United States v. Salerno
|United States v. Salerno|
|Argued January 21, 1987|
Decided May 26, 1987
|Full case name||United States v. Salerno|
|Citations||481 U.S. 739 (more)|
|Given the Bail Reform Act's legitimate and compelling regulatory purpose and the procedural protections that it offers,is not facially invalid under the Due Process Clause or Excessive Bail Clause.|
|Majority||Rehnquist, joined by White, Blackmun, Powell, O'Connor, Scalia|
|Dissent||Marshall, joined by Brennan|
|Fifth Amendment, Eighth Amendment|
Bail Reform Act of 1984
United States v. Salerno, 481 U.S. 739 (1987), was a United States Supreme Court decision. It determined that the Bail Reform Act of 1984, which permitted the federal courts to detain an arrestee prior to trial if the government could prove that the individual was potentially dangerous to other people in the community, was constitutional. It violated neither the US Constitution's Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment nor its Excessive Bail Clause of the Eighth Amendment.
The case was brought up when American Mafia member Anthony Salerno was arrested and indicted for violating the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act.
Salerno is famous for expounding the "no set of circumstances" test. Challengers who bring a facial challenge to a statute claim the statute is 'void on its face' and should be declared unconstitutional. That is an extremely high burden, as the challenger must show that no set of circumstances exists under which the statute would be valid.
- List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 481
- List of United States Supreme Court cases
- Lists of United States Supreme Court cases by volume
- List of United States Supreme Court cases by the Rehnquist Court
- Goldkamp, John S. (1985). "Danger and Detention: A Second Generation of Bail Reform". Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 76 (1): 1–74. doi:10.2307/1143353. JSTOR 1143353.
- Eason, Michael J. (1988). "Eighth Amendment: Pretrial Detention: What Will Become of the Innocent?". Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 78 (4): 1048–1079. doi:10.2307/1143417. JSTOR 1143417.
- Howard, John B., Jr. (1989). "The Trial of Pretrial Dangerousness: Preventive Detention after United States v. Salerno". Virginia Law Review. 75 (3): 639–679. doi:10.2307/1073254. JSTOR 1073254.
- Text of United States v. Salerno, 481 U.S. 739 (1987) is available from: Justia Library of Congress Oyez (oral argument audio)
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