Priesthood of all believers

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"Scripture [...] sets before us Christ alone as mediator, atoning sacrifice, high priest, and intercessor."—Augsburg Confession Art. XXI.[1]

The priesthood of all believers or universal priesthood is a biblical principle in Protestant branches of Christianity which is distinct from the institution of the ministerial priesthood (holy orders) found in some other branches, including the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox. Derived from the Bible and elaborated in the theology of Martin Luther and John Calvin, the principle became prominent as a tenet of Protestant Christian doctrine, though the exact meaning of the belief and its implications vary widely among denominations.

Before Protestantism[edit]

The Odes of Solomon has an early understanding of a view of the priesthood of all believers, suggesting that Jewish-Christians in the region of Antioch believed themselves to be priests of God making spiritual sacrifices.[2]

Tertullian held a belief like the priesthood of all believers, however his views on the laity were influenced by Montanism.[3] As the Montanists believed in the priesthood of every believer.[4]

Irenaeus has been argued to have held to a view of universal priesthood because he stated "for all the righteous possess the sacerdotal rank".[5]

History within Protestantism[edit]

The universal priesthood of all believers is a foundational concept of Protestantism.[6] While Martin Luther did not use the exact phrase "priesthood of all believers", he adduces a general priesthood in Christendom in his 1520 To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation in order to dismiss the medieval view that Christians in the present life were to be divided into two classes: "spiritual" and "secular". He put forward the doctrine that all baptized Christians are "priests" and "spiritual" in the sight of God:

That the pope or bishop anoints, makes tonsures, ordains, consecrates, or dresses differently from the laity, may make a hypocrite or an idolatrous oil-painted icon, but it in no way makes a Christian or spiritual human being. In fact, we are all consecrated priests through Baptism, as St. Peter in 1 Peter 2[:9] says, "You are a royal priesthood and a priestly kingdom," and Revelation [5:10], "Through your blood you have made us into priests and kings."[7]

Two months later Luther would write in his On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church (1520):

How then if they are forced to admit that we are all equally priests, as many of us as are baptized, and by this way we truly are; while to them is committed only the Ministry (ministerium) and consented to by us (nostro consensu)? If they recognize this they would know that they have no right to exercise power over us (ius imperii, in what has not been committed to them) except insofar as we may have granted it to them, for thus it says in 1 Peter 2, "You are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a priestly kingdom." In this way we are all priests, as many of us as are Christians. There are indeed priests whom we call ministers. They are chosen from among us, and who do everything in our name. That is a priesthood which is nothing else than the Ministry. Thus 1 Corinthians 4:1: "No one should regard us as anything else than ministers of Christ and dispensers of the mysteries of God."[8]

The Bible passage considered to be the basis of this belief is the 1 Peter 2:9:

But you are not like that, for you are a chosen people. You are royal priests, a holy nation, God’s very own possession. As a result, you can show others the goodness of God, for he called you out of the darkness into his wonderful light.

(This New Living Translation version reflects the Protestant view, as the universal "royal priesthood" from the Bible Luther cites above has been changed to individual "royal priests".)

Other relevant Scripture passages include Exodus 19:5–6, 1 Peter 2:4–9, Revelation 1:46, Revelation 5:6–10, Revelation 20:6 and the Epistle to the Hebrews.

In ancient Israel, priests acted as mediators between God and people. They ministered according to God's instruction and they offered sacrifices to God on behalf of the people. Once a year, the high priest would enter the holiest part of the temple and offer a sacrifice for the sins of all the people, including all the priests.

Although many religions use priests, most Protestant faiths reject the idea of a priesthood as a group that is spiritually distinct from lay people. They typically employ professional clergy who perform many of the same functions as priests such as clarifying doctrine, administering communion, performing baptisms, marriages, etc. In many instances, Protestants see professional clergy as servants acting on behalf of the local believers. This is in contrast to the priest, whom some Protestants see as having a distinct authority and spiritual role different from that of ordinary believers. British Quakers (Society of Friends) and US and African Quakers in some cases, have no priests and no order of service. God can speak through any person present; and any planned service is at risk of getting in God's way; hence the bulk of the observance is in silence.

Most Protestants today recognize only Christ as a mediator between themselves and God (1 Timothy 2:5). The Epistle to the Hebrews calls Jesus the supreme "high priest," who offered himself as a perfect sacrifice (Hebrews 7:23–28). Protestants believe that through Christ they have been given direct access to God, just like a priest; thus the doctrine is called the priesthood of all believers. God is equally accessible to all the faithful, and every Christian has equal potential to minister for God. This doctrine stands in opposition to the concept of a spiritual aristocracy or hierarchy within Christianity. (See Clericalism)

The belief in the priesthood of all believers does not preclude order, authority or discipline within congregations or denominational organizations. For example, Lutheranism maintains the biblical doctrine of "the preaching office" or the "office of the holy ministry" established by God in the Christian Church. The Augsburg Confession states:

[From Article 4:] Furthermore, it is taught that we cannot obtain forgiveness of sin and righteousness before God through our merit, work, or satisfactions, but that we receive forgiveness of sin and become righteous before God out of grace for Christ’s sake through faith when we believe that Christ has suffered for us and that for his sake our sin is forgiven and righteousness and eternal life are given to us ... [From Article 5:] To obtain such faith God instituted the office of preaching, giving the gospel and the sacraments. Through these, as through means, he gives the Holy Spirit who produces faith, where and when he wills, in those who hear the gospel ... [Article 14:] Concerning church government it is taught that no one should publicly teach, preach, or administer the sacraments without a proper [public] call.[9]

The origins of the doctrine within Protestantism are somewhat obscure. The idea was found in a radical form in Lollard thought. Martin Luther adduced it in his writings for the purpose of reforming the Christian Church, and it became a central tenet of Protestantism.

The doctrine is strongly asserted within Methodism and the Plymouth Brethren movement. Within Methodism it can plausibly be linked to the strong emphasis on social action and political involvement within that denomination, and can be seen in the role of Methodist local preachers and lay speakers in Methodist churches. Within the Plymouth Brethren, the concept is most usually evidenced in the lack of distinction between "clergy" and "laity," the refusal to adopt formal titles such as Reverend or Bishop, the denial of formal ordination, and in some cases the refusal to hire any "professional staff" or paid Christian workers at all. Baptist movements, which generally operate on a form of congregational polity, also lean heavily on this concept. The Laestadian pietist movement has a specific interpretation of the doctrine as underlying its solemn rite concerning the declaration of the forgiveness of sins.

The vast majority of Protestants nonetheless draw some distinction between their own ordained ministers and lay people. Pastors and ordained ministers are usually regarded as congregational leaders and theologians who are well versed with Christian liturgy, scripture, church teachings and are qualified to lead worship and preach sermons.

Some groups during the Reformation believed that priesthood authority was still needed, but was lost from the earth. Roger Williams believed, "There is no regularly constituted church of Christ on earth, nor any person qualified to administer any church ordinances; nor can there be until new apostles are sent by the Great Head of the Church for whose coming I am seeking." Another group, the Seekers, believed that the Roman Catholic Church had lost its authority through corruption and waited for Christ to restore his true church and authority.

Consequences of Luther's doctrine[edit]

Luther's doctrine of the universal priesthood of all believers gave laypersons and the clergy equal rights and responsibilities. It had strong, far-reaching consequences both within the Protestant churches and outside of them with respect to the development of distinct political and societal structures.

Luther had the intention to organize the church in such a way as to give the members of a congregation the right to elect a pastor by majority-decision and, if necessary, to dismiss him again.[10] The Lutheran church would get an institutional framework based on the majoritarian principle, the central characteristic of democracy.[11][12] But mainly due to the strong political and military pressure from the Catholic powers, the developing Lutheran churches in the German territories had to seek the protection of their worldly rulers who turned them into state churches.[13] In the Scandinavian countries, Lutheran state churches were established, too.[14][15]

Calvin put Luther's intended democratic church polity into effect. The church members elected lay elders from their midst who, together with pastors, teachers, and deacons, were also elected by the parishioners, formed the representative church leadership. To this presbyterian polity, the Huguenots added regional synods and a national synod, whose members, laymen and clergymen alike, were elected by the parishioners as well. This combination of presbyteries and synods was taken over by all Reformed churches, except the Congregationalists, who had no synods.[16]

The Separatist Congregationalists (Pilgrim Fathers) who founded Plymouth Colony in North America in 1620 took the next step in evolving the consequences of Luther's universal priesthood doctrine by combining it with the Federal theology that had been developed by Calvinist theologians, especially Robert Browne, Henry Barrowe, and John Greenwood. On the basis of the Mayflower Compact, a social contract, the Pilgrims applied the principles that guided their congregational democracy also to the administration of the worldly affairs of their community. It was, like Massachusetts Bay Colony, founded by Puritans in 1628, de facto a small democratic, self-governing republic until 1691, when the two colonies were united under a royal governor.[17] Both colonies had a representative political structure and practiced separation of powers. The General Court functioned as the legislative and the judiciary, the annually elected governor and his assistants were the executive branch of government. These Protestants believed that democracy was the will of God.[18][19][20] In so doing, they followed Calvin, who had, in order to safeguard the rights and liberties of ordinary people, praised the advantages of democracy and recommended that political power should be distributed among several institutions to minimise its misuse. He had, in effect, advocated separation of powers.[21]

In Rhode Island (1636), Connecticut (1636), and Pennsylvania (1682), Baptist Roger Williams, Congregationalist Thomas Hooker, and Quaker William Penn, respectively, gave the democratic concept another turn by linking it with religious freedom, a basic human right that had its origin also in Luther's theology. In his view, faith in Jesus Christ was the free gift of the Holy Spirit and could therefore not be forced on a person.[22][23] Williams, Hooker, and Penn adopted Luther's position. Precondition for granting freedom of conscience in their colonies was the separation of state and church. This had been made possible by Luther's separation of the spiritual and the worldly spheres in his doctrine of the two kingdoms.[24] The inseparable combination of democracy with its civil rights on the one hand and religious freedom and other human rights on the other hand became the backbone of the American Declaration of Independence (1776), Constitution, and Bill of Rights.[25][26] In turn, these documents became models for the constitutions of nations in Europe, Latin America, and other parts of the world, e.g., Japan and South Korea. The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789) was mainly based on the draft of Marquis de Lafayette, an ardent supporter of the American constitutional principles.[27] These are also echoed in the United Nations Charter and Declaration of Human Rights.[28]

When Lutherans from Germany and Scandinavia emigrated to North America, they took over the church polity based on presbyteries and synods which had been developed by the denominations with Calvinist traditions (for example, Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod).[29][30] In Germany, Lutheran churches established the first presbyteries in the second half of the nineteenth century and, after the downfall of the monarchies in 1918, synods were formed which assumed the task of leading the churches. They are made up of both laypersons and clergy. Since 1919, the Anglican church has also had a synod (National Assembly), which has elected laypersons among its members.[31]

A practical example of the priesthood of all believers may be found in modern Anabaptist churches, such as the Amish, Bruderhof and Hutterites. While these groups appoint leaders, it is held that all members are responsible for the functioning of the church and church meetings. For example, at the Bruderhof, meetings are held with members sitting in a circle, breaking down the tradition of "preacher" and "congregation".[32]

Priesthood in non-Protestant faiths[edit]

Catholic Church[edit]

The dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium of the Second Vatican Council specifically highlights the priesthood of all believers. It teaches that the Church's relationship with God is independent of whatever ordination people have received.

Thus, the Catholic Church accepts a version of the priesthood of all believers.[33] The primary difference between the teachings of the Catholic Church and those of the (non-Anglican) Protestant churches that reject the ordained priesthood, is that the Catholic Church believes in three different types of priests:[34]

  1. first, the priesthood of all believers (1 Peter 2:5–9)
  2. second, the ordained priesthood (Acts 14:23, Romans 15:16, 1 Timothy 5:17, Titus 1:5, James 5:14–15); and
  3. third, the high priesthood of Jesus (Hebrews 3:1).

Problems with translations[edit]

Much of the doctrinal dispute on this matter is caused by the difference between the Greek words ἱερεύς (hiereus meaning "sacred one"; represented in Latin by the word sacerdos) and πρεσβύτερος (presbyteros meaning "one with elderhood"), which are usually both translated in English with the word "priest". The former term refers to the sacrificial ritual leaders of Judaism, the kohanim (כֹּהֲנִים‎), and to those holding the office of conducting sacrifices in ancient pagan temples, whereas the latter term refers to an acknowledged elder of a community.

Catholicism often expresses the idea of the priesthood of all baptized Christians in English as the "common" or "universal" priesthood;[35] in parallel, it refers to Catholic clergy as the "ministerial" priesthood. It defends this distinction with the original language of scripture.[36] The Catholic Church holds that the consecration of the eucharist and absolution from sin may only be validly performed by ministerial priests with true apostolic succession.[37]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Augsburg Confession, Article 21, "Of the Worship of the Saints" Archived 2014-06-26 at the Wayback Machine. trans. Kolb, R., Wengert, T., and Arand, C. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 2000.
  2. ^ Voss, Henry Joseph (2016-10-25). The Priesthood of All Believers and the Missio Dei: A Canonical, Catholic, and Contextual Perspective. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4982-8329-8. In a hymn now known as Ode 20, the poet describes his understanding of the "priesthood of all believers": ..... Ode 20 demonstrates that first century Jewish-Christians in the region of Antioch perceived themselves as individual priests offering spiritual sacrifices
  3. ^ Ellingsen, Mark (2015-10-21). African Christian Mothers and Fathers: Why They Matter for the Church Today. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 978-1-60608-550-9.
  4. ^ Rushdoony, R. J. (2017-07-11). An Informed Faith: The Position Papers of R. J. Rushdoony. Chalcedon Foundation. ISBN 978-1-879998-78-0.
  5. ^ Farrow, Douglas (2004-07-01). Ascension And Ecclesia. A&C Black. ISBN 978-0-567-08325-8.
  6. ^ "Protestantism originated in the 16th-century Reformation, and its basic doctrines, in addition to those of the ancient Christian creeds, are justification by grace alone through faith, the priesthood of all believers, and the supremacy of Holy Scripture in matters of faith and order." "The Protestant Heritage" Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 20 Sept. 2007 "The Protestant Heritage -- Encyclopędia Britannica". Archived from the original on 2006-06-14. Retrieved 2007-09-20.
  7. ^ Martin Luther, Weimar Ausgabe, vol. 6, p. 407, lines 19–25 as quoted in Timothy Wengert, "The Priesthood of All Believers and Other Pious Myths," page 12 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-10-11. Retrieved 2013-06-24.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link).
  8. ^ De captivitate Babylonica ecclesiae praeludium [Prelude concerning the Babylonian Captivity of the church], Weimar Ausgabe 6, 564.6–14 as quoted in Norman Nagel, "Luther and the Priesthood of All Believers", Concordia Theological Quarterly 61 (October 1997) 4:283-84.
  9. ^ Articles 4, 5, and 14 of the Augsburg Confession in Robert Kolb and Timothy J. Wengert, trans. and eds., The Book of Concord : The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2000), 39, 40, 46.
  10. ^ Treatise That a Christian Meeting or Congregation has the Right and the Power to Judge All Doctrines and Call, Install, and Dismiss Teachers, as Grounded on Scriptures [Dass eine christliche Versammlung oder Gemeine Recht und Macht habe, alle Lehre zu beurteilen und Lehrer zu berufen, ein- und abzusetzen: Grund und Ursach aus der Schrift], 1523
  11. ^ Karl Heussi (1957): Kompendium der Kirchengeschichte, Eleventh Edition, Tübingen (Germany), p. 316
  12. ^ Cf. Jeremy Waldron (2002), God, Locke, and Equality: Christian Foundations in Locke's Political Thought, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK), pp. 128-136
  13. ^ Friedrich Wilhelm Graf (2010), Der Protestantismus. Geschichte und Gegenwart, Second, Revised Edition, Munich (Germany), pp. 35-38
  14. ^ Karl Heussi (1957), pp. 330-331
  15. ^ Clifton E. Olmstead (1960), History of Religion in the United States, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., p. 6
  16. ^ Karl Heussi (1957), p. 325
  17. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick (2006), Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War, New York, N.Y., pp. 6-30, 39-42
  18. ^ Christopher Fennell (1998), Plymouth Colony Legal Structure,
  19. ^ Clifton E. Olmstead (1960), pp.15-16, 64-73
  20. ^ Allen Weinstein and David Rubel (2002), The Story of America: Freedom and Crisis from Settlement to Superpower, New York, N.Y., pp. 56-63
  21. ^ Jan Weerda (1958), Calvin. Sozialethik, in: Evangelisches Soziallexikon, Stuttgart (Germany), col. 210
  22. ^ Martin Ohst (2005), Toleranz/Intoleranz, in: Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, Fourth Edition, Tübingen (Germany), Vol. 8, col. 364
  23. ^ Heinrich Bornkamm (1962), Toleranz. In der Geschichte des Christentums, in: Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, Third Edition, Tübingen (Germany), Vol. VI, col. 937
  24. ^ Heinrich Bornkamm (1962), col. 937
  25. ^ Robert Middlekauff (2005), The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763-1789, Revised and Enlarged Edition, Oxford University Press, pp. 51-52, 136, 627, 670-674
  26. ^ Thomas S. Kidd (2010), God of Liberty: A Religious History of the American Revolution, New York, N.Y., pp. 5-10, 54-55, 225
  27. ^ Cf. Heinrich August Winkler (2012), Geschichte des Westens. Von den Anfängen in der Antike bis zum 20. Jahrhundert, Third Edition, Munich (Germany), p. 317
  28. ^ Douglas K. Stevenson (1987), American Life and Institutions, Stuttgart (Germany), p. 34
  29. ^ Abdel Ross Wentz (1954), A Basic History of Lutheranism in America, Philadelphia, Pa., p. 41
  30. ^ Clifton E. Olmstead (1960), pp. 6, 140
  31. ^ J.R.H. Moorman (1957), Anglikanische Kirche, in: Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, Third Edition, Tübingen (Germany), Vol. I, col. 379
  32. ^ "Bruderhof - Fellowship for Intentional Community". Fellowship for Intentional Community. Archived from the original on 2017-04-25. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  33. ^ "CCC, 1547".
  34. ^ "CCC, 1536–1600".
  35. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church #1546
  36. ^ The Priesthood is Both Ministerial and Universal Archived 2013-03-26 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ All the Faithful Are Priests through Baptism Archived 2017-11-14 at the Wayback Machine


  • Christopher Fennell (1998), Plymouth Colony Legal Structure,
  • Friedrich Wilhelm Graf (2010), Der Protestantismus. Geschichte und Gegenwart, Second, Revised Edition, Munich (Germany), ISBN 978-3-406-46708-0
  • Karl Heussi (1957), Kompendium der Kirchengeschichte, Eleventh Edition, Tübingen (Germany)
  • Thomas S. Kidd (2010), God of Liberty: A Religious History of the American Revolution, Pennsylvania, Pa., ISBN 978-0-465-00235-1
  • Robert Middlekauff (2005), The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763-1789, Revised and Expanded Edition, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-516247-9
  • Clifton E. Olmstead (1960), History of Religion in the United States, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
  • Nathaniel Philbrick (2006), Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War, New York, N.Y., ISBN 978-0-14-311197-9
  • Jeremy Waldron (2002), God, Locke, and Equality: Christian Foundations in Locke's Political Thought, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK), ISBN 978-0-521-89057-1
  • Allen Weinstein and David Rubel (2002), The Story of America: Freedom and Crisis from Settlement to Superpower, New York, N.Y., ISBN 0-7894-8903-1
  • Abdel Ross Wentz (1954), A Basic History of Lutheranism in America, Philadelphia, Pa.
  • Heinrich August Winkler (2012), Geschichte des Westens. Von den Anfängen in der Antike bis zum 20. Jahrhundert, Third Edition, Munich (Germany), ISBN 978 3 406 59235 5

External links[edit]