Universal access to education

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Students and teachers in Ghana in a parade for inclusive education.
Cienfuegos, a non-profit group teaching art to people with disabilities in Cuba.

Universal access to education[1] is the ability of all people to have equal opportunity in education, regardless of their social class, race, gender, sexuality, ethnic background or physical and mental disabilities.[2] The term is used both in college admission for the middle and lower classes, and in assistive technology[3] for the disabled. Some critics feel that this practice in higher education, as opposed to a strict meritocracy, causes lower academic standards.[4] In order to facilitate the access of education to all, countries have right to education.[5]

Universal access to education encourages a variety of pedagogical approaches to accomplish the dissemination of knowledge across the diversity of social, cultural, economic, national and biological backgrounds. Initially developed with the theme of equal opportunity access and inclusion of students with learning or physical and mental disabilities, the themes governing universal access to education have now expanded across all forms of ability and diversity. However, as the definition of diversity is within itself is a broad amalgamation, teachers exercising universal access will continually face challenges and incorporate adjustments in their lesson plan to foster themes of equal opportunity of education.[6]

As universal access continues to be incorporated into the U.S. education system,[7] professors and instructors at the college level are required (in some instances by law) to rethink methods of facilitating universal access in their classrooms. Universal access to college education may involve the provision of a variety of different assessment methods of learning and retention. For example, in order to determine how much of the material was learned, a professor may enlist multiple methods of assessment. Methods of assessment may include a comprehensive exam, unit exams, portfolios, research papers, literature reviews, an oral exam or homework assignments.[8] Providing a variety of ways to assess the extent of learning and retention will help identify the gaps in universal access and may also elucidate the ways to improve universal access.

Non-discrimination and equality in education[edit]

Examples of marginalized groups

Human rights are internationally recognized as universal rights, therefore meaning it applies to everyone equally and without discrimination. However, a significant number of individuals miss out on education due to discrimination preventing access to education.[9]

Discrimination occurs most prominently in terms of accessing education. For example, girls can face gender-based barriers such as child marriage, pregnancy, and gender-based violence which often prevent them from going to school or contribute to them dropping-out of school.[9] People with disabilities often face literal accessibility issues, such as a lack of ramps or insufficient school transportation, making it more difficult to get to school. Migrants often face administrative barriers that prevent them from enrolling, effectively barring them from education systems.[9]

However, discrimination also occurs within education systems when certain groups receiving an inferior quality of education compared with others, for instance, the quality of education in urban schools tends to be higher than that found in rural areas.[9]

Discrimination also happens after education where different groups of people are less likely to draw the same benefits from their schooling. For example, educated boys tend to leave school with higher wage potential than equally educated girls.[9]

Colored Memorial School of Brunswick, Georgia was built in 1922

Non-discrimination and equality provisions found in international human rights law (IHRL) exist to ensure that the principle that international human rights are universal is applied in practice. Non-discrimination and equality are not abstract concepts under international human rights law (IHRL).[9] They are elaborated human rights that have been developed over decades to address the discrimination that people face daily. Particularly education where the rights to non-discrimination and equality have been applied to the right to education across numerous human rights treaties, including one dedicated to the issue, known as UNESCO CADE.[9]

Despite the strength of non-discrimination and equality law, eliminating discrimination and inequalities is a challenge that individual states and the international community face. This was acknowledged in 2015 when the international community vowed to ‘leave no one behind’.[9]

International and regional human rights treaties apply the rights to non-discrimination and equality to the right to education of specific marginalised groups. Marginalized groups are those who have suffered prolonged and historical discrimination, usually, but not exclusively, on the basis of identity (gender, for example), characteristics (ethnicity, race), or circumstance (refugees, migrants, internally displaced persons). Marginalized groups are very likely to be subject to multiple, compound, or intersectional forms of discrimination.[9]

Examples of marginalised groups include:[9]

Access to education by law[edit]

In 2009 the House of Indian Parliament and the President of India both signed and approved a bill that would grant free law mandated education for children ages six to fourteen.[12] It was considered a major step towards universal education for all. Muchkund Dubey author of the article “The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 : The Story of Missed Opportunity" discusses and highlights the issues of access, quality of education, financial implication, and discrimination.[12]

In the United States, Brown vs. Board of Education was a landmark decision because it found and declared that, “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal”.[13] This began the process of desegregation in many schools that had not desegregated yet.[14] The significance of Brown vs. Board was the universal right of all students to attend educational institutions equally rather than using racial segregation to separate students. Jonathan Kozol, author of The Shame of the Nation,[15] talks about how “physical conditions in these newly integrated schools were generally more cheerful…state of mind among the teachers and the children [was] more high-spirited” in the aftermath of desegregation.[14]

Universal access[edit]

Joe Biden speaking with school children

Universal Access to education is defined as having equal opportunities to take part in any educational system. However, some individuals, groups, or ethnic groups face barriers to equal access. The United States is credited with the current idea of universal access as a concern for handicapped persons.[16] Two international agencies (World Health Organization and World Bank) estimated that around one billion people all over the world various types of disabilities. Between 93 and 150 million of them are children.[17] Plan International revealed that these kids are less likely to attend school, and if enrolled, they are often separated from their peers.[18] The Global Partnership for Education said approximately 90 percent of children with disabilities from low and middle income nations are out of school.[19] Historically, these students have been excluded from the ordinary education system and referred to special learning schools.[20]

Despite all improvements made, education up to this day is inaccessible to millions of schoolchildren globally. Over 72 million children of primary education age are out of school, and around 759 million adults are uneducated. They do not have the resources for developing the situation of themselves, their families, and their countries.[21] Poverty leads to lack of education.[22] In almost all countries (developing and developed), children face barriers to education as a result of inequalities that emanate from health, gender, and cultural identity like religion, language, and ethnic origin. Factors associated with poverty include unemployment, illiteracy among parents, and ailments increase the possibility of non-schooling and dropout rates.[23] Universal primary education is widely known as a major issue for many nations. The majority of these developing states do not possess the financial resources needed to build schools, provide books and other materials, and recruit, train, and pay teachers.[24] The Sub-Saharan African region is the most affected region in the world as roughly 32 million African children are still uneducated.[25] This is followed by Central and East Asia as well as the Pacific with over 27 million children uneducated.[23] However, observers noted that universal access to education remains an attainable goal by 2030.[26]

Bibliography[edit]

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

Definition of Free Cultural Works logo notext.svg This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO Text taken from Right to education handbook, 276, UNESCO, Right to Education Initiative (UK), UNESCO. UNESCO. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Universal Access to Primary Education - World Affairs Council". www.wacphila.org. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  2. ^ "Universal Access to Learning Improves all Countries | Global Campaign For Education United States Chapter". Global Campaign For Education United States Chapter. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  3. ^ "Definition of Assistive Technology". www.gpat.org. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  4. ^ MacDonald, Heather (Spring 2018). "How Identity Politics Is Harming the Sciences". City Journal. Manhattan Institute. Retrieved 12 June 2018. Lowering standards and diverting scientists’ energy into combating phantom sexism and racism is reckless in a highly competitive, ruthless, and unforgiving global marketplace.
  5. ^ "Understanding education as a right". Right to Education Initiative. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  6. ^ "Equal Right, Equal Opportunity – Inclusive Education for All | Education". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  7. ^ "Progress for America's Children | U.S. Department of Education". www.ed.gov. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  8. ^ "Methods of assessment". www.brookes.ac.uk. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Right to education handbook. UNESCO. 2019. ISBN 978-92-3-100305-9.
  10. ^ "Leave No Girl Behind in Africa". Human Rights Watch. 2018-06-14. Retrieved 2021-04-23.
  11. ^ "Attacks on Education | Human Rights Watch". www.hrw.org. Retrieved 2021-04-23.
  12. ^ a b Dubey, Muchkund (2010). "The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009: The Story of a Missed Opportunity". Social Change. 40: 1–13. doi:10.1177/004908570904000102. S2CID 144846615.
  13. ^ "Brown v. Board at Fifty: "With an Even Hand"". Library of Congress. Library Of Congress. 13 November 2004. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
  14. ^ a b Kozol, Jonathan (2005). The Shame of the Nation : The Restoration of Apartheid Schooling in America. New York: Crown Publishing Group. p. 6. ISBN 9781400052448.
  15. ^ Glazer, Nathan. "'The Shame of the Nation': Separate and Unequal". Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  16. ^ "The Right to Education of Persons with Disabilities". International Disability Alliance. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  17. ^ "Persons with disabilities". Right to Education Initiative. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  18. ^ "Inclusive education for children with disabilities". Plan International. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  19. ^ "Education Data". www.globalpartnership.org. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  20. ^ "Reading: Universal Access to Education | Sociology". courses.lumenlearning.com. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  21. ^ "Why we need to aim for more than universal education". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  22. ^ "How Does Poverty Affect Education? | LSU Online". Louisiana State University Online. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  23. ^ a b "Right to Education : Situation around the world - Humanium • We make children's rights happen". Humanium • We make children's rights happen. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  24. ^ "Universal primary education | Global development". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  25. ^ "Education in Africa". uis.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  26. ^ "Access to education and its issues". Times of India Blog. Retrieved 2018-07-01.