1968 United States presidential election in Indiana

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1968 United States presidential election in Indiana

← 1964 November 5, 1968 1972 →
  Richard Nixon portrait.jpg Hubert Humphrey crop.jpg George C Wallace.jpg
Nominee Richard Nixon Hubert Humphrey George Wallace
Party Republican Democratic American Independent
Home state New York[a] Minnesota Alabama
Running mate Spiro Agnew Edmund Muskie Curtis LeMay
Electoral vote 13 0 0
Popular vote 1,067,885 806,659 243,108
Percentage 50.29% 37.99% 11.45%

President before election

Lyndon B. Johnson
Democratic

Elected President

Richard Nixon
Republican

The 1968 United States presidential election in Indiana was held on November 5th, 1968. Indiana voters chose thirteen representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice-President.

Background[edit]

Indiana had been a traditionally Republican state that had turned away from Barry Goldwater in 1964 due to powerful hostility to Goldwater’s Black Belt leanings from its Yankee and Appalachia-influenced Northern and Southern regions,[1] despite having been the centre of a Democratic primary challenge from segregationist Alabama Governor George Wallace that attracted considerable support in towns that would soon become part of the “Rust Belt”.[2] However, Wallace lost by worse than one-to-two against solitary opponent Matthew E. Welsh in Indiana[3] and unlike in Maryland his Indiana support was mostly among the middle classes.[4]

In the mid-term elections, the Republicans made major gains in Southern Indiana with its Appalachia influence[5] and in the significantly German central section, but did less well in the north of the state.

1968 saw Indiana – for the second consecutive election – as the center of a major primary battle, this time involving Bobby Kennedy (who was to be assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan that June). Like his brother John, Bobby was interested in entering a primary in a highly Protestant and Southern-influenced state to test his strength.[6] as JFK had done in West Virginia. RFK would win the state, but his performance was regarded as disappointing especially in white urban areas where he was outpolled by Eugene McCarthy.[7]

Vote[edit]

Nixon was able, as expected,[8] to restore Indiana’s Republican dominance, defeating Humphrey by 12.30 percentage points.[9] Wallace, in a state with considerable “Southern” influence,[10] had some late October polls place him even with Humphrey at around 20 percent,[11] but the former Alabama Governor would lose almost half of this by polling day. Wallace gained his most substantial support in urban ethnic districts where resentment of blacks and recent race riots had become substantial over the previous two years,[12] but did not do so well elsewhere in the state since – like Goldwater – he was viewed as too aligned with the Deep South.

Results[edit]

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
vote
Running mate
Count Percentage Vice-presidential candidate Home state Electoral vote
Richard Nixon Republican New York 1,067,885 50.29% 13 Spiro Agnew Maryland 13
Hubert Humphrey Democrat Minnesota 806,659 37.99% 0 Edmund Muskie Maine 0
George Wallace George Wallace Party Alabama 243,108 11.45% 0 S. Marvin Griffin Georgia 0
Earle Harold Munn Prohibition Michigan 4,616 0.22% 0 Rolland Fisher Kansas 0
Fred Halstead Socialist Workers California 1,293 0.06% 0 Paul Boutelle New York 0
Dick Gregory Write-in Illinois 36 0.00% 0 0
Total 2,123,597 100% 13 13
Needed to win 270 270

Results by county[edit]

Richard Milhous Nixon
Republican
Hubert Horatio Humphrey
Democratic
George Corley Wallace
George Wallace Party
Various candidates
Other parties
Margin Total votes cast
County # % # % # % # % # % #
Adams 5,774 51.28% 4,667 41.45% 762 6.77% 56 0.50% 1,107 9.83% 11,259
Allen 59,211 54.34% 40,411 37.09% 9,121 8.37% 211 0.19% 18,800 17.25% 108,954
Bartholomew 13,628 55.80% 8,268 33.85% 2,438 9.98% 90 0.37% 5,360 21.95% 24,424
Benton 3,326 59.54% 1,854 33.19% 400 7.16% 6 0.11% 1,472 26.35% 5,586
Blackford 3,052 46.92% 2,898 44.56% 534 8.21% 20 0.31% 154 2.37% 6,504
Boone 7,905 58.96% 4,118 30.72% 1,346 10.04% 38 0.28% 3,787 28.25% 13,407
Brown 1,881 49.41% 1,327 34.86% 587 15.42% 12 0.32% 554 14.55% 3,807
Carroll 4,796 56.19% 2,816 32.99% 918 10.76% 5 0.06% 1,980 23.20% 8,535
Cass 9,441 51.54% 7,142 38.99% 1,678 9.16% 57 0.31% 2,299 12.55% 18,318
Clark 10,305 38.33% 11,493 42.75% 4,982 18.53% 106 0.39% -1,188 -4.42% 26,886
Clay 5,743 50.83% 3,956 35.02% 1,569 13.89% 30 0.27% 1,787 15.82% 11,298
Clinton 7,929 53.91% 5,714 38.85% 1,033 7.02% 31 0.21% 2,215 15.06% 14,707
Crawford 2,132 49.81% 1,536 35.89% 589 13.76% 23 0.54% 596 13.93% 4,280
Daviess 7,036 56.77% 4,071 32.85% 1,274 10.28% 12 0.10% 2,965 23.92% 12,393
Dearborn 6,208 48.65% 4,842 37.95% 1,704 13.35% 6 0.05% 1,366 10.71% 12,760
Decatur 5,474 55.67% 3,602 36.63% 731 7.43% 26 0.26% 1,872 19.04% 9,833
DeKalb 7,650 56.93% 4,790 35.65% 931 6.93% 67 0.50% 2,860 21.28% 13,438
Delaware 23,554 47.56% 19,532 39.44% 6,349 12.82% 88 0.18% 4,022 8.12% 49,523
Dubois 5,865 43.24% 6,725 49.58% 958 7.06% 15 0.11% -860 -6.34% 13,563
Elkhart 24,484 57.90% 14,222 33.63% 3,440 8.13% 143 0.34% 10,262 24.27% 42,289
Fayette 5,286 46.92% 4,549 40.38% 1,413 12.54% 18 0.16% 737 6.54% 11,266
Floyd 9,714 40.99% 10,671 45.02% 3,266 13.78% 50 0.21% -957 -4.04% 23,701
Fountain 5,110 53.02% 3,237 33.59% 1,280 13.28% 10 0.10% 1,873 19.44% 9,637
Franklin 3,468 52.28% 2,386 35.97% 775 11.68% 5 0.08% 1,082 16.31% 6,634
Fulton 5,145 60.72% 2,561 30.22% 757 8.93% 11 0.13% 2,584 30.49% 8,474
Gibson 7,645 47.91% 6,777 42.47% 1,497 9.38% 38 0.24% 868 5.44% 15,957
Grant 16,170 52.46% 10,938 35.48% 3,602 11.68% 116 0.38% 5,232 16.97% 30,826
Greene 6,525 48.37% 5,493 40.72% 1,419 10.52% 54 0.40% 1,032 7.65% 13,491
Hamilton 14,250 67.63% 4,586 21.77% 2,202 10.45% 31 0.15% 9,664 45.87% 21,069
Hancock 7,516 56.23% 3,902 29.19% 1,896 14.19% 52 0.39% 3,614 27.04% 13,366
Harrison 4,410 45.32% 3,725 38.28% 1,557 16.00% 39 0.40% 685 7.04% 9,731
Hendricks 12,597 59.89% 5,155 24.51% 3,231 15.36% 49 0.23% 7,442 35.38% 21,032
Henry 11,626 52.61% 8,045 36.41% 2,366 10.71% 60 0.27% 3,581 16.21% 22,097
Howard 15,905 50.39% 11,026 34.93% 4,507 14.28% 128 0.41% 4,879 15.46% 31,566
Huntington 9,002 54.48% 6,238 37.75% 1,250 7.57% 33 0.20% 2,764 16.73% 16,523
Jackson 7,710 52.02% 5,140 34.68% 1,891 12.76% 80 0.54% 2,570 17.34% 14,821
Jasper 4,996 60.54% 2,201 26.67% 1,003 12.15% 52 0.63% 2,795 33.87% 8,252
Jay 5,460 51.00% 4,290 40.07% 918 8.58% 37 0.35% 1,170 10.93% 10,705
Jefferson 5,731 49.31% 4,635 39.88% 1,196 10.29% 61 0.52% 1,096 9.43% 11,623
Jennings 4,416 51.11% 2,996 34.68% 1,214 14.05% 14 0.16% 1,420 16.44% 8,640
Johnson 12,089 57.26% 5,946 28.17% 3,021 14.31% 55 0.26% 6,143 29.10% 21,111
Knox 8,369 46.97% 7,297 40.95% 2,053 11.52% 99 0.56% 1,072 6.02% 17,818
Kosciusko 12,633 63.98% 5,342 27.06% 1,700 8.61% 69 0.35% 7,291 36.93% 19,744
LaGrange 3,328 61.54% 1,691 31.27% 380 7.03% 9 0.17% 1,637 30.27% 5,408
Lake 77,911 36.48% 99,897 46.77% 35,099 16.43% 667 0.31% -21,986 -10.29% 213,574
LaPorte 20,295 49.76% 15,780 38.69% 4,587 11.25% 121 0.30% 4,515 11.07% 40,783
Lawrence 8,830 54.35% 5,349 32.92% 1,995 12.28% 74 0.46% 3,481 21.42% 16,248
Madison 28,726 48.39% 23,886 40.23% 6,613 11.14% 143 0.24% 4,840 8.15% 59,368
Marion 162,503 52.26% 115,715 37.22% 32,043 10.31% 661 0.21% 46,788 15.05% 310,922
Marshall 9,290 56.67% 5,385 32.85% 1,685 10.28% 34 0.21% 3,905 23.82% 16,394
Martin 2,512 46.22% 2,315 42.59% 604 11.11% 4 0.07% 197 3.62% 5,435
Miami 7,295 53.42% 5,019 36.76% 1,294 9.48% 47 0.34% 2,276 16.67% 13,655
Monroe 13,752 50.78% 10,789 39.84% 2,361 8.72% 178 0.66% 2,963 10.94% 27,080
Montgomery 9,085 59.87% 4,752 31.31% 1,309 8.63% 29 0.19% 4,333 28.55% 15,175
Morgan 8,944 55.45% 4,042 25.06% 3,122 19.36% 22 0.14% 4,902 30.39% 16,130
Newton 3,145 61.75% 1,453 28.53% 483 9.48% 12 0.24% 1,692 33.22% 5,093
Noble 6,699 51.35% 5,075 38.90% 1,253 9.60% 19 0.15% 1,624 12.45% 13,046
Ohio 1,053 46.04% 991 43.33% 243 10.63% 0 0.00% 62 2.71% 2,287
Orange 4,666 54.82% 2,918 34.28% 915 10.75% 13 0.15% 1,748 20.54% 8,512
Owen 2,898 51.58% 1,932 34.39% 776 13.81% 12 0.21% 966 17.19% 5,618
Parke 3,738 52.47% 2,472 34.70% 907 12.73% 7 0.10% 1,266 17.77% 7,124
Perry 4,211 46.23% 4,343 47.68% 547 6.01% 7 0.08% -132 -1.45% 9,108
Pike 3,087 45.38% 2,953 43.41% 745 10.95% 17 0.25% 134 1.97% 6,802
Porter 17,328 53.18% 8,914 27.36% 6,126 18.80% 214 0.66% 8,414 25.82% 32,582
Posey 5,045 49.70% 3,889 38.32% 1,204 11.86% 12 0.12% 1,156 11.39% 10,150
Pulaski 3,361 54.80% 2,071 33.77% 681 11.10% 20 0.33% 1,290 21.03% 6,133
Putnam 5,873 51.47% 3,692 32.36% 1,826 16.00% 19 0.17% 2,181 19.11% 11,410
Randolph 7,238 57.14% 3,962 31.28% 1,431 11.30% 36 0.28% 3,276 25.86% 12,667
Ripley 5,389 51.82% 3,787 36.42% 1,215 11.68% 8 0.08% 1,602 15.41% 10,399
Rush 5,004 59.42% 2,636 31.30% 761 9.04% 20 0.24% 2,368 28.12% 8,421
Saint Joseph 47,114 44.09% 47,414 44.37% 11,948 11.18% 388 0.36% -300 -0.28% 106,864
Scott 2,671 42.62% 2,796 44.61% 784 12.51% 16 0.26% -125 -1.99% 6,267
Shelby 8,574 52.84% 5,417 33.38% 2,205 13.59% 30 0.18% 3,157 19.46% 16,226
Spencer 4,603 51.18% 3,767 41.89% 612 6.81% 11 0.12% 836 9.30% 8,993
Starke 4,011 47.95% 3,208 38.35% 1,097 13.11% 49 0.59% 803 9.60% 8,365
Steuben 4,762 62.51% 2,268 29.77% 577 7.57% 11 0.14% 2,494 32.74% 7,618
Sullivan 4,266 43.20% 4,453 45.10% 1,135 11.49% 20 0.20% -187 -1.89% 9,874
Switzerland 1,515 44.07% 1,466 42.64% 452 13.15% 5 0.15% 49 1.43% 3,438
Tippecanoe 24,352 59.44% 14,528 35.46% 2,000 4.88% 88 0.21% 9,824 23.98% 40,968
Tipton 4,270 54.73% 2,646 33.91% 861 11.04% 25 0.32% 1,624 20.82% 7,802
Union 1,691 56.01% 920 30.47% 404 13.38% 4 0.13% 771 25.54% 3,019
Vanderburgh 38,231 49.28% 31,326 40.38% 7,737 9.97% 283 0.36% 6,905 8.90% 77,577
Vermillion 3,607 41.76% 3,845 44.52% 1,175 13.60% 10 0.12% -238 -2.76% 8,637
Vigo 20,814 44.60% 20,328 43.56% 5,386 11.54% 136 0.29% 486 1.04% 46,664
Wabash 8,611 61.07% 4,598 32.61% 836 5.93% 56 0.40% 4,013 28.46% 14,101
Warren 2,475 57.00% 1,375 31.67% 483 11.12% 9 0.21% 1,100 25.33% 4,342
Warrick 5,742 47.53% 4,784 39.60% 1,503 12.44% 52 0.43% 958 7.93% 12,081
Washington 3,891 48.61% 2,936 36.68% 1,143 14.28% 34 0.42% 955 11.93% 8,004
Wayne 17,335 53.66% 10,686 33.08% 4,240 13.12% 47 0.15% 6,649 20.58% 32,308
Wells 5,361 53.07% 3,827 37.89% 882 8.73% 31 0.31% 1,534 15.19% 10,101
White 5,932 57.56% 3,395 32.95% 965 9.36% 13 0.13% 2,537 24.62% 10,305
Whitley 5,684 53.27% 3,848 36.06% 1,120 10.50% 19 0.18% 1,836 17.21% 10,671
Totals 1,067,885 50.29% 806,659 37.99% 243,108 11.45% 5,945 0.28% 261,226 12.30% 2,123,597

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Although he was born in California and he served as a U.S. Senator from California, in 1968 Richard Nixon’s official state of residence was New York, because he moved there to practice law after his defeat in the 1962 California gubernatorial election. During his first term as president, Nixon re-established his residency in California. Consequently, most reliable reference books list Nixon's home state as New York in the 1968 election and his home state as California in the 1972 (and 1960) election.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Phillips, Kevin P.; The Emerging Republican Majority, pp. 363-364, 397 ISBN 9780691163246
  2. ^ Welsh, Matthew E.; ‘Civil Rights and the Primary Election of 1964 in Indiana: The Wallace Challenge’; Indiana Magazine of History, vol. 75, no. 1 (March 1979), pp. 1-27
  3. ^ Lesher, Stephan (1994). George Wallace: American Populist, p. 295 ISBN 0-201-62210-6
  4. ^ Conway; M. Margaret; ‘The White Backlash Re-examined: Wallace and the 1964 Primaries’; Social Science Quarterly, vol. 49, no. 3: Black America (December, 1968), pp. 710-719
  5. ^ Phillips, The Emerging Republican Majority, p. 366
  6. ^ Boomhower, Ray E. Robert F. Kennedy and the 1968 Indiana Primary, pp. 6-7 ISBN 0253007755
  7. ^ Cohen, Michael A.; American Maelstrom: The 1968 Election and Politics of Division, p. 130 ISBN 019977756X
  8. ^ ‘Electoral Vote: Nixon 359, HHH 46’; Boston Globe, October 7, 1968, p. 24
  9. ^ Leip, David. "1968 Presidential General Election Results – Indiana". Dave Leip’s Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
  10. ^ Phillips, The Emerging Republican Majority, p. 344
  11. ^ Mobley, Willard; ‘Nixon Has Edge In 26 States’; Boston Globe, October 20, 1968, p. 22
  12. ^ Shaffer, William R. and Caputo, David A.; ‘Political Continuity in Indiana Presidential Elections: An Analysis Based on the Key-Munger Paradigm’; Midwest Journal of Political Science, vol. 16, no. 4 (November 1972), pp. 700-711