Universal Zulu Nation
Originally known simply as the Organization, it arose in the 1970s as the reformed New York City gang the Black Spades, a street gang from South Bronx. While the Black Spades were the base of the organization, other reformed gangs contributed additional members, notably the Savage Nomads, Seven Immortals, and Savage Skulls, among others. Members began to organize cultural events for youths, combining local dance and music movements into what would become known as the various elements of hip hop culture.
The imagery of the Zulu Nation has varied at times as well. During the 1970s, and 1980s, Afrika Bambaataa and the Zulu Nation members would often clothe themselves in costumes representing different cultures of the world and different factions of the Nation throughout the world may utilize different cultural symbols and themes to express basic Zulu philosophy.
Since the early 1980s, the Zulu Nation has since established (autonomous) branches in Japan, France, the UK, Australia, Canada, South Korea and the Cape Flats in Cape Town South Africa.
From the late 1980s, at the height of the Afrocentric movement in hip hop (when artists such as KRS-One, Public Enemy, A Tribe Called Quest, the Native Tongues, and Rakim hit success), the movement seemed to be incorporating many doctrines from the Nation of Islam, the Nation of Gods and Earths, and the Nuwaubians. In the mid 1990s some members began to break off starting their own projects or organizations such as Ill Crew Universal.
Afrika Bambaataa stood down as head of the Zulu Nation in May 2016 after allegations of sexually abusing several young men and children in the organization.
Zulu Nation in France
The Zulu movement was introduced to France in the early 1980s by Afrika Bambaataa. The Zulu Nation was centred suburban Paris since most African immigrants lived beyond the city limits. Since 1987, the Zulu Nation's ties to the French hip hop community have waned. Since Afrika Bambaataa's tour of France in 2008 and a Zulu Nation reunion in Paris, new movements of the Universal Zulu Nation have emerged in different cites in France. According to Veronique Henelon, "French rap specifically has been a multi-dimensional expression of ties with Africa." The first hip-hop television show reportedly appeared in France. It was called 'H.I.P.-H.O.P.' and was aired by the TF1 channel.
In 2004, the thirteenth episode of the second season of The Chappelle Show had the comedian Dave Chappelle do a sketch on an African-American George W. Bush, called Black Bush, where the character said that his coalition of the willing included Afrika Bambataa and the Zulu Nation.
- Chang, Jeff (2005). Can't Stop, Won't Stop: A History of the Hip-Hop Generation. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-30143-X.
- About from ZuluNation.com, retrieved 28 September 2015
- lll Crew Universal[dead link]
- Prevos, A.J.M., "Post-colonial Popular Music in France: Rap Music and Hip-Hop Culture in the 1980s and 1990s." In Global Noise: Rap and Hip-Hop Outside the USA. Tony Mitchell ed., , pp. 29–56. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 2001.
- Henelon, V. "Africa on Their Mind: Rap, Blackness, and Citizenship in France." In The Vinyl Ain't Final: Hip Hnoop and the Globalization of Black Popular Culture. Dipannita Basu and Disney J. Lemelle, eds., pp. 151–66. London; Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press
- Jonathan Gray et al, Satire TV: Politics and Comedy in the Post-network Era (New York: NYU Press, 2009), 243.