweek), Marilyn Berger (NBC), Walter Mears (AP)||43.2 million|
|1980||First debate||League of Women Voters||Baltimore Convention Center
|Bill Moyers of PBS||Carol Loomis (Fortune), Daniel Greenberg (syndicated columnist), Charles Corddry (Baltimore Sun), Lee May (LA Times), Jane Bryant Quinn (Newsweek), Soma Golden (NYT)|||
|Second debate||Public Music Hall
|Howard K. Smith of ABC||Marvin Stone (U.S. News & World Report), Harry Ellis (CSM), William Hilliard (Portland Oregonian), Barbara Walters (ABC)||80.6 million|
|1984||First debate||League of Women Voters||Kentucky Center for the Performing Arts
|Barbara Walters of ABC||James Wieghart (NYDN), Diane Sawyer (ABC), Fred Barnes (New Republic)||65.1 million|||
|Second debate||Music Hall, Municipal Auditorium
(Kansas City, Missouri)
|Edwin Newman||Georgie Anne Geyer Universal Press, Marvin Kalb (NBC), Morton Kondracke (New Republic)||67.3 million|
|VP debate||Philadelphia Convention Hall and Civic Center
|Sander Vanocur of ABC||John Mashek (U.S. News & World Report), Jack White (Time), Norma Quarles (NBC), Robert Boyd (Knight Ridder)||56.7 million|
|1988||First debate||Commission on Presidential Debates||Wait Chapel at Wake Forest University
(Winston-Salem, North Carolina)
|Jim Lehrer of PBS||John Mashek (Atlanta Constitution), Peter Jennings (ABC), Anne Groer (Orlando Sentinel)||65.1 million|||
|Second debate||Pauley Pavilion at UCLA
(Los Angeles, California)
|Bernard Shaw of CNN||Andrea Mitchell (NBC), Ann Compton (ABC), Margaret Warner (Newsweek)||67.3 million|
|VP debate||Omaha Civic Auditorium
|Judy Woodruff of PBS||Tom Brokaw (NBC), Jon Margolis (Chicago Tribune), Brit Hume (ABC)||46.9 million|
|1992||First debate||Commission on Presidential Debates||Field House at Washington University
(St. Louis, Missouri)
|Jim Lehrer of PBS||Sander Vanocur (independent journalist), Ann Compton (ABC); John Mashek (Boston Globe)||62.4 million|||
|Second debate||Robins Center at University of Richmond
|Carole Simpson of ABC||Questioners: 209 uncommitted voters town-hall debate||69.9 million|
|Third debate||Wharton Center for Performing Arts at MSU
(East Lansing, Michigan)
|Jim Lehrer of PBS||Gene Gibbons (Reuters), Helen Thomas (UPI), Susan Rook (CNN)||66.9 million|
|VP debate||Theater for the Arts at Georgia Tech
|Hal Bruno of ABC||N/A||51.2 million|
|1996||First debate||Commission on Presidential Debates||Mortensen Hall at The Bushnell Center for the Performing Arts
|Jim Lehrer of PBS||N/A||46.1 million|||
|Second debate||Shiley Theater at University of San Diego
(San Diego, California)
|Questioners: 133 uncommitted voters town-hall debate||36.3 million|
|VP debate||Mahaffey Theater
(St. Petersburg, Florida)
|2000||First debate||Commission on Presidential Debates||Clark Athletic Center at University of Massachusetts
|Jim Lehrer of PBS||Pool coverage provided by: FOX||46.6 million|||
|VP debate||Norton Center for the Arts at Centre College
|Bernard Shaw of CNN||Pool coverage provided by: CNN||28.5 million|
|Second debate||Wait Chapel at Wake Forest University
(Winston-Salem, North Carolina)
|Jim Lehrer of PBS||Pool coverage provided by: NBC||37.5 million|
|Third debate||Field House at Washington University
(St. Louis, Missouri)
|Questioners: Voters town-hall debate
Pool coverage provided by: ABC
|2004||First debate||Commission on Presidential Debates||Convocation Center at University of Miami
(Coral Gables, Florida)
|Jim Lehrer of PBS||Pool coverage provided by: FOX||62.4 million|||
|VP debate||Veale Center at Case Western Reserve University
|Gwen Ifill of PBS||Pool coverage provided by: ABC||43.5 million|
|Second debate||Washington University
(St. Louis, Missouri)
|Charles Gibson of ABC||Pool coverage provided by: NBC||46.7 million|
|Third debate||Grady Gammage Memorial Auditorium at ASU
|Bob Schieffer of CBS||Pool coverage provided by: ABC||51.1 million|
|2008||First debate||Commission on Presidential Debates||University of Mississippi
|Jim Lehrer of PBS||Pool coverage provided by: CBS||52.4 million|||
|VP debate||Washington University
(St. Louis, Missouri)
|Gwen Ifill of PBS||Pool coverage provided by: CNN||69.9 million|
|Second debate||Belmont University
|Tom Brokaw of NBC||Pool coverage provided by: CBS||63.2 million|
|Third debate||Hofstra University
(Hempstead, New York)
|Bob Schieffer of CBS||Pool coverage provided by: ABC||56.5 million|
|2012||First debate||Commission on Presidential Debates||University of Denver
|Jim Lehrer of PBS||Pool coverage provided by: ABC||67.2 million|||
|VP debate||Centre College
|Martha Raddatz of ABC||Pool coverage provided by: CNN||51.4 million|
|Second debate||Hofstra University
(Hempstead, New York)
|Candy Crowley of CNN||Pool coverage provided by: FOX||65.6 million|
|Third debate||Wold Performing Arts Center at Lynn University
(Boca Raton, Florida)
|Bob Schieffer of CBS||Pool coverage provided by: ABC||59.2 million|
|2016||First debate||Commission on Presidential Debates||Hofstra University
(Hempstead, New York)
|Lester Holt of NBC||84 million|
|VP debate||Longwood University
|Elaine Quijano of CBS||36 million|
|Second debate||Washington University
(St. Louis, Missouri)
|Anderson Cooper of CNN and Martha Raddatz of ABC||Questioners: Undecided voters town-hall debate||66.5 million|
|Third debate||Thomas & Mack Center at UNLV
|Chris Wallace of FOX||71.6 million|
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- "The Debate and the Undecided Voter". September 23, 2016. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
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- "1948 Debate". debates.org. Debates.org. Retrieved September 8, 2019.
- "Dewey-Stassen Primary Debate". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 9, 2019.
- "1956 Debate". debates.org. Debates.org. Retrieved September 8, 2019.
- "Stevenson-Kefauver Primary Debate". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 9, 2019.
- "Kennedy-Humphrey Primary Debate". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 9, 2019.
- McCartney, Robert (September 29, 2012). "How a Bethesda retiree altered presidential campaigns 56 years ago by proposing debates". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
- "The Man Who Jump-Started Presidential Debates". All Things Considered. NPR. September 30, 2012. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
- Norton, Bruce (September 26, 2005). "Kennedy–Nixon debate changed politics for good: First televised debate didn't turn on words". CNN.
- "The First JFK-Nixon Debate: Charisma and on-camera personality were keys to winning the first televised presidential debate". History. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- "Kennedy–Nixon Debates," The Mary Ferrell Foundation
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- Golway, Terry. "There We Go Again Archived 4 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine" American Heritage, August/September 2004.
- "League of Women Voters and the Presidential Debates". League of Women Voters. June 12, 2010. Archived from the original on March 23, 2012. Retrieved July 26, 2012.
- Montopoli, Brian (October 15, 2012). "Do the debates unfairly shut out third parties?". CBS News. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
- "The Blooper Heard Round the World". Time. October 18, 1976. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
- Washington University in St. Louis :: Vice Presidential Debate 2008
- Neuman, Nancy M. (October 2, 1988). "League Refuses to "Help Perpetrate a Fraud"". Press release. League of Women Voters. Retrieved July 26, 2012.
- "1960 Debates". debates.org. Debates.org. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
- "1976 Debates". debates.org. Debates.org. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
- "1980 Debates". debates.org. Debates.org. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
- "1984 Debates". debates.org. Debates.org. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
- "1988 Debates". debates.org. Debates.org. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
- "1992 Debates". debates.org. Debates.org. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
- "1996 Debates". debates.org. Debates.org. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
- "2000 Debates". debates.org. Debates.org. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
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- Commission on Presidential Debates
- History of Televised Presidential Debates, Museum of Broadcast Communications, Chicago
- Debating our Destiny on PBS NewsHour, 2000 and 2008 programs
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- United States presidential debates at Curlie
Debate critics and activists
- Open Debates, a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization devoted to presidential debates
- A Blueprint for Fair and Open Presidential Debates in 2000, The Appleseed Citizens' Task Force on Fair Debates
- "The Commission on Presidential Debates' Exclusion of Vital Issues" in the 2000 debates
- The Citizens' Debate Commission's proposal for 2004 debates
- Heads or Tails: You Lose, article on the Commission on Presidential Debates and corporate influence
- Election Central, the latest in common election trends, news and debates