# Universal instantiation

Type Rule of inference Predicate logic ${\displaystyle \forall x\,A\Rightarrow A\{x\mapsto t\}}$

In predicate logic, universal instantiation[1][2][3] (UI; also called universal specification or universal elimination,[citation needed] and sometimes confused with dictum de omni)[citation needed] is a valid rule of inference from a truth about each member of a class of individuals to the truth about a particular individual of that class. It is generally given as a quantification rule for the universal quantifier but it can also be encoded in an axiom schema. It is one of the basic principles used in quantification theory.

Example: "All dogs are mammals. Fido is a dog. Therefore Fido is a mammal."

Formally, the rule as an axiom schema is given as

${\displaystyle \forall x\,A\Rightarrow A\{x\mapsto t\},}$

for every formula A and every term t, where ${\displaystyle A\{x\mapsto t\}}$ is the result of substituting t for each free occurrence of x in A. ${\displaystyle \,A\{x\mapsto t\}}$ is an instance of ${\displaystyle \forall x\,A.}$

And as a rule of inference it is

from ${\displaystyle \vdash \forall xA}$ infer ${\displaystyle \vdash A\{x\mapsto t\}.}$

Irving Copi noted that universal instantiation "...follows from variants of rules for 'natural deduction', which were devised independently by Gerhard Gentzen and Stanisław Jaśkowski in 1934."[4]

## Quine

According to Willard Van Orman Quine, universal instantiation and existential generalization are two aspects of a single principle, for instead of saying that "∀x x = x" implies "Socrates = Socrates", we could as well say that the denial "Socrates ≠ Socrates" implies "∃x x ≠ x". The principle embodied in these two operations is the link between quantifications and the singular statements that are related to them as instances. Yet it is a principle only by courtesy. It holds only in the case where a term names and, furthermore, occurs referentially.[5]

## References

1. ^ Irving M. Copi; Carl Cohen; Kenneth McMahon (Nov 2010). Introduction to Logic. Pearson Education. ISBN 978-0205820375.[page needed]
2. ^ Hurley, Patrick. A Concise Introduction to Logic. Wadsworth Pub Co, 2008.
3. ^ Moore and Parker[full citation needed]
4. ^ Copi, Irving M. (1979). Symbolic Logic, 5th edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ
5. ^ Willard Van Orman Quine; Roger F. Gibson (2008). "V.24. Reference and Modality". Quintessence. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. OCLC 728954096. Here: p. 366.