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2012 United States presidential election in Iowa

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2012 United States presidential election in Iowa

← 2008 November 6, 2012 2016 →
 
Nominee Barack Obama Mitt Romney
Party Democratic Republican
Home state Illinois Massachusetts
Running mate Joe Biden Paul Ryan
Electoral vote 6 0
Popular vote 822,544 730,617
Percentage 51.99% 46.18%


President before election

Barack Obama
Democratic

Elected President

Barack Obama
Democratic

The 2012 United States presidential election in Iowa took place on November 6, 2012, as part of the 2012 United States presidential election in which all 50 states plus the District of Columbia participated. Iowa voters chose six electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama and his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, against Republican challenger and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney and his running mate, Congressman Paul Ryan.

Obama won Iowa with 51.99% of the vote to Romney's 46.18%, a Democratic victory margin of 5.81% - a markedly closer result than in 2008, when the Democrats won Iowa with a margin of 9.54%. Romney picked up wins in 16 counties that Obama had won in 2008, most of which were in the western half of the state, while only one county, (Woodbury), flipped in the opposite direction.

As of the 2020 presidential election, this is the last time that a Democratic presidential nominee has carried Iowa, any of its congressional districts, or the following counties: Allamakee, Boone, Bremer, Buchanan, Cedar, Cerro Gordo, Chickasaw, Clarke, Clayton, Clinton, Des Moines, Dubuque, Fayette, Floyd, Howard, Jackson, Jasper, Jefferson, Jones, Lee, Louisa, Marshall, Mitchell, Muscatine, Poweshiek, Tama, Union, Wapello, Webster, Winneshiek, Woodbury, and Worth. This also remains the last election where Iowa voted to the left of Ohio, Florida, Virginia, North Carolina, Arizona, Georgia, Pennsylvania, Colorado, Texas or New Hampshire.

Caucuses

[edit]

Democratic caucuses

[edit]
2012 Iowa Democratic presidential caucuses

← 2008 January 3, 2012 (2012-01-03) 2016 →
 
Candidate Barack Obama Uncommitted
Home state Illinois N/A
Delegate count 62 3
SDEs 8,065 87
Percentage (of SDEs) 95% 5%

On January 3, 2012, the Iowa Democratic Party held statewide caucuses to select delegates to the county conventions.[1] Incumbent Barack Obama ran unopposed.[1] However, caucus goers also had the option of voting "uncommitted" rather than supporting Obama, and some Occupy movement and anti-war activists urged Democrats to vote "uncommitted" in protest of the Obama administration.[2][3][4] Of the 8,152 county convention delegates that were elected by the caucuses, 8,065 (99%) were for Obama and 87 (1%) were uncommitted.[5] In the floor vote taken at the Democratic National Convention, 62 Iowa state delegates voted for Obama.[6] The other 3 of the state's 65 allocated votes were not announced.[6]

Republican caucuses

[edit]
2012 Iowa Republican presidential caucuses

← 2008 January 3, 2012 (2012-01-03) 2016 →
 
Candidate Ron Paul Mitt Romney Rick Santorum
Home state Texas Massachusetts Pennsylvania
Delegate count 22 6 0
Popular vote 26,036 29,805 29,839
Percentage 21.43% 24.53% 24.56%

 
Candidate Newt Gingrich Rick Perry
Home state Georgia Texas
Delegate count 0 0
Popular vote 16,163 12,557
Percentage 13.30% 10.33%

Santorum:      20–30%      30–40%      60–70%
Romney:      20–30%      30–40%
Paul:      20–30%      30–40%      40–50%
Perry:      20–30%      30–40%
Tie:      20–30%

The 2012 Iowa Republican presidential caucuses took place on January 3, 2012.

Using the media's generally accepted definition of the Iowa Republican caucus as the non-binding secret polling at caucus sites and using the incomplete data available, the 2012 Iowa Republican caucus was the closest race in Iowa caucus history with only a thirty-four vote margin (about 3100th of a percent) separating former Senator Rick Santorum of Pennsylvania, who received 29,839 votes (24.56%), and former Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney, who received 29,805 votes (24.53%). Representative Ron Paul of Texas ran a close third, receiving 26,036 votes (21.43%).

Trailing were former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich (16,163 votes, 13.30%), Texas governor Rick Perry (12,557 votes, 10.33%), and Representative Michele Bachmann (6,046 votes, 4.98%). Former Utah governor and ambassador to China Jon Huntsman, Jr., who skipped campaigning in Iowa to focus on the New Hampshire primary,[7] received 739 votes (0.61%).[8]

In total, 121,501 votes were recorded,[8] setting a record for Iowa Republican caucus turnout;[9] this record was broken in the 2016 election by more than 60,000 votes.[10] However, this total was still far less than the all-time Iowa caucus record in the 2008 Democratic Iowa caucuses, in which 239,000 Democrats voted. The 121,501 votes represent 19.8 percent of active registered Republicans in the state[11] and just 5.4 percent of all Iowans eligible to vote.[12]

However, the vote totals of eight precincts were never counted, so the vote totals are not really known.

The secret polling results at Republican caucus sites were unrelated to the delegate selection process in 2012, although that has been changed for the 2016 election cycle.

If the Iowa 2012 Republican caucuses were regarded as the start of the Republican delegate selection process for the 2012 United States presidential election, the real caucus process was the election of Republican delegates to the county conventions, who would eventually determine the delegates at the state convention in June 2012. This would, in turn, determine the Iowa delegates who would attend the Republican National Convention in August, 2012.

This process rewarded campaign organizations that could not only get supporters to the caucus sites, but get supporters who would be willing to serve as delegates to county conventions and beyond. As a result, Ron Paul was ultimately able to win 22 of the 28 delegates to the national convention and Mitt Romney won the other six.[8]

The 2011–2012 pre-caucus poll results for Iowa had highly volatile results; Gallup polls showed the leading candidate in Iowa change seven times from May 2011 until the caucuses.[13] The 2012 caucuses also set a new record for political expenditures, with $12 million being spent, two-thirds of it from "super PACs" which dominated the campaigns by running highly negative attack ads.[14]

In the August 13 Ames Straw Poll, a traditional straw poll held in Iowa Republican caucuses, Bachmann narrowly defeated Paul, with Minnesota governor Tim Pawlenty trailing in third. Following his disappointing showing, Pawlenty dropped out of the race.[15][16]

Three candidates' debates were held in Iowa over the course the campaign: one on August 11 in Ames ahead of the straw poll; one on December 10, 2011, in Des Moines, and one on December 15 in Sioux City. Several other joint candidates' appearances took place during the caucus campaign outside Iowa.[17]

The day after her unsatisfactory sixth-place performance in Iowa, Bachmann announced she was dropping out of the presidential race.[18][19] Following his low fifth-place finish, Perry initially announced he was "reassessing" his campaign "to determine whether there is a path forward," but subsequently stated that he would continue on to New Hampshire and South Carolina.[20][21][22][23]

Iowa Republican caucuses, January 3, 2012[8]
Candidate Votes Percentage Projected delegate count Actual
delegates
CNN
[24]
FOX
[25]
Rick Santorum 29,839 24.56% 7 12 0
Mitt Romney 29,805 24.53% 7 12 6
Ron Paul 26,036 21.43% 7 0 22
Newt Gingrich 16,163 13.30% 2 0 0
Rick Perry 12,557 10.33% 0 0 0
Michele Bachmann 6,046 4.98% 0 0 0
Jon Huntsman 739 0.61% 0 0 0
Herman Cain (write-in) 45 0.04% 0 0 0
Sarah Palin (write-in) 23 0.02% 0 0 0
Buddy Roemer (write-in) 17 0.01% 0 0 0
Fred Karger (write-in) 10 0.01% 0 0 0
Gary Johnson (write-in) 8 0.01% 0 0 0
Donald Trump (write-in) 5 0.00% 0 0 0
Paul Ryan (write-in) 3 0.00% 0 0 0
Rudy Giuliani (write-in) 2 0.00% 0 0 0
Mike Huckabee (write-in) 2 0.00% 0 0 0
Ben Lange (write-in) 2 0.00% 0 0 0
Roy Moore (write-in) 2 0.00% 0 0 0
Tim Pawlenty (write-in) 2 0.00% 0 0 0
Condoleezza Rice (write-in) 2 0.00% 0 0 0
Jared Blankenship (write-in) 1 0.00% 0 0 0
Pat Buchanan (write-in) 1 0.00% 0 0 0
John McCain (write-in) 1 0.00% 0 0 0
Ralph Nader (write-in) 1 0.00% 0 0 0
Robert Ray (write-in) 1 0.00% 0 0 0
Scott Walker (write-in) 1 0.00% 0 0 0
No Preference 147 0.12% 0 0 0
Other 40 0.03% 0 0 0
Unprojected delegates: 5 4
Total: 121,501 100.00% 28 28 28

General election

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Candidates

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There were eight candidates on the Iowa ballot in the general election: the two major-party candidates (Barack Obama and Mitt Romney) and six minor candidates.[26]

Polling

[edit]

Analysts considered Iowa to be a toss-up state—one which either major candidate could plausibly win.[30] A majority of statewide opinion polls have shown Obama tied with or leading Romney.[31] As of October 22, 2012, polling aggregator FiveThirtyEight estimates that there is a 66% likelihood that Obama will win Iowa's electoral votes.[32] Up until September 2012, polling showed a close race with Obama narrowly leading. In late September 2012, Obama gained momentum and this continued through the first three weeks of October 2012, where he won almost every poll in that time period. In October, when Romney gained momentum in other states, Obama won the majority of the polls conducted. Romney ended up winning the second to last poll, but other than that, Obama won every poll in the last week. The final poll showed Obama leading 50% to 48%, while an average of the last 3 polls showed Obama leading 48% to 46%.[33]

Results

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2012 United States presidential election in Iowa[34]
Party Candidate Running mate Votes Percentage Electoral votes
Democratic Barack Obama (incumbent) Joe Biden (incumbent) 822,544 51.99% 6
Republican Mitt Romney Paul Ryan 730,617 46.18% 0
Libertarian Gary Johnson Jim Gray 12,926 0.82% 0
Green Jill Stein Cheri Honkala 3,769 0.24% 0
Constitution Virgil Goode Jim Clymer 3,038 0.19% 0
Independent Jerry Litzel Jim Litzel 1,196 0.07% 0
Socialist Workers James Harris Alyson Kennedy 445 0.03% 0
Socialism and Liberation Gloria La Riva Stefanie Beacham 372 0.02% 0
Others Others Write-Ins 8,469 0.53% 0
Totals 1,582,180 100.00% 6

By county

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Barack Obama won 38 counties and Mitt Romney won 61 counties. Barack Obama won majorities in terms of the popular vote percentages in 35 counties and won pluralities in terms of the popular vote percentages in 3 counties. Mitt Romney won majorites in terms of the popular vote percentages in 57 counties and won pluralities in terms of the popular vote percentages in 4 counties.

County Barack Obama
Democratic
Mitt Romney
Republican
Various candidates
Other parties
Margin Total votes cast
# % # % # % # %
Adair 1,790 44.79% 2,114 52.90% 92 2.31% -324 -8.11% 3,996
Adams 1,028 47.05% 1,108 50.71% 49 2.24% -80 -3.66% 2,185
Allamakee 3,553 51.24% 3,264 47.07% 117 1.69% 289 4.17% 6,934
Appanoose 2,951 47.25% 3,161 50.62% 133 2.13% -210 -3.37% 6,245
Audubon 1,611 46.60% 1,802 52.13% 44 1.27% -191 -5.53% 3,457
Benton 6,862 48.93% 6,940 49.49% 221 1.58% -78 -0.56% 14,023
Black Hawk 39,821 59.31% 26,235 39.07% 1,085 1.62% 13,586 20.24% 67,141
Boone 7,512 52.21% 6,556 45.57% 320 2.22% 956 6.64% 14,388
Bremer 6,763 50.67% 6,405 47.99% 178 1.34% 358 2.68% 13,346
Buchanan 5,911 56.11% 4,450 42.24% 174 1.65% 1,461 13.87% 10,535
Buena Vista 3,700 44.14% 4,554 54.32% 129 1.54% -854 -10.18% 8,383
Butler 3,329 44.12% 4,106 54.42% 110 1.46% -777 -10.30% 7,545
Calhoun 2,238 42.79% 2,891 55.28% 101 1.93% -653 -12.49% 5,230
Carroll 4,947 46.35% 5,601 52.47% 126 1.18% -654 -6.12% 10,674
Cass 2,858 39.67% 4,217 58.53% 130 1.80% -1,359 -18.86% 7,205
Cedar 4,972 51.53% 4,529 46.94% 148 1.53% 443 4.59% 9,649
Cerro Gordo 13,316 55.89% 10,128 42.51% 380 1.60% 3,188 13.38% 23,824
Cherokee 2,634 41.06% 3,662 57.08% 119 1.86% -1,028 -16.02% 6,415
Chickasaw 3,554 54.81% 2,836 43.74% 94 1.45% 718 11.07% 6,484
Clarke 2,189 49.41% 2,124 47.95% 117 2.64% 65 1.46% 4,430
Clay 3,385 39.81% 4,951 58.23% 166 1.96% -1,566 -18.42% 8,502
Clayton 4,806 52.59% 4,164 45.57% 168 1.84% 642 7.02% 9,138
Clinton 15,141 60.56% 9,432 37.73% 427 1.71% 5,709 22.83% 25,000
Crawford 3,066 45.41% 3,595 53.24% 91 1.35% -529 -7.83% 6,752
Dallas 16,576 43.49% 20,988 55.06% 552 1.45% -4,412 -11.57% 38,116
Davis 1,520 40.29% 2,138 56.67% 115 3.04% -618 -16.38% 3,773
Decatur 1,791 46.73% 1,947 50.80% 95 2.47% -156 -4.07% 3,833
Delaware 4,616 49.22% 4,636 49.43% 126 1.35% -20 -0.21% 9,378
Des Moines 11,888 58.32% 8,136 39.91% 361 1.77% 3,752 18.41% 20,385
Dickinson 4,095 40.31% 5,912 58.19% 152 1.50% -1,817 -17.88% 10,159
Dubuque 28,768 56.53% 21,280 41.81% 846 1.66% 7,488 14.72% 50,894
Emmet 2,099 44.78% 2,507 53.49% 81 1.73% -408 -8.71% 4,687
Fayette 5,732 55.30% 4,492 43.33% 142 1.37% 1,240 11.97% 10,366
Floyd 4,680 56.68% 3,472 42.05% 105 1.27% 1,208 14.63% 8,257
Franklin 2,266 43.69% 2,823 54.44% 97 1.87% -557 -10.75% 5,186
Fremont 1,637 44.63% 1,972 53.76% 59 1.61% -335 -9.13% 3,668
Greene 2,375 49.01% 2,380 49.11% 91 1.88% -5 -0.10% 4,846
Grundy 2,635 37.85% 4,215 60.54% 112 1.61% -1,580 -22.69% 6,962
Guthrie 2,569 43.63% 3,171 53.86% 148 2.51% -602 -10.23% 5,888
Hamilton 3,782 47.71% 3,991 50.35% 154 1.94% -209 -2.64% 7,927
Hancock 2,521 42.55% 3,317 55.98% 87 1.47% -796 -13.43% 5,925
Hardin 4,075 45.80% 4,670 52.48% 153 1.72% -595 -6.68% 8,898
Harrison 3,136 42.83% 4,065 55.52% 121 1.65% -929 -12.69% 7,322
Henry 4,460 45.99% 5,035 51.92% 202 2.09% -575 -5.93% 9,697
Howard 2,768 59.59% 1,795 38.64% 82 1.77% 973 20.95% 4,645
Humboldt 1,972 38.23% 3,099 60.08% 87 1.69% -1,127 -21.85% 5,158
Ida 1,321 36.06% 2,286 62.41% 56 1.53% -965 -26.35% 3,663
Iowa 4,144 46.74% 4,569 51.53% 153 1.73% -425 -4.79% 8,866
Jackson 5,907 57.67% 4,177 40.78% 158 1.55% 1,730 16.89% 10,242
Jasper 10,257 52.56% 8,877 45.49% 381 1.95% 1,380 7.07% 19,515
Jefferson 4,798 56.25% 3,436 40.28% 296 3.47% 1,362 15.97% 8,530
Johnson 50,666 66.69% 23,698 31.19% 1,613 2.12% 26,968 35.50% 75,977
Jones 5,534 52.96% 4,721 45.18% 194 1.86% 813 7.78% 10,449
Keokuk 2,303 43.73% 2,843 53.99% 120 2.28% -540 -10.26% 5,266
Kossuth 3,850 43.15% 4,937 55.33% 136 1.52% -1,087 -12.18% 8,923
Lee 10,714 56.65% 7,785 41.17% 412 2.18% 2,929 15.48% 18,911
Linn 68,581 57.90% 47,622 40.20% 2,250 1.90% 20,959 17.70% 118,453
Louisa 2,452 49.36% 2,420 48.71% 96 1.93% 32 0.65% 4,968
Lucas 1,987 45.96% 2,254 52.14% 82 1.90% -267 -6.18% 4,323
Lyon 1,423 21.86% 4,978 76.48% 108 1.66% -3,555 -54.62% 6,509
Madison 3,630 42.92% 4,638 54.84% 190 2.24% -1,008 -11.92% 8,458
Mahaska 4,213 38.71% 6,448 59.25% 222 2.04% -2,235 -20.54% 10,883
Marion 7,507 42.44% 9,828 55.57% 352 1.99% -2,321 -13.13% 17,687
Marshall 10,257 53.80% 8,472 44.44% 335 1.76% 1,785 9.36% 19,064
Mills 2,848 39.49% 4,216 58.46% 148 2.05% -1,368 -18.97% 7,212
Mitchell 2,831 50.68% 2,643 47.31% 112 2.01% 188 3.37% 5,586
Monona 2,101 44.31% 2,557 53.92% 84 1.77% -456 -9.61% 4,742
Monroe 1,731 45.20% 2,026 52.90% 73 1.90% -295 -7.70% 3,830
Montgomery 1,922 38.25% 3,001 59.72% 102 2.03% -1,079 -21.47% 5,025
Muscatine 11,323 57.00% 8,168 41.12% 374 1.88% 3,155 15.88% 19,865
O'Brien 1,969 26.82% 5,266 71.73% 106 1.45% -3,297 -44.91% 7,341
Osceola 912 28.55% 2,230 69.82% 52 1.63% -1,318 -41.27% 3,194
Page 2,613 36.91% 4,348 61.42% 118 1.67% -1,735 -24.51% 7,079
Palo Alto 2,139 43.77% 2,660 54.43% 88 1.80% -521 -10.66% 4,887
Plymouth 4,164 32.15% 8,597 66.39% 189 1.46% -4,433 -34.24% 12,950
Pocahontas 1,523 37.77% 2,396 59.42% 113 2.81% -873 -21.65% 4,032
Polk 128,465 56.13% 96,096 41.98% 4,321 1.89% 32,369 14.15% 228,882
Pottawattamie 19,644 46.44% 21,860 51.68% 797 1.88% -2,216 -5.24% 42,301
Poweshiek 5,357 53.70% 4,424 44.35% 194 1.95% 933 9.35% 9,975
Ringgold 1,186 45.63% 1,368 52.64% 45 1.73% -182 -7.01% 2,599
Sac 2,122 40.11% 3,094 58.48% 75 1.41% -972 -18.37% 5,291
Scott 50,652 56.12% 38,251 42.38% 1,360 1.50% 12,401 13.74% 90,263
Shelby 2,469 38.08% 3,911 60.33% 103 1.59% -1,442 -22.25% 6,483
Sioux 2,700 15.60% 14,407 83.24% 201 1.16% -11,707 -67.64% 17,308
Story 26,192 55.55% 19,668 41.71% 1,290 2.74% 6,524 13.84% 47,150
Tama 4,768 52.88% 4,098 45.45% 151 1.67% 670 7.43% 9,017
Taylor 1,262 42.14% 1,683 56.19% 50 1.67% -421 -14.05% 2,995
Union 3,043 51.08% 2,813 47.22% 101 1.70% 230 3.86% 5,957
Van Buren 1,402 39.28% 2,064 57.83% 103 2.89% -662 -18.55% 3,569
Wapello 8,663 54.93% 6,789 43.05% 318 2.02% 1,874 11.88% 15,770
Warren 12,551 48.14% 13,052 50.06% 469 1.80% -501 -1.92% 26,072
Washington 5,115 46.48% 5,562 50.55% 327 2.97% -447 -4.07% 11,004
Wayne 1,251 43.14% 1,583 54.59% 66 2.27% -332 -11.45% 2,900
Webster 9,537 52.14% 8,469 46.30% 286 1.56% 1,068 5.84% 18,292
Winnebago 2,903 49.05% 2,906 49.10% 109 1.85% -3 -0.05% 5,918
Winneshiek 6,256 56.44% 4,622 41.70% 206 1.86% 1,634 14.74% 11,084
Woodbury 22,302 49.54% 21,841 48.52% 876 1.94% 461 1.02% 45,019
Worth 2,350 56.33% 1,744 41.80% 78 1.87% 606 14.53% 4,172
Wright 2,836 45.17% 3,349 53.35% 93 1.48% -513 -8.18% 6,278
Total 822,544 51.99% 730,617 46.18% 29,019 1.83% 91,927 5.81% 1,582,180
County Flips:

Counties that flipped from Democratic to Republican

[edit]

Counties that flipped from Republican to Democratic

[edit]

By congressional district

[edit]

Obama won 3 of the 4 congressional districts, including one held by a Republican.[35]

District Romney Obama Representative
1st 42.53% 56.2% Bruce Braley
2nd 42.74% 55.78% Dave Loebsack
3rd 47.16% 51.45% Tom Latham
4th 53.42% 45.26% Steve King

See also

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References

[edit]
  1. ^ a b Espo, David; Beaumont, Thomas (January 4, 2012). The Virginian-Pilot. Associated Press. p. A1. {{cite news}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. ^ Nichols, John (December 20, 2011). "Iowa Challenge for Obama: Dem Caucus Votes for 'Uncommitted' Slate". The Nation. Archived from the original on February 10, 2012. Retrieved October 22, 2012.
  3. ^ Grote, Dora. "Iowa City doves urge Democrats not to caucus for Obama". The Daily Iowan. Archived from the original on July 29, 2012. Retrieved October 22, 2012.
  4. ^ Pearce, Matt (January 4, 2012). "The complete failure (and unnoticed success) of Occupy Iowa Caucus". Salon. Archived from the original on October 22, 2012. Retrieved October 22, 2012.
  5. ^ "Caucus Night Reporting". Iowa Democratic Party. 2012. Archived from the original on April 15, 2013. Retrieved October 22, 2012.
  6. ^ a b "2012 Presidential Primaries, Caucuses, and Conventions: Iowa Democrat". The Green Papers. 2012. Retrieved October 22, 2012.
  7. ^ Holly Ramer, "Huntsman: Republican race wide open in Iowa's wake" (January 4, 2012). Associated Press.
  8. ^ a b c d "2012 Presidential Primaries, Caucuses, and Conventions: Iowa Republican". The Green Papers. 2012. Retrieved October 22, 2012.
  9. ^ Boshart, Rod (January 19, 2012). "No 'official' Iowa caucus winner, but Santorum got most votes". Iowa Caucus. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: The Gazette. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
  10. ^ "Iowa Caucus Results - Election 2016". The New York Times. Retrieved February 2, 2016.
  11. ^ "Jan. 3, 2012 Iowa Caucus Results". P2012. Democracy in Action. 2012. Archived from the original on May 13, 2012. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
  12. ^ An estimated 2,250,423 Iowans were eligible to vote. Michael McDonald, "2012 Presidential Nomination Contest Turnout Rates Archived 2012-01-10 at the Wayback Machine" (January 4, 2012). United States Elections Project, George Mason University.
  13. ^ Jedd Rosche, "Iowa Caucuses 2012: By the numbers" (January 2, 2012).
  14. ^ "|newswell|text|FRONTPAGE|p Editorial: In Iowa, a plague of stealth spending[permanent dead link]" (January 4, 2012). Detroit Free Press.
  15. ^ Peter Hamby, Pawlenty drops out of presidential race" (August 14, 2011). CNN. Archived January 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ Michael D. Shear and Jeff Zeleny, "Pawlenty Drops Out of Republican Race" (August 14, 2011). New York Times.
  17. ^ "2011-2012 Primary Debates -- Schedule Archived 2012-01-07 at the Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ Sarah Wheaton, "Bachmann Says She Will Not Continue in the Race" (January 4, 2012). New York Times.
  19. ^ "Michele Bachmann drops out of GOP race after Iowa caucuses" (January 4, 2012). Washington Post.
  20. ^ Chris Tomlinson, "Perry leaving 'quirky' Iowa for South Carolina" (January 4, 2012). Associated Press.
  21. ^ Dave Montgomery and Maria Recio, "Texas Gov. Rick Perry decides to stay in presidential race" (January 4, 2012). McClatchy Newspapers.
  22. ^ Associated Press and Philip Elliott, "Perry: Reassessing Bid After Iowa Caucuses Archived 2012-01-05 at the Wayback Machine (January 4, 2012).
  23. ^ Nicholas Confessore and Katharine Q. Seelye, "Assessment Complete — Perry to Stay in Race" (January 4, 2012), New York Times.
  24. ^ "Results Iowa CNN".
  25. ^ "- Fox News". Fox News. Archived from the original on January 8, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
  26. ^ "Candidate List: November 6, 2012 General Election" (PDF). Iowa Secretary of State. October 18, 2012. Retrieved October 22, 2012.
  27. ^ "PSL gains ballot access in 13 states". Party for Socialism and Liberation. 2012. Archived from the original on October 22, 2012. Retrieved October 22, 2012.
  28. ^ Hicks, Nancy (September 2, 2012). "Third-party V.P. candidate finds home in Lincoln". Lincoln Journal Star. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
  29. ^ Malloy, Mike (August 31, 2012). "Ames man gets his name on the ballot". Ames Tribune. Archived from the original on October 1, 2012. Retrieved October 22, 2012.
  30. ^ The Washington Post, CNN, and The Cook Political Report all label Iowa "toss-up".
  31. ^ "Iowa: Romney vs. Obama". RealClearPolitics. Retrieved October 22, 2012.
  32. ^ Silver, Nate. "FiveThirtyEight". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2012.
  33. ^ "2012 - Iowa: Romney vs. Obama | RealClearPolitics". www.realclearpolitics.com.
  34. ^ "Iowa Secretary of State General Election Results". Archived from the original on December 29, 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  35. ^ "Daily Kos Elections' statewide election results by congressional and legislative districts". Daily Kos. Retrieved August 11, 2020.
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