United States presidential election, 1788–89

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United States presidential election, 1788–89
United States
December 15, 1788 – January 10, 1789 → 1792

69 electoral votes of the Electoral College
35 electoral votes needed to win
  Gilbert Stuart Williamstown Portrait of George Washington.jpg
Nominee George Washington
Party Nonpartisan
Home state Virginia
Electoral vote 69
States carried 10
Popular vote 43,782
Percentage 100%


Presidential election results map. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state. (Note: North Carolina and Rhode Island had not yet ratified the Constitution, the New York legislature was deadlocked, and Vermont was operating as a de facto unrecognized state.)

President before election

None (Office created by the U.S. Constitution)

Elected President

George Washington

The United States presidential election of 1788–89 was the first quadrennial presidential election. It was held from Monday, December 15, 1788, to Saturday, January 10, 1789. It was conducted under the new United States Constitution, which had been ratified earlier in 1788. In the election, George Washington was unanimously elected for the first of his two terms as president, and John Adams became the first vice president.

Under the first federal constitution, the Articles of Confederation ratified in 1781, the United States had no ceremonial head of state and the executive was part of the Congress, as it is in countries that use parliamentary systems of government. All federal power was reserved to the Congress of the Confederation, whose "President of the United States in Congress Assembled" was also chair of the de facto cabinet, called the Committee of the States. It was not until the United States Constitution was enacted that separate and co-equal legislative, executive and judicial branches of government were created.

George Washington was enormously popular and his agreement to serve as the first President of the United States ensured that he was listed first when the electors cast their votes on the appointed day. The only real question was the person who the electors would list as their second choice, which was the person who would be named vice president. Originally under the Article Two of the United States Constitution, each state chose a number of electors equal to its representation in Congress. Each elector then cast two votes for President, at least one of the candidates being from a state other than the one represented by the elector. All 69 electors cast one vote for Washington, so that he received 69 of 69 possible votes, thus making his election unanimous. Eleven candidates received the electors' second votes, of which John Adams received the most votes. As the person who received the second largest number of votes overall, he was elected vice president. This procedure was changed by the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1804, under which the electors now cast separate ballots for president and vice president.


No federal political parties existed at the time of the 1788–89 presidential election. Candidates might be Federalists, meaning they supported the ratification of the Constitution, or Anti-Federalists, meaning they opposed ratification. But these designations were not political parties and Federalist and Anti-Federalist Americans alike supported Washington for President.

Federalist Candidates[edit]

Anti-Federalist candidates[edit]

General election[edit]

Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage of the winning candidate in each county. Shades of yellow are for the Federalists.

In the absence of political parties, there was no formal nomination process. The framers of the Constitution had presumed that Washington would be the first president, and once he agreed to come out of retirement to accept the office, there was no opposition to him.

Less certain was the choice for the vice presidency, which the Constitution stipulated would be awarded to the runner-up in the presidential election. Because Washington was from Virginia, many assumed that a vice president would be chosen from one of the northern states to ease sectional tensions. In an August 1788 letter, U.S. Minister to France Thomas Jefferson wrote that he considered John Adams and John Hancock, both prominent citizens from Massachusetts, to be the top contenders. Jefferson suggested John Jay, James Madison, and John Rutledge as other possible candidates.[1]

Electors were chosen by the individual states, and each cast one vote for Washington. The electors used their second vote to cast a scattering of votes: while Adams won a plurality of these votes, a majority of the 69 electors voted for a candidate other than Adams. This was due largely to a scheme perpetrated by Alexander Hamilton, who feared that Adams would tie with Washington, throwing the election to the House of Representatives and embarrassing Washington and the new Constitution. Thus, Adams received only 34 of 69 votes, with the remaining 35 ballots split between ten other candidates.

As the electors were being selected, rumors spread that there was an Anti-Federalist plot afoot to elect Richard Henry Lee or Patrick Henry president over Washington, with George Clinton as their choice for vice president. These rumors may have been encouraged by those sympathetic to the Federalists, who wished to discourage electors from voting for Clinton. If so, this strategy was effective: Clinton received only three electoral votes, possibly due to the fear that a vote for Clinton was effectively a vote against Washington.[2]

Only ten states out of the original thirteen cast electoral votes in this election. North Carolina and Rhode Island were ineligible to participate as they had not yet ratified the United States Constitution. New York failed to appoint its allotment of eight electors because of a deadlock in the state legislature.


Popular vote[edit]

Popular Vote(a), (b), (c)
Count Percentage
Federalist electors 39,624 90.5%
Anti-Federalist electors 4,158 9.5%
Total 43,782 100.0%

Source: U.S. President National Vote. Our Campaigns. (February 11, 2006).

(a) Only 6 of the 10 states casting electoral votes chose electors by any form of popular vote.
(b) Less than 1.8% of the population voted: the 1790 Census would count a total population of 3.0 million with a free population of 2.4 million and 600,000 slaves in those states casting electoral votes in this election.
(c) Those states that did choose electors by popular vote had widely varying restrictions on suffrage via property requirements.

Electoral vote[edit]

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote(a), (b), (c) Electoral vote(d), (e), (f)
Count Percentage
George Washington Independent Virginia 43,782 100.0% 69
John Adams Federalist Massachusetts 34
John Jay Federalist New York 9
Robert H. Harrison Federalist Maryland 6
John Rutledge Federalist South Carolina 6
John Hancock Federalist Massachusetts 4
George Clinton Anti-Federalist New York 3
Samuel Huntington Federalist Connecticut 2
John Milton Federalist Georgia 2
James Armstrong(g) Federalist Georgia(g) 1
Benjamin Lincoln Federalist Massachusetts 1
Edward Telfair Anti-Federalist Georgia 1
Total 43,782 100.0% 138
Needed to win 35

Source: "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 30, 2005.  Source (Popular Vote): A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787-1825[3]

(a) Only 6 of the 10 states casting electoral votes chose electors by any form of popular vote.
(c) Those states that did choose electors by popular vote had widely varying restrictions on suffrage via property requirements.
(d) The New York legislature failed to appoint its allotted 8 electors in time, so there were no voting electors from New York.
(e) Two electors from Maryland did not vote.
(f) One elector from Virginia did not vote and another elector from Virginia was not chosen because an election district failed to submit returns.
(g) The identity of this candidate comes from The Documentary History of the First Federal Elections (Gordon DenBoer (ed.), University of Wisconsin Press, 1984, p. 441). Several respected sources, including the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress and the Political Graveyard, instead show this individual to be James Armstrong of Pennsylvania. However, primary sources, such as the Senate Journal, list only Armstrong's name, not his state. Skeptics observe that Armstrong received his single vote from a Georgia elector. They find this improbable because Armstrong of Pennsylvania was not nationally famous—his public service to that date consisted of being a medical officer during the American Revolution and, at most, a single year as a Pennsylvania judge.

Results by state[edit]

George Washington
George Washington
State Total
State electoral
#  % electoral
#  % electoral
Connecticut 7 no popular vote 7 no popular vote - CT
Delaware 3 685 100 3 no ballots 685 DE
Georgia 5 no popular vote 4 no popular vote 1 - GA
Maryland 8 5,539 71.63 6 2,193 28.37 - 7,732 MD
Massachusetts 10 17,740 100 10 no ballots 17,740 MA
New Hampshire 5 5,909 100 5 no ballots 5,909 NH
New Jersey 6 no popular vote 6 no popular vote - NJ
New York 8 did not participate (legislature deadlocked) - NY
North Carolina 7 did not participate (did not ratify Constitution) - NC
Pennsylvania 10 6,711 90.90 10 672 9.10 - 7,383 PA
Rhode Island 3 did not participate (did not ratify Constitution) - RI
South Carolina 7 no popular vote 7 no popular vote - SC
Virginia 12 3,040 70.16 7 1,293 29.84 3 4,333 VA
TOTALS: 91 39,624 90.50 65 4,158 9.50 4 43,782 US
TO WIN: 35

Electoral college selection[edit]

The Constitution, in Article II, Section 1, provided that the state legislatures should decide the manner in which their Electors were chosen. Different state legislatures chose different methods:[4]

Method of choosing electors State(s)
each elector appointed by the state legislature Connecticut
New Jersey
New York(a)
South Carolina
  • two electors appointed by state legislature
  • each remaining elector chosen by state legislature from list of top two vote-getters in each congressional district
each elector chosen by voters statewide; however, if no candidate wins majority, state legislature appoints elector from top two candidates New Hampshire
state is divided into electoral districts, with one elector chosen per district by the voters of that district Virginia(b)
electors chosen at large by voters Maryland
state had not yet ratified the Constitution, so was not eligible to choose electors North Carolina
Rhode Island

(a) New York's legislature deadlocked, so no electors were chosen.
(b) One electoral district failed to choose an elector.

See also[edit]



External links[edit]