Universities in Bangladesh
Universities in Bangladesh represent about 75 academic bodies out of a total of about 105 institutions of the conventional higher education institution (HEI) in Bangladesh. Segmented by management and financial structure, these include 34 public universities, 56 private universities, 2 international universities, 31 specialized colleges, and 2 special universities. There are specialized universities in both categories offering courses principally in technological studies, medical studies, business studies and Islamic studies. There are two private universities dedicated solely to female students. The number of universities is growing mostly in and around the capital city of Dhaka.
There are about 1688 colleges organized under the umbrella of Bangladesh National University — one of the largest in the world. The Open University offers distance learning courses. There is a parallel religious high-ed education system.
The University Grants Commission of Bangladesh (UGC) is the regulatory body of all the public (government funded) and private universities of Bangladesh. The Private University Act of 1992 paved the way for vigorous sprouting of private universities. 80% of its universities are in their infancy. There is a severed shortage in higher education capacity. The country is yet to have any research and education network (REN) or digital library consortium (DLC).
Bangladesh has 35 public universities instructing the bulk of higher studies students. They that are funded by the government and managed as self-governed government institutions.
Criticism and controversy
There has been much criticism and controversial issues around public universities in Bangladesh. Public universities had become places of political unrest and agitation. 12 of the public universities were reported to employ 1,994 unauthorized faculty and staff, resulting an annual overspend of 159,467,000 Bangladeshi taka borne by the government. All were warned by the UGC and apparently failed to respond to the warning. Student unrest has resulted in session jams and delays in holding examinations. During the presidency of Hossain Mohammad Ershad (1982-90) seven to eight years were being required to complete four-year courses.
Private universities in Bangladesh came into being after institution of the Private University Act of 1992. As of 2008, over 55 of them had started. These universities follow an open credit system.
Criticism and controversy
There has been much controversy around the private universities and their practices. 11 universities went operational without a UGC approval which was made a necessity under the Private University Act (1992). 27 private universities were found running without a vice-chancellor. 10 universities were issued a deadline of one year from the UGC to improve qualities. Eight universities the UGC of Bangladesh recommended for shutting down due to poor quality of academic standards. Some were served with show-cause notice by judicial authorities asking why it would not be closed down. Some of these universities introduced new academic courses without UGC approval with other private universities. Others were found to deliver instructions in unauthorized courses and have illegal campuses.
Other universities and specialized colleges
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