United States women's national soccer team
The Stars and Stripes
|Association||United States Soccer Federation|
(North, Central America, and the Caribbean)
|Sub-confederation||NAFU (North America)|
|Head coach||Jill Ellis|
|Most caps||Kristine Lilly (354)|
|Top scorer||Abby Wambach (184)|
|Current||1 (March 29, 2019)|
|Highest||1 (various times)|
|Lowest||2 (various times)|
| Italy 1–0 United States |
(Jesolo, Italy; August 18, 1985)
| United States 14–0 Dominican Rep. |
(Vancouver, Canada; January 20, 2012)
| Brazil 4–0 United States |
(Hangzhou, China; September 27, 2007)
|Appearances||8 (first in 1991)|
|Best result||Champions: 1991, 1999, and 2015|
|Appearances||6 (first in 1996)|
|Best result||Gold: 1996, 2004, 2008, and 2012|
& Gold Cup
|Appearances||9 (first in 1991)|
|Best result||Champions: 1991, 1993, 1994, 2000, 2002, 2006, 2014, and 2018|
The United States women's national soccer team (USWNT) represents the United States in international women's soccer. The team is the most successful in international women's soccer, winning three Women's World Cup titles (including the first Women's World Cup in 1991), four Olympic gold medals (including the first Olympic women's soccer tournament in 1996), eight CONCACAF Gold Cups, and ten Algarve Cups. It medaled in every single World Cup and Olympic tournament in women's soccer history from 1991 to 2015, before being knocked out in the quarterfinal of the 2016 Summer Olympics. The team is governed by United States Soccer Federation and competes in CONCACAF (the Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football).
After being ranked No. 2 on average from 2003 to 2008 in the FIFA Women's World Rankings, the team was ranked No. 1 continuously from March 2008 to November 2014, falling back behind Germany, the only other team to occupy the No. 1 position in the ranking's history. The team dropped to 2nd on March 24, 2017, due to its last-place finish in the 2017 SheBelieves Cup, then returned to 1st on June 23, 2017, after victories in friendlies against Russia, Sweden, and Norway. The team was selected as the U.S. Olympic Committee's Team of the Year in 1997 and 1999, and Sports Illustrated chose the entire team as 1999 Sportswomen of the Year for its usual Sportsman of the Year honor. On April 5, 2017, U.S. Women's Soccer and U.S. Soccer reached a deal on a new collective bargaining agreement that would, among other things, lead to a pay increase.
- 1 History
- 2 Team image
- 3 Collective bargaining
- 4 Coaching staff
- 5 Team
- 6 Recent schedule and results
- 7 Competitive record
- 8 Player records
- 9 Head coaches
- 10 Honors
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
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Origins in the 1980s
The passing of Title IX in 1972, which outlawed gender-based discrimination for federally-funded education programs, spurred the creation of college soccer teams across the United States at a time when women's soccer was rising in popularity internationally. The U.S. Soccer Federation tasked coach Mike Ryan to select a roster of college players to participate in the 1985 Mundialito tournament in Italy, its first foray into women's international soccer. The team played its first match on August 18, 1985, losing 1–0 to Italy, and finished the tournament in fourth place after failing to win its remaining matches against Denmark and England.
University of North Carolina coach Anson Dorrance was hired as the team's first full-time manager in 1986 with the goal of fielding a competitive women's team at the next Mundialito and at future tournaments. In their first Mundialito under Dorrance, the United States defeated China, Brazil, and Japan before finishing as runners-up to Italy. Dorrance gave national team appearances to teenage players, including future stars Mia Hamm, Julie Foudy, and Kristine Lilly, instead of the college players preferred by the federation. The United States played in the 1988 FIFA Women's Invitation Tournament in China, a FIFA-sanctioned competition to test the feasibility of a regular women's championship, and lost in the quarterfinals to eventual champions Norway.
Following the 1988 tournament, FIFA announced plans for a new women's tournament, named the 1st FIFA World Championship for Women's Football for the M&M's Cup until it was retroactively given the "World Cup" name. The United States qualified for the tournament by winning the inaugural CONCACAF Women's Championship, hosted by Haiti in April 1991, outscoring their opponents 49–0 for the sole CONCACAF berth in the tournament. The team played several exhibition matches abroad against European opponents to prepare for the world championship, while its players quit their regular jobs to train full-time with meager compensation. Dorrance utilized a 4–3–3 formation that was spearheaded by the "triple-edged sword" of forward Michelle Akers-Stahl and wingers Carin Jennings and April Heinrichs.
At the Women's World Cup, the United States won all three of its group stage matches and outscored its opponents 11–2. In the opening match against Sweden, the U.S. took a 3–0 lead early in the second half, but conceded two goals to end the match with a narrower 3–2 victory. The U.S. proceeded to win 5–0 in its second match against Brazil and 3–0 in its third match against Japan in the following days, clinching first place in the group and a quarterfinal berth. The United States proceeded with a 7–0 victory in the quarterfinals over Chinese Taipei, fueled by a five-goal performance by Akers-Stahl in the first fifty minutes of the match.
In the semifinals against Germany, Carin Jennings scored a hat-trick in the first half as the team clinched a place in the final with a 5–2 victory. The team's lopsided victories in the earlier rounds had brought attention from American media outlets, but the final match was not televised live in the U.S. The United States won the inaugural Women's World Cup title by defeating Norway 2–1 in the final, played in front of 65,000 spectators at Tianhe Stadium in Guangzhou, as Akers-Stahl scored twice to create and restore a lead for the Americans. Akers-Stahl finished as the top goalscorer at the tournament, with ten goals, and Carin Jennings was awarded the Golden Ball as the tournament's best player.
Despite their Women's World Cup victory, the U.S. team remained in relative obscurity and received a small welcome from several U.S. Soccer Federation officials upon arrival at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City. The team were given fewer resources and little attention from the federation as they focused on improving the men's national team in preparation for the 1994 men's World Cup that would be hosted in the United States. The women's team was placed on hiatus after the tournament, only playing twice in 1992, but returned the following year to play in several tournaments hosted in Cyprus, Canada, and the United States, including a second CONCACAF Championship title.
The United States played in several friendly tournaments to prepare for the 1995 FIFA Women's World Cup and its qualification campaign. The first was the inaugural staging of the Algarve Cup in Portugal, which saw the team win its two group stage matches but lose 1–0 to Norway in the final. It followed by a victory in the Chiquita Cup, an exhibition tournament hosted in August on the U.S. East Coast against Germany, China, and Norway. Dorrance resigned from his position as head coach in early August and was replaced by his assistant, Tony DiCicco, a former professonal goalkeeper who played in the American Soccer League. DiCicco led the United States to a berth in the Women's World Cup by winning the 1994 CONCACAF Championship, where the team scored 36 goals and conceded only one.
The team won the gold medal in the inaugural Olympics women's soccer tournament in the 1996 Summer Olympics, hosted in Atlanta before large crowds. Julie Foudy, Kristine Lilly, and the rest of the 1999 team started a revolution towards women's team sports in America. Arguably their most influential and memorable victory came in the 1999 World Cup when they defeated China 5–4 in a penalty shoot-out following a 0–0 draw after extended time. With this win they emerged onto the world stage and brought significant media attention to women's soccer and athletics. On July 10, 1999, over 90,000 people (the largest ever for a women's sporting event and one of the largest attendances in the world for a tournament game final) filled the Rose Bowl to watch the United States play China in the Final. After a back and forth game, the score was tied 0–0 at full-time, and remained so after extra time, leading to a penalty kick shootout. With Briana Scurry's save of China's third kick, the score was 4–4 with only Brandi Chastain left to shoot. She scored and won the game for the United States. Chastain famously dropped to her knees and whipped off her shirt, celebrating in her sports bra, which later made the cover of Sports Illustrated and the front pages of newspapers around the country and world. This win influenced many girls to want to play on a soccer team.
In the 2003 FIFA Women's World Cup, the U.S. defeated Norway 1–0 in the quarterfinals, but lost 0–3 to Germany in the semifinals. The team then defeated Canada 3–1 to claim third place. Abby Wambach was the team's top scorer with three goals; Joy Fawcett and Shannon Boxx made the tournament's all-star team.
At the 2007 FIFA Women's World Cup, the U.S. defeated England 3–0 in the quarterfinals but then suffered its most lopsided loss in team history when it lost to Brazil 0–4 in the semifinals. The U.S. recovered to defeat Norway to take third place. Abby Wambach was the team's leading scorer with 6 goals, and Kristine Lilly was the only American named to the tournament's all-star team.
In the quarterfinal of the 2011 Women's World Cup in Germany, the U.S. defeated Brazil 5–3 on penalty kicks. Abby Wambach's goal in the 122nd minute to tie the game 2–2 has been voted the greatest goal in U.S. soccer history and the greatest goal in Women's World Cup history. The U.S. then beat France 3–1 in the semifinal, but lost to Japan 3–1 on penalty kicks in the Final after drawing 1–1 in regulation and 2–2 in overtime. Hope Solo was named the tournament's best goalkeeper and Abby Wambach won the silver ball as the tournament's second best player.
In the 2012 Summer Olympics, the U.S. won the gold medal for the fourth time in five Olympics by defeating Japan 2–1 in front of 80,203 fans at Wembley Stadium, a record for a women's soccer game at the Olympics. The United States advanced to face Japan for the gold medal by winning the semifinal against Canada, a 4–3 victory at the end of extra time. The 2012 London Olympics marked the first time the USWNT won every game en route to the gold medal and set an Olympic women's team record of 16 goals scored.
The National Women's Soccer League started in 2013, and provided competitive games as well as opportunities to players on the fringes of the squad. The U.S. had a 43-game unbeaten streak that spanned two years—the streak began with a 4–0 win over Sweden in the 2012 Algarve Cup, and came to an end after a 1–0 loss against Sweden in the 2014 Algarve Cup.
The USA defeated Japan 5–2 in the final of the 2015 World Cup, becoming the first team in history to win three Women's World Cup titles. In the 16th minute, Carli Lloyd achieved the fastest hat-trick from kick-off in World Cup history, and Abby Wambach was greeted with a standing ovation for her last World Cup match. Following their 2015 World Cup win, the team was honored with a ticker tape parade in New York City, the first for a women's sports team, and honored by President Barack Obama at the White House. On December 16, 2015, however, a 0–1 loss to China in Wambach's last game meant the team's first home loss since 2004, ending their 104-game home unbeaten streak.
In the 2016 Summer Olympics, the U.S. drew against Sweden in the quarterfinal; in the following penalty kick phase, Sweden won the game 4–3. The loss marked the first time that the USWNT did not advance to the gold medal game of the Olympics, and the first time that the USWNT failed to advance to the semifinal round of a major tournament.
After the defeat in the 2016 Olympics, the USWNT underwent a year of experimentation which saw them losing 3 home games. If not for a comeback win against Brazil, the USWNT was on the brink of losing 4 home games in one year, a low never before seen by the USWNT. 2017 saw the USWNT play 12 games against teams ranked in the top-15 in the world.
Throughout 2018, the U.S. would pick up two major tournament wins, winning both the SheBelieves Cup and the Tournament of Nations. The team would enter qualifying for the 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup on a 21-game unbeaten streak and dominated the competition, winning all five of its games and the tournament whilst qualifying for the World Cup as well as scoring 18 goals and conceding none. On November 8, 2018, the U.S. earned their 500th victory in team history after a 1–0 victory over Portugal The start of 2019 saw the U.S. lose an away game to France, 3–1, marking the end of a 28-game unbeaten streak and their first loss since a 1–0 defeat to Australia in July 2017.
The USWNT started off their 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup campaign with a 13–0 victory against Thailand, setting a new Women's World Cup record. Alex Morgan equaled Michelle Akers's record of scoring five goals in a single World Cup match, while four of her teammates scored their first World Cup goals in their debut at the tournament.
U.S. TV coverage for the five Women's World Cups from 1995 to 2011 was provided by ESPN/ABC and Univision, while coverage rights for the three Women's World Cups from 2015 to 2023 were awarded to Fox Sports and Telemundo. In May 2014 a deal was signed to split TV coverage of other USWNT games between ESPN, Fox Sports, and Univision through the end of 2022. The USWNT games in the 2014 CONCACAF Women's Championship and the 2015 Algarve Cup were broadcast by Fox Sports.
The 1999 World Cup final set the original record for largest US television audience for a women's soccer match with 18 million viewers on average and was the most viewed English-language US broadcast of any soccer match until the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup Final between the United States and Japan.
The 2015 Women's World Cup Final between the US and Japan was the most watched soccer match – men's or women's – in American broadcast history. It averaged 23 million viewers and higher ratings than the NBA finals and the Stanley Cup finals. The final was also the most watched US-Spanish language broadcast of a FIFA Women's World Cup match in history.
Overall, there were over 750 million viewers for the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup, making it the most watched Women's World Cup in history. The FIFA Women's World Cup is now the second most watched FIFA tournament, with only the men's FIFA World Cup attracting more viewership.
The 1999 World Cup final, in which the USA defeated China, set a world attendance record for a women's sporting event of 90,185 in a sellout at the Rose Bowl in Southern California. The record for Olympic women's soccer attendance was set by the 2012 Olympic final between the USWNT and Japan, with 80,023 spectators at Wembley Stadium.
In recent years, the players of the USWNT have waged an escalating legal fight with the United States Soccer Federation over gender discrimination. Central to their demands is equal pay. The players point to their lower paychecks as compared to the U.S. Men’s National Soccer Team, despite their higher record of success in recent years. For instance, while the men's team were awarded $9 million after reaching the round of 16 in the 2014 World Cup, the women, who won the 2015 Women's World Cup, were awarded $2 million.
In April 2016, five players filed a wage-discrimination action against the U.S. Soccer Federation with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. The group consisted of Hope Solo, Carli Lloyd, Alex Morgan, Megan Rapinoe, and Becky Sauerbrunn.
One year later, in April 2017, it was announced that a new collective bargaining agreement, or CBA, with U.S soccer had been made. The agreement stated that that the players would have an increased base pay and improved match bonuses. These changes could increase their previous pay to $200,000 to $300,000. This 2017 CBA, however, does not guarantee the U.S national women’s team equal pay with the men’s national team. The CBA’s five year term, through 2021, ensured that the next negotiation would not become an issue for the team in its next major competitions. On top of this CBA, U.S Soccer had agreed to pay the players for two years’ worth of unequal per-diem payments.
On March 8, 2019, all 28 members of the U.S. team filed a gender discrimination lawsuit against the United States Soccer Federation. The lawsuit, filed in the United States District Court in Los Angeles, accused the Federation of “institutional gender discrimination.” The lawsuit claims that the discrimination affects not only the amount the players are paid but also their playing, training, and travel conditions.
|Head coach||Jill Ellis||May 2014|
|Assistant coach||Tony Gustavsson||June 2012|
|Goalkeeper coach||Graeme Abel||March 2015|
|Fitness coach||Dawn Scott||February 2011|
|Talent identification||B.J. Snow||February 2017|
The following players were also named to a squad in the last 12 months.
- PRE: Preliminary squad
- PRO: Provisional roster
Recent schedule and results
The following is a list of match results in the last 12 months, as well as any future matches that have been scheduled.
GS: group stage SF: semi-final F: final
|July 26, 2018 Tournament of Nations||United States||4–2||Japan||Kansas City, Kansas|
|19:00 ET||Report||Stadium: Children's Mercy Park|
Referee: Carol-Ann Chenard (Canada)
|July 29, 2018 Tournament of Nations||United States||1–1||Australia||East Hartford, Connecticut|
|19:00 ET||Horan 90'||Report||Logarzo 22'||Stadium: Pratt & Whitney Stadium|
Referee: Miriam Leon (El Salvador)
|August 2, 2018 Tournament of Nations||United States||4–1||Brazil||Bridgeview, Illinois|
|20:30 ET||Report||Stadium: Toyota Park|
Referee: Quetzalli Alvarado (Mexico)
|August 31, 2018 Friendly||United States||3–0||Chile||Carson, California|
|23:00 ET||Report||Stadium: StubHub Center|
Referee: Katja Koroleva (United States)
|September 4, 2018 Friendly||United States||4–0||Chile||San Jose, California|
|22:00 ET||Report||Stadium: Avaya Stadium|
Referee: Christina Unkel (United States)
|October 4, 2018 CONCACAF Championship GS||United States||6–0||Mexico||Cary, North Carolina|
|19:30 ET||Report||Stadium: Sahlen's Stadium|
Referee: Carol Anne Chenard (Canada)
|October 7, 2018 CONCACAF Championship GS||United States||5–0||Panama||Cary, North Carolina|
|19:30 ET||Report||Stadium: Sahlen's Stadium|
Referee: Tatiana Guzmán (Nicaragua)
|October 10, 2018 CONCACAF Championship GS||United States||7–0||Trinidad and Tobago||Cary, North Carolina|
|19:30 ET||Report||Stadium: Sahlen's Stadium|
Referee: Odette Hamilton (Jamaica)
|October 14, 2018 CONCACAF Championship SF||United States||6–0||Jamaica||Frisco, Texas|
|20:00 ET||Report||Stadium: Toyota Stadium|
Referee: Francia González (Mexico)
|October 17, 2018 CONCACAF Championship F||United States||2–0||Canada||Frisco, Texas|
|20:00 ET||Report||Stadium: Toyota Stadium|
Referee: Lucila Venegas (Mexico)
|November 8, 2018 Friendly||Portugal||0–1||United States||Estoril, Portugal|
||Stadium: Estádio António Coimbra da Mota|
Referee: Rebecca Welch (England)
|November 13, 2018 Friendly||Scotland||0–1||United States||Paisley, Scotland|
||Stadium: St Mirren Park|
Referee: Amy Fearn (England)
|January 19, 2019 Friendly||France||3–1||United States||Le Havre, France|
||Stadium: Stade Océane|
Referee: Pernilla Larsson (Sweden)
|January 22, 2019 Friendly||Spain||0–1||United States||Alicante, Spain|
||Stadium: Estadio José Rico Pérez|
Referee: Stéphanie Frappart (France)
|February 27, 2019 SheBelieves Cup||United States||2–2||Japan||Chester, Pennsylvania|
|19:00 ET||Report||Stadium: Talen Energy Stadium|
Referee: Melissa Borjas (Honduras)
|March 2, 2019 SheBelieves Cup||United States||2–2||England||Nashville, Tennessee|
|16:30 ET||Report||Stadium: Nissan Stadium|
Referee: Marianela Araya (Costa Rica)
|March 5, 2019 SheBelieves Cup||United States||1–0||Brazil||Tampa, Florida|
||Report||Stadium: Raymond James Stadium|
Referee: Carol Anne Chénard (Canada)
|April 4, 2019 Friendly||United States||5–3||Australia||Commerce City, Colorado|
|21:00 ET||Report||Stadium: Dick's Sporting Goods Park|
Referee: Karen Abt (United States)
|April 7, 2019 Friendly||United States||6–0||Belgium||Los Angeles, California|
|21:00 ET||Report||Stadium: Banc of California Stadium|
Referee: Ekaterina Koroleva (United States)
|May 12, 2019 Friendly||United States||3–0||South Africa||Santa Clara, California|
|16:30 ET||Report||Stadium: Levi's Stadium|
Referee: Odette Hamilton (Jamaica)
|May 16, 2019 Friendly||United States||5–0||New Zealand||St. Louis, Missouri|
|20:00 ET||Report||Stadium: Busch Stadium|
Referee: Karen Abt (United States)
|May 26, 2019 Friendly||United States||3–0||Mexico||Harrison, New Jersey|
|12:00 ET||Report||Stadium: Red Bull Arena|
Referee: Crystal Sobers (Trinidad and Tobago)
|June 11, 2019 FIFA World Cup GS||United States||13–0||Thailand||Reims, France|
|15:00 ET||Report||Stadium: Stade Auguste-Delaune|
Referee: Laura Fortunato (Argentina)
|June 16, 2019 FIFA World Cup GS||United States||3–0||Chile||Paris, France|
|12:00 ET||Report||Stadium: Parc des Princes|
Referee: Riem Hussein (Germany)
- For results in minor tournaments, see the History of the United States women's national football team
The team has participated in every World Cup through 2015 and won a medal in each.
|1995||Third Place||6||4||1||1||15||5||Tony DiCicco|
|2003||Third Place||6||5||0||1||15||5||April Heinrichs|
|2007||Third Place||6||4||1||1||12||7||Greg Ryan|
The team has participated in every Olympic tournament through 2016 and reached the gold medal game in each until 2016, when they were eliminated in the quarterfinals on a penalty shootout loss to Sweden.
|1996||Gold medal||5||4||1||0||9||3||Tony DiCicco|
|2000||Silver medal||5||3||1||1||9||5||April Heinrichs|
|2008||Gold medal||6||5||0||1||12||5||Pia Sundhage|
|2016||5th place||4||2||2||0||6||3||Jill Ellis|
|2020||TBD-not yet qualified|
|2024||TBD-not yet qualified|
CONCACAF Championship and Gold Cup
|1998||Did not participate1|
|2010||Third place||5||4||0||1||22||2||Pia Sundhage|
1 The US team directly qualified for the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup as hosts of the event. Because of this, they did not participate in the 1998 CONCACAF Championship, which was the qualification tournament for the World Cup.
The Algarve Cup is a global invitational tournament for national teams in women's football hosted by the Portuguese Football Federation (FPF). Held annually in the Algarve region of Portugal since 1994, it is one of the most prestigious women's football events, alongside the Women's World Cup and Women's Olympic Football. Since 2016, the SheBelieves Cup has gained more interest from the very top ranked teams (USA, Germany, France and England) and thus shifted some attention from the tournament.
|1996||Did not enter|
|1998||Third Place||4||3||0||1||10||6||Tony DiCicco|
- As of June 16, 2019. Active players are shown in Bold.
The women's national team boasts the first six players in the history of the game to have earned 200 caps. These players have since been joined in the 200-cap club by several players from other national teams, as well as by five more Americans: Kate Markgraf, Abby Wambach, Heather O'Reilly, Carli Lloyd and Hope Solo. Kristine Lilly and Christie Rampone are the only players to earn more than 300 caps.
In March 2004, Mia Hamm and Michelle Akers were the only two women and the only two Americans named to the FIFA 100, a list of the 125 greatest living football players chosen by Pelé as part of FIFA's centenary observances.
The USWNT All-Time Best XI was chosen In December 2013 by the United States Soccer Federation:
- Goalkeeper: Briana Scurry
- Defenders: Brandi Chastain, Carla Overbeck, Christie Rampone, Joy Fawcett
- Midfielders: Kristine Lilly, Michelle Akers, Julie Foudy
- Forwards: Mia Hamm, Abby Wambach, Alex Morgan
Most capped players
|Years as captain||Player||Caps||Goals||USWNT|
Most goals in a match
The goal record is five for most scored in a match by a member of the USWNT, which has been accomplished by eight players.
|Brandi Chastain||April 18, 1991||Mexico||Port-au-Prince, Haiti||World Cup Qualifying Tournament||Substitute|
|Michelle Akers||November 24, 1991||Chinese Taipei||Foshan, China||1991 FIFA World Cup||Starting|
|Tiffeny Milbrett||November 2, 2002||Panama||Seattle, United States||2002 CONCACAF Gold Cup||Starting|
|Abby Wambach||October 23, 2004||Republic of Ireland||Houston, United States||International Friendly||Starting|
|Amy Rodriguez||January 20, 2012||Dominican Republic||Vancouver, Canada||2012 Olympic Qualifying Tournament||Substitute (46')|
|Sydney Leroux||January 22, 2012||Guatemala||Vancouver, Canada||2012 Olympic Qualifying Tournament||Substitute (46')|
|Crystal Dunn||February 15, 2016||Puerto Rico||Frisco, United States||2016 Olympic Qualifying Tournament||Starting|
|Alex Morgan||June 11, 2019||Thailand||Reims, France||2019 FIFA World Cup||Starting|
- As of June 16, 2019
|Name||Years||Matches||Won||Tied||Lost||Win %||Pts÷M||World Cup||Olympics|
|Lauren Gregg||1997, 2000||3||2||1||0||.833||2.33|
|Jill Ellis||2012, 2014–present||100||79||16||6||.883||2.5||5th|
- USWNT All-Time Best XI
- Dare to Dream: The Story of the U.S. Women's Soccer Team – 2005 HBO documentary
- List of United States women's national soccer team hat-tricks
- List of women's national football teams
- Women's association football around the world
- United States U-17 women's national soccer team
- United States U-20 women's national soccer team
- United States U-23 women's national soccer team
- Women's United Soccer Association (WUSA), 2001–03
- Women's Professional Soccer (WPS), 2009–11
- National Women's Soccer League (NWSL), 2013–present
- Soccer in the United States
- United States men's national soccer team
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- Lisi (2010), pp. 23–25
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