# Univalent function

In mathematics, in the branch of complex analysis, a holomorphic function on an open subset of the complex plane is called univalent if it is injective.

## Examples

Consider the application $\phi _{a}$ mapping the open unit disc to itself such that

$\phi _{a}(z)={\frac {z-a}{1-{\bar {a}}z}}.$ We have that $\phi _{a}$ is univalent when $|a|<1$ .

## Basic properties

One can prove that if $G$ and $\Omega$ are two open connected sets in the complex plane, and

$f:G\to \Omega$ is a univalent function such that $f(G)=\Omega$ (that is, $f$ is surjective), then the derivative of $f$ is never zero, $f$ is invertible, and its inverse $f^{-1}$ is also holomorphic. More, one has by the chain rule

$(f^{-1})'(f(z))={\frac {1}{f'(z)}}$ for all $z$ in $G.$ ## Comparison with real functions

For real analytic functions, unlike for complex analytic (that is, holomorphic) functions, these statements fail to hold. For example, consider the function

$f:(-1,1)\to (-1,1)\,$ given by ƒ(x) = x3. This function is clearly injective, but its derivative is 0 at x = 0, and its inverse is not analytic, or even differentiable, on the whole interval (−1, 1). Consequently, if we enlarge the domain to an open subset G of the complex plane, it must fail to be injective; and this is the case, since (for example) f(εω) = f(ε) (where ω is a primitive cube root of unity and ε is a positive real number smaller than the radius of G as a neighbourhood of 0).