Universal Classic Monsters

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Universal Classic Monsters
Universal Classic Monsters logo.jpg
Official franchise logo as displayed on home video releases
Production
company
Distributed byUniversal Pictures
CountryUnited States

Universal Classic Monsters is a name given to the horror, fantasy, thriller and science fiction films made by Universal Pictures during the decades of the 1920s through the 1950s. They were the first shared universe in the entire movie industry in Hollywood and around the world. They began with The Phantom of the Opera, a silent film starring Lon Chaney. Universal Classic Monsters continued with talkies including core monsters in the franchise Dracula, Frankenstein, The Mummy, The Invisible Man, The Wolf Man and Creature from the Black Lagoon. The films often featured Bela Lugosi, Boris Karloff and Lon Chaney Jr.

Development[edit]

Universal Classic Monsters began in the 1920s during the silent film era. The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1923) and The Phantom of the Opera (1925) are typically regarded as the first films to kick off Universal Pictures' series of horror films.[1][2] Though, it's the latter film that holds the destination of being the first Universal Classic Monsters film. This is because of the film's motifs and themes surrounding its antagonist, which can also be seen in further entries of the franchise.[3]

In the 1925 film, Lon Chaney starred as The Phantom. The character haunts the Opéra Garnier in an attempt to make the woman he loves become an opera star. The interior of the Opéra Garnier was recreated to scale and was used again in the 1943 remake with Claude Rains.

In 1931, Bela Lugosi starred in Universal's Dracula and Boris Karloff portrayed the monster in Frankenstein. Actors Dwight Frye and Edward Van Sloan, who played major supporting roles in both films, made several film appearances in this decade. Make-up artist Jack Pierce created several monsters' make-up starting in the 1930s.

The Mummy (1932) starring Karloff, was produced in 1932. Universal began releasing sequels including Bride of Frankenstein (1935) and Dracula's Daughter (1936). The first mainstream werewolf picture, Werewolf of London (1935) starring Henry Hull.

The end of Universal's first run of horror films came in 1936. The monster movies were dropped from the production schedule altogether and would not re-emerge for another three years. In the meantime, a theater owner revived Dracula and Frankenstein as a resoundingly successful double feature, prompting the studio to re-release the original movies. Son of Frankenstein (1939), starring Basil Rathbone, Boris Karloff, and Bela Lugosi, was filmed as a result of the unexpected resurgence.

In 1941, Universal released The Wolf Man (1941), with Lon Chaney Jr.. The junior Chaney became the studio's leading monster movie actor in the 1940s, just as his father had been two decades earlier, supplanting the 1930s' Karloff and Lugosi by a wide margin in terms of the number of leading roles that he played. Chaney Jr. physically resembled his father apart from usually being somewhat overweight, which the senior Chaney never was. The studio dropped the "Jr." from the junior Chaney's billing almost immediately to confuse some in the audiences into assuming that this was the same actor.

In 1943, the studio released a remake of Phantom of the Opera, this time starring Nelson Eddy and Susanna Foster with Claude Rains as the Phantom.

The Frankenstein and Wolf Man series continued with The Ghost of Frankenstein (1942), in which Chaney Jr. played Frankenstein's monster and Lugosi reprises his role as Ygor, and Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man (1943) with Lugosi as the Frankenstein monster and Chaney Jr. as the Wolf Man. Son of Dracula (1943) featured Chaney Jr. in Lugosi's original role as the Count. The Mummy series was also continued with The Mummy's Hand (1940), The Mummy's Tomb (1942), The Mummy's Ghost and The Mummy's Curse (both 1944) with Chaney Jr. as the Mummy in the last three films. House of Frankenstein (1944) and House of Dracula (1945) featured many of the monsters from the studio's previous films.

As the decade drew to a close, the comedy Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein (1948) features Lugosi in only his second film as Count Dracula, alongside Chaney Jr. as Larry Talbot (the Wolf Man), and Glenn Strange as Frankenstein's monster. Abbott and Costello also appeared in films featuring characters such as the Mummy and the Invisible Man.

Creature from the Black Lagoon, directed by Jack Arnold, was released in 1954. Dracula and Frankenstein were re-released as double features in theatres, and were later broadcast in syndication on American television in 1957 as part of the Shock Theater package of Universal Monster Movies.[4] Magazines such as Famous Monsters of Filmland covered the monster films. Universal spent the last half of the decade issuing a number of one-shot monster films.

Original films[edit]

1920s[edit]

Film U.S. release date Director(s) Screenwriter(s) Story by Producer(s)
The Phantom of the Opera November 25, 1925 (1925-11-25) Rupert Julian Walter Anthony, Elliott J. Clawson, Bernard McConville, Frank M. McCormack, Tom Reed, Raymond L. Schrock, Jasper Spearing & Richard Wallace Carl Laemmle

1930s[edit]

Film U.S. release date Director(s) Screenwriter(s) Story by Producer(s)
Dracula February 14, 1931 (1931-02-14) Tod Browning Garrett Fort Tod Browning and Carl Laemmle Jr.
Dracula (Spanish version) April 24, 1931 (1931-04-24) George Melford Baltasar Fernández Cué and Garrett Fort Garrett Fort Carl Laemmle Jr. and Paul Kohner
Frankenstein November 21, 1931 (1931-11-21) James Whale Francis Edward Faragoh & Garrett Fort John L. Balderston Carl Laemmle Jr.
The Mummy December 22, 1932 (1932-12-22) Karl Freund John L. Balderston Nina Wilcox Putnam & Richard Schayer
The Invisible Man November 13, 1933 (1933-11-13) James Whale R. C. Sherriff
The Bride of Frankenstein April 20, 1935 (1935-04-20) William Hurlbut William Hurlbut & John L. Balderston
Werewolf of London May 13, 1935 (1935-05-13) Stuart Walker John Colton, Robert Harris, Harvey Gates, Edmund Pearson, James Mulhauser & Aben Kandel Robert Harris Stanley Bergerman
Dracula's Daughter May 11, 1936 (1936-05-11) Lambert Hillyer Garrett Fort Oliver Jeffries E. M. Asher
Son of Frankenstein January 13, 1939 (1939-01-13) Rowland V. Lee Wyllis Cooper Rowland V. Lee

1940s[edit]

Film U.S. release date Director Screenwriter(s) Story by Producer(s)
The Invisible Man Returns January 12, 1940 (1940-01-12) Joe May Curt Siodmak & Lester Cole Curt Siodmak & Joe May Ken Goldsmith
The Mummy's Hand November 20, 1940 (1940-11-20) Christy Cabanne Griffin Jay and Maxwell Shane Ben Pivar
The Invisible Woman December 12, 1940 (1940-12-12) A. Edward Sutherland Robert Lees, Frederic I. Rinaldo & Gertrude Purcell Curt Siodmak & Joe May Burt Kelly
The Wolf Man December 12, 1941 (1941-12-12) George Waggner Curt Siodmak George Waggner
The Ghost of Frankenstein March 13, 1942 (1942-03-13) Erle C. Kenton W. Scott Darling Eric Taylor
Invisible Agent April 17, 1942 (1942-04-17) Edwin L. Marin Curt Siodmak Frank Lloyd
The Mummy's Tomb October 23, 1942 (1942-10-23) Harold Young Griffin Jay & Henry Sucher Neil P. Varnick Ben Pivar
Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man March 5, 1943 (1943-03-05) Roy William Neill Curt Siodmak George Waggner
Phantom of the Opera August 12, 1943 (1943-08-12) Arthur Lubin Samuel Hoffenstein & Eric Taylor John Jacoby
Son of Dracula November 5, 1943 (1943-11-05) Robert Siodmak Eric Taylor Curt Siodmak Ford Beebe and Donald H. Brown
The Invisible Man's Revenge June 9, 1944 (1944-06-09) Ford Beebe Bertram Millhauser Ford Beebe
The Mummy's Ghost July 7, 1944 (1944-07-07) Reginald LeBorg Griffin Jay, Henry Sucher & Brenda Weisberg Griffin Jay & Henry Sucher Ben Pivar
The House of Frankenstein December 15, 1944 (1944-12-15) Erle C. Kenton Edward T. Lowe Curt Siodmak Paul Malvern
The Mummy's Curse December 22, 1944 (1944-12-22) Leslie Goodwins Bernard Schubert Leon Abrams & Dwight V. Babcock Oliver Drake
House of Dracula June 29, 1945 (1945-06-29) Erle C. Kenton Edward T. Lowe Dwight V. Babcock & George Bricker Paul Malvern
She-Wolf of London May 17, 1946 (1946-05-17) Jean Yarbrough George Bricker Dwight V. Babcock Ben Pivar
Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein June 15, 1948 (1948-06-15) Charles T. Barton Robert Lees, Frederic I. Rinaldo & John Grant Robert Arthur

1950s[edit]

Film U.S. release date Director(s) Screenwriter(s) Story by Producer(s)
Abbott and Costello Meet the Invisible Man March 19, 1951 (1951-03-19) Charles Lamont Robert Lees, Frederic I. Rinaldo & John Grant Hugh Wedlock Jr. & Howard Snyder Howard Christie
Creature from the Black Lagoon February 12, 1954 (1954-02-12) Jack Arnold Harry Essex & Arthur Ross Maurice Zimm William Alland
Revenge of the Creature May 13, 1955 (1955-05-13) Martin Berkeley Martin Berkeley William Alland
Abbott and Costello Meet the Mummy May 23, 1955 (1955-05-23) Charles Lamont John Grant Lee Loeb Howard Christie
The Creature Walks Among Us April 26, 1956 (1956-04-26) John Sherwood Arthur Ross William Alland

Recurring cast and characters[edit]

List indicator(s)
  • This table only includes characters which have appeared in multiple films within this shared universe.
  • A dark grey cell indicates the character was not in the film.
  • A G indicates that Cedric Hardwicke played the son of Henry Frankenstein, he also played the ghost of Henry Frankenstein.
  • A P indicates the character was shown in a photograph.
  • A U indicates a uncredited role.
  • A V indicates a voice-only role.
Character Films
Dracula Frankenstein The Invisible Man Bride of Frankenstein Dracula's Daughter Son of Frankenstein The Invisible Man Returns The Wolf Man The Ghost of Frankenstein Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man Son of Dracula House of Frankenstein House of Dracula Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein Abbott and Costello Meet the Invisible Man
The Frankenstein Monster Boris Karloff Boris Karloff Boris Karloff Lon Chaney Jr. Bela Lugosi Glenn Strange
Count Dracula Bela Lugosi Lon Chaney Jr. John Carradine Bela Lugosi
The Wolf Man
Larry Talbot
Lon Chaney Jr. Lon Chaney Jr. Lon Chaney Jr.
Van Helsing Edward Van Sloan Edward Van Sloan
Henry Frankenstein Colin Clive Colin Clive Cedric HardwickeG
The Invisible Man
Jack Griffin
Claude Rains Claude RainsP Claude RainsP
Elizabeth Mae Clarke Valerie Hobson
Ygor Bela Lugosi Bela Lugosi
The Invisible Man
Geoffrey Radcliffe
Vincent Price Vincent PriceUV
Maleva Maria Ouspenskaya   Maria Ouspenskaya
Elsa Frankenstein Evelyn Ankers Ilona Massey

Remake era[edit]

Film U.S.
release date
Director Screenwriter(s) Story by Producer(s)
Dracula July 13, 1979 (1979-07-13) John Badham W. D. Richter Marvin Mirisch and Walter Mirisch
The Mummy May 7, 1999 (1999-05-07) Stephen Sommers Stephen Sommers, Lloyd Fonvielle & Kevin Jarre James Jacks and Sean Daniel
The Mummy Returns May 4, 2001 (2001-05-04) Stephen Sommers
Van Helsing May 7, 2004 (2004-05-07) Stephen Sommers and Bob Ducsay
The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor August 1, 2008 (2008-08-01) Rob Cohen Alfred Gough & Miles Millar Stephen Sommers, Sean Daniel, James Jacks and Bob Ducsay
The Wolfman February 12, 2010 (2010-02-12) Joe Johnston Andrew Kevin Walker and David Self Sean Daniel, Scott Stuber, Benicio del Toro and Rick Yorn

Reboot[edit]

Film U.S.
release date
Director Screenwriter(s) Story by Producer(s)
Dracula Untold October 10, 2014 (2014-10-10) Gary Shore Matt Sazama & Burk Sharpless Michael De Luca
The Mummy June 9, 2017 (2017-06-09) Alex Kurtzman David Koepp
and Christopher McQuarrie
and Dylan Kussman
Jon Spaihts
and Alex Kurtzman & Jenny Lumet
Alex Kurtzman, Chris Morgan, Sean Daniel and Sarah Bradshaw
The Invisible Man February 28, 2020 (2020-02-28) Leigh Whannell Jason Blum and Kylie Du Fresne
Dark Army TBA Paul Feig Paul Feig and Laura Fischer
Renfield TBA Dexter Fletcher Ryan Ridley Robert Kirkman and Ryan Ridley Robert Kirkman, David Alpert, Bryan Furst and Sean Furst
Frankenstein TBA TBA Robbie Thompson James Wan
The Invisible Woman TBA Elizabeth Banks Erin Cressida Wilson Elizabeth Banks Elizabeth Banks and Max Handelman
Monster Mash TBA Matt Stawski Will Widger Matt Stawski Marty Bowen
The Bride of Frankenstein TBA TBA David Koepp Amy Pascal
Dracula TBA Karyn Kusama Matt Manfredi & Phil Hay Jason Blum
The Wolf Man TBA TBA Lauren Shuker Blum & Rebecca Angelo Ryan Gosling TBA

Development[edit]

Official logo of the Dark Universe label as released by Universal Pictures

Originally conceived as a shared cinematic universe that was officially titled the Dark Universe, with multiple crossovers and inter-connectivity between films, the label is now used colloquially by some media outlets to refer to Universal Pictures' rebooted franchises. Conceptualized as a shared universe, the studio had announced the projects in development with a press release announcing the intellectual property's title, a trailer, casting announcements, and official theme music composed by Danny Elfman. Casting included: Russell Crowe as Dr. Henry Jekyll / Mr. Edward Hyde, Javier Bardem as the Frankenstein's Monster, and Johnny Depp as The Invisible Man. They joined Tom Cruise and Sofia Boutella, as Nick Morton and Princess Ahmanet / The Mummy. Additional rebooted adaptations of characters was also announced, including: Van Helsing, the Wolf Man, the Creature from the Black Lagoon, the Phantom of the Opera, Dr. Henry Jekyll and Mr. Edward Hyde, and The Hunchback of Notre-Dame. Alex Kurtzman and Chris Morgan were announced as co-runners of the Dark Universe, with collaborations from David Koepp and Christopher McQuarrie.[5]

After mixed critical reception to the first two installments, Universal halted development on further projects, while their plans for future releases was reassessed.[6] Despite this, in May 2018 artist Robert Vargas announced from his social media account that he had attended a meeting with the studio and would collaborate on the Dark Universe character designs moving forward.[7] During this period of time, Alex Kurtzman and Chris Morgan left their roles as co-architects of the franchise,[6] while successful horror film producer Jason Blum had at various times publicly expressed his interest in reviving and working on future installments within the Dark Universe franchise.[8][9] By January 2019, the studio announced plans to develop individualized films, with standalone installments.[10]

Films[edit]

Dracula Untold (2014)[edit]

The studio's first attempt at launching their shared universe, Dracula Untold was originally developed prior to the plans for ashared universe of horror films. The studio decided to retool the movie to be the first installment of the franchise, with reshoots adding a modern-day setting at the end of the film. Starring Luke Evans as the eponymous role, the plot incorporated elements regarding the real-life Vlad Drăculea in an original story where he becomes the vampire, Dracula. Released on October 10, 2014, the film's mixed financial and critical reception resulted in the film's presence within the franchise to be downplayed. Evans has remained attached to the role, with potential to return in a future film.[11][12]

The Mummy (2017)[edit]

Originally announcing plans for a reboot of The Mummy franchise in 2012, Universal marketed The Mummy as the first film in the Dark Universe. Alex Kurtzman served as director and co-writer,[13][14] The Mummy was released on June 9, 2017. It received mixed-to-negative reviews from critics. Universal deemed the domestic ticket sales to be, underwhelming box office returns.[15] Due to the mixed reception, Universal removed additional films from their scheduled release dates, while the future of the franchise was reassessed.

The Invisible Man (2020)[edit]

The project was initially announced in February 2016 as a part of the Dark Universe with Johnny Depp cast in the lead role, and a script by Ed Solomon. By January 2019, it was announced to be retooled as a stand alone feature film written and directed by Leigh Whannell with an acknowledgement that Depp had the option to remain cast as the titular monster.[16] The project was a join-production between Universal Pictures, Blumhouse Productions, Nervous Tick, and Goalpost Pictures. Jason Blum and Kylie du Fresne served as the producers.

Elisabeth Moss and Oliver Jackson-Cohen were cast as the lead characters, Cecilia Kass and Adrian Griffin / Invisible Man, respectively.[17][18][19] Principle photography commenced in July 2019, and continued into September 2019.[20] The Invisible Man was released on February 28, 2020.[21] Later, Whannell stated that the movie was developed as a standalone installment, and was not developed with a greater cinematic universe in mind.[22]

Other films in development[edit]

  • The Bride of Frankenstein: Originally announced with Bill Condon as the director for the reboot of the titular character, with a script written by David Koepp; the movie was scheduled to be released on February 14, 2019.[23][24] By November of 2017, the movie was pulled from its initial release, with the studio stating that the filmmaker and all creatives involved had wanted to delay the film in favor of further refining the script.[6][25] In January 2018, development on the film continued with Condon hiring a production team consisting of cinematographer Tobias A. Schliessler, production designer Sarah Greenwood, composer Carter Burwell, and costume designer Jacqueline Durran.[26] By November 2019, Condon confirmed that though the film had entered pre-production at one point, it was ultimately halted due to the outcome of the release of The Mummy. The director also confirmed that Koepp remains involved with re-working the rebooted franchises.[27] By February 2020, it was announced that Amy Pascal will serve as producer, with the project becoming a joint-venture production between Universal Pictures and Pascal Pictures. The studio is courting David Koepp to continue his work as screenwriter. Filmmakers John Krasinski and Sam Raimi have individually had discussions with the studio regarding potentially directing, while Variety reported that Krasinski was given options to develop films from the roster of monsters owned by Universal Pictures.[28][29]
  • Dark Army: In September 2019, it was announced that the film, featuring monsters from the original movies, as well as new characters was in development. Paul Feig will serve as director, from a script of his own. He will serve as co-producer with Laura Fischer. The project will be a joint production between Universal Pictures and Feigco Productions.[30] In October, the filmmaker confirmed that "the Dark Universe people" were reviewing the first draft of his script, while stating that The Bride of Frankenstein will be a major influence on his project.[31] By February 2020, Feig stated that he was working on the second draft of the script, after receiving input from Universal Pictures.[32] By May of the same year, Feig stated that he had recently finished the second draft of the script and described the tone of the film as closer to the original films, when compared to Whannell's The Invisible Man. The filmmaker reaffirmed that it will be a horror movie, but that it will portray the monsters as rejects, similar to the original films. He further stated that the studio is still deciding which of the projects they have in development will enter production first.[33] Variety reported that Feig was given options to develop films from the roster of monsters owned by Universal Pictures.[34][35]
  • Renfield: In November 2019, it was announced that a film centered Count Dracula's henchman, R. M. Renfield is in development. The project was greenlit following a pitch to the studio from Robert Kirkman. Dexter Fletcher signed on as director, with a script by Ryan Ridley. The film will be a joint-venture production between Universal Studios, and Skybound Entertainment. Kirkman, David Alpert, Bryan Furst, and Sean Furst will serve as producers.[36]
  • Frankenstein: In November of 2019, James Wan was announced to serve as producer on a reboot of the Frankenstein film series.[37] Jason Blum expressed interest in joining the production in a producing role.[38] In March of 2020, it was announced that Robbie Thompson was hired to serve as screenwriter, with the plot revolving around a group of teenagers who discover that a neighbor is creating a monster in their basement. The project will be a joint production between Universal Pictures and Atomic Monster Productions.[39]
  • The Invisible Woman: In November 2019, a reboot of The Invisible Woman was announced to be in development. Elizabeth Banks will star in, and direct the film, with a script written by Erin Cressida Wilson from a story pitch written by Banks. She will co-produce the project with Max Handelman.[40] Variety reported that Banks was given options to develop films from the roster of monsters owned by Universal Pictures.[41][42]
  • Monster Mash: In February 2020 a musical, titled after and centered around the novelty song "Monster Mash", was announced to be in development. Grammy Award nominee Matt Stawski will make his feature film directorial debut, while Will Widger will serve as screenwriter, from an original story written by Stawski. The project will be a joint-venture production between Universal Pictures and Temple Hill Entertainment. Marty Bowen will serve as producer.[43]
  • Dracula: By March 2020, Karyn Kusama was hired to direct a film centered around Dracula, from a script co-written by Matt Manfredi and Phil Hay. The plot will reportedly take place in a modern-setting. The project will be a joint-venture production, with Blumhouse Productions serving as the production studio.[44][45]
  • The Wolf Man: Initially announced in November 2014 to be in development as a part of the Dark Universe, Universal hired Aaron Guzikowski to write the shared universe's reboot of The Wolf Man film series.[46][47] In June 2016, Deadline reported that the studio had been eyeing Dwayne Johnson to star as the character.[48] In October 2016, David Callaham was hired to re-write the script.[49] By May of 2020, it was announced that Ryan Gosling has been cast as Wolf Man for an upcoming reboot of the titular character. Lauren Shuker Blum and Rebecca Angelo co-wrote the script, from an original story pitched by Gosling. The actor had previously been in negotiations to also serve as director, though it was ultimately decided that he would instead focus entirely on acting. Universal is actively pursuing a director.[50]

In other media[edit]

Theme-park attractions[edit]

Universal Classic Monsters have been used as mazes a dozen times for Halloween Horror Nights at Universal Parks & Resorts since 1991, when the special event was introduced at Universal Studios Florida and has appeared every year in any Universal theme park around the world. They also have appeared in the year-round attraction, Universal's House of Horrors, at Universal Studios Hollywood from 2006 to 2014. Rumors indicate they will also appear in a brand new land opening at Universal's Epic Universe.

Television[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Machell, Christopher (17 October 2018). "Where to begin with the Universal horror cycle". bfi.org.uk. British Film Institute. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  2. ^ Opam, Kwame (6 June 2017). "Universal is adding The Phantom of the Opera and The Hunchback of Notre Dame to its cinematic universe". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  3. ^ Murray, Noel; Phipps, Keith (25 October 2012). "A guide to the Universal Studios monster movies, 1923-1955". The A.V. Club. G/O Media. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  4. ^ Okuda, Ted; Yurkiw, Mark (2007). Chicago TV Horror Movie Shows: From Shock Theatre to Svengoolie. Lake Claremont Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-1893121133. The 'Shock!' package was sold in 142 markets. As a result, stations across the country aired a late-night Shock Theatre series to showcase these pictures.
  5. ^ Woerner, Meredith (May 22, 2017). "Universal debuts its spooky new Dark Universe and its upcoming 'Bride of Frankenstein'". LA Times.
  6. ^ a b c "Universal's 'Monsterverse' in Peril as Top Producers Exit (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Eldridge Industries. November 8, 2017.
  7. ^ Schaefer, Sandy (May 18, 2018). "Universal's Dark Universe Might Not Be Dead After All". ScreenRant. Retrieved May 18, 2018.
  8. ^ Cunningham, Todd (July 20, 2014). "Blumhouse Signs 10-Year Production Deal With Universal Pictures". The Wrap. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
  9. ^ "Spawn Producer Jason Blum Interested In Reviving Dark Universe". 18 August 2018.
  10. ^ Kroll, Justin; Kroll, Justin (January 25, 2019). "'Invisible Man' Finds Director, Sets New Course for Universal's Monster Legacy (EXCLUSIVE)".
  11. ^ Miska, Brad (October 23, 2017). "Luke Evans Hoping to Return as Dracula".
  12. ^ Douglas, Edward (September 26, 2016). "Exclusive: Luke Evans Talks about Dracula's Return in Universal's Monster Mash". LRM.
  13. ^ McClintock, Pamela (May 3, 2016). "Universal Stakes Out Release Date for Third Monster Movie". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 24, 2016.
  14. ^ Mendelson, Scott (July 13, 2016). "What Universal Must Do To Sell Its Classic Monsters Universe". Forbes. Retrieved September 24, 2016.
  15. ^ "'The Mummy' Reviews: What the Critics Are Saying". Variety. June 8, 2017. Archived from the original on June 7, 2017.
  16. ^ colloquial
  17. ^ Kroll, Justin (March 1, 2019). "Elisabeth Moss Circling Universal's 'Invisible Man' (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
  18. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony; D'Alessandro, Anthony (April 12, 2019). "Elisabeth Moss Officially Boards Universal-Blumhouse's 'The Invisible Man'".
  19. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (July 12, 2019). "Blumhouse & Universal Find Their 'Invisible Man' In Oliver Jackson-Cohen". Deadline. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
  20. ^ Verhoeven, Beatrice (May 20, 2019). "Blumhouse's 'The Invisible Man' Sets March 2020 Release Date". TheWrap. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  21. ^ Hipes, Patrick (August 22, 2019). "Blumhouse's 'The Invisible Man' Will Emerge Two Weeks Earlier – Update". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  22. ^ Mahmoud, Sarah El (February 22, 2020). "The Invisible Man Was Never Considered A Part Of The Dark Universe, Leigh Whannell Reveals". Cinemablend.
  23. ^ Edwards, Matt (June 5, 2017). "Alex Kurtzman interview: The Mummy, Transformers". Den of Geek!.
  24. ^ Holmes, Adam (May 2018). "It's Been One Year Since The Dark Universe Was Announced, So What Happened?". Cinema Blend.
  25. ^ Lambie, Ryan (November 14, 2017). "Dark Universe: the undignified death of a cinematic universe". Den of Geek. Retrieved November 15, 2017.
  26. ^ Marc, Christopher (January 15, 2018). "Bride of Frankenstein Assembles Production Team - When Will It Shoot?". Omega Underground. Retrieved January 15, 2018.
  27. ^ Weintraub, Steve (November 13, 2019). "Bill Condon on Directing 'The Good Liar' and What Happened to His 'Bride of Frankenstein' Movie". Collider.
  28. ^ Donnelly, Matt; Donnelly, Matt (February 11, 2020). "Hollywood Still Trying to Put a Ring on Universal's 'Bride of Frankenstein' (EXCLUSIVE)".
  29. ^ "Bride Of Frankenstein Reboot Might Still Happen Despite Dark Universe Failure--Report - GameSpot". www.gamespot.com.
  30. ^ Fleming, Jr., Mike (September 12, 2019). "Paul Feig, Universal Hatch New Monster Movie: 'Dark Army'". Deadline Hollywood.
  31. ^ Evry, Max (October 28, 2019). "Exclusive: Paul Feig Talks Universal Monsters for Dark Army!". ComingSoon.net.
  32. ^ https://collider.com/paul-feig-dark-army-universal-monster-movie-update/
  33. ^ https://collider.com/paul-feig-dark-army-update-universal-monster-movie/
  34. ^ Donnelly, Matt; Donnelly, Matt (February 11, 2020). "Hollywood Still Trying to Put a Ring on Universal's 'Bride of Frankenstein' (EXCLUSIVE)".
  35. ^ "Bride Of Frankenstein Reboot Might Still Happen Despite Dark Universe Failure--Report - GameSpot". www.gamespot.com.
  36. ^ Kroll, Justin (November 20, 2019). "Dexter Fletcher to Direct a Movie About Dracula's Henchman for Universal (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety.
  37. ^ Miska, Brad (November 20, 2019). "James Wan Assembling New Take on 'Frankenstein'". Bloody Disgusting.
  38. ^ "The Invisible Man (2020) with Jason Blum & Leigh Whannell". The Evolution Of Horror. Feb 27, 2020.
  39. ^ "James Wan Developing Monster Movie for Universal (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter.
  40. ^ Kroll, Justin (November 26, 2019). "Elizabeth Banks to Direct, Star in Invisible Woman for Universal". Variety. Retrieved November 26, 2019.
  41. ^ Donnelly, Matt; Donnelly, Matt (February 11, 2020). "Hollywood Still Trying to Put a Ring on Universal's 'Bride of Frankenstein' (EXCLUSIVE)".
  42. ^ "Bride Of Frankenstein Reboot Might Still Happen Despite Dark Universe Failure--Report - GameSpot". www.gamespot.com.
  43. ^ Couch, Aaron (February 7, 2020). "Musical 'Monster Mash' Movie in the Works at Universal". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  44. ^ Siegel, Tatiana; Kit, Borys (March 10, 2020). "New 'Dracula' Movie in the Works as Universal Remakes Its Monsterverse (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 10, 2020.
  45. ^ McNary (March 10, 2020). "Dracula Movie in Development at Blumhouse With Karyn Kusama Directing". Varietyfirst=Dave. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  46. ^ Fleming Jr., Mike (November 12, 2014). "Will Justin Lin Rev 'Fast & Furious' Finale?". Deadline.
  47. ^ Fleming Jr., Mike (November 12, 2014). "Sony Confirms 'Dark Matter'; Universal Confirms Aaron Guzikowski To Write 'Wolfman'". Deadline.
  48. ^ Fleming, Jr, Mike (June 22, 2016). "Dwayne Johnson Sets Jay Longino Graphic Novel 'Son Of Shaolin' At Sony". Deadline.
  49. ^ Ford, Rebecca (October 13, 2016). "Universal Taps 'The Expendables' Writer to Pen 'The Wolf Man' (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter.
  50. ^ https://variety.com/2020/film/news/ryan-gosling-wolfman-movie-universal-1203426491/

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]