University College London

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
University College London
University College London logo.svg
UCL logo since 2005
Motto Cuncti adsint meritaeque expectent praemia palmae (Latin)
Motto in English
"Let all come who by merit deserve the most reward"
Type Public research university
Established 1826
Endowment £103.6 million (at 31 July 2015)[1]
Chancellor The Princess Royal (as Chancellor of the University of London)
Provost Michael Arthur
Chair of the Council Dame DeAnne Julius[2]
Academic staff
7,070 (2014/15)[3]
Administrative staff
4,910 (2014/15)[3]
Students 35,615 (2014/15)[4]
Undergraduates 16,830 (2014/15)[4]
Postgraduates 18,785 (2014/15)[4]
Location London, United Kingdom
Visitor John Dyson, Lord Dyson
(as Master of the Rolls ex officio)[5]

University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London. The largest higher education institution in London and the largest postgraduate institution in the UK by enrollment,[6] it is regarded as one of the leading multidisciplinary research universities in the world.[7][8][9][10][11]

Established in 1826 as London University by founders inspired by the radical ideas of Jeremy Bentham, UCL was the first university institution to be established in London, and the first in England to be entirely secular, to admit students regardless of their religion and to admit women on equal terms with men.[12] Based on its founding date and starting teaching in 1828, UCL claims to be the third-oldest university in England.[note 1] UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London in 1836, which was granted a royal charter that year. It has grown through mergers, including with the Institute of Neurology (in 1997), the Royal Free Hospital Medical School (in 1998), the Eastman Dental Institute (in 1999), the School of Slavonic and East European Studies (in 1999), the School of Pharmacy (in 2012) and the Institute of Education (in 2014).

UCL's main campus is located in the Bloomsbury area of central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals elsewhere in central London. Satellite campuses are located in Adelaide, Australia and Doha, Qatar. UCL is organised into 11 constituent faculties, within which there are over 100 departments, institutes and research centres. UCL operates several museums and manages collections in a wide range of fields, including the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology and the Grant Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy. In 2014/15, UCL had around 35,600 students and 12,000 staff (including around 7,100 academic staff and 980 professors) and had a total income of £1.18 billion, of which £427.5 million was from research grants and contracts.[1] UCL is a member of numerous academic organisations and is part of UCL Partners, the world's largest academic health science centre,[13] and the 'golden triangle' of elite English universities.[14]

UCL is one of the most selective British universities and ranks highly in national and international league tables.[15][16][17][18][19] UCL's graduates are ranked among the most employable by international employers[20][21] and its alumni include the "Father of the Nation" of each of India, Kenya and Mauritius, the founders of Ghana,[22] modern Japan[23] and Nigeria,[24] the inventor of the telephone, and one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. UCL academics have contributed to major advances in several disciplines; all five of the naturally-occurring noble gases were discovered at UCL by William Ramsay,[25] hormones were co-discovered at UCL by Ernest Starling and William Bayliss,[26] the vacuum tube was invented by UCL graduate John Ambrose Fleming while a faculty of UCL,[27] and several foundational advances in modern statistics were made at UCL's statistical science department founded by Karl Pearson.[28] There are at least 29 Nobel Prize winners and three Fields medalists amongst UCL's alumni and current and former staff.[note 2]


1826 to 1836 (London University)[edit]

The London University as drawn by Thomas Hosmer Shepherd and published in 1827–1828 (now the UCL Main Building)

UCL was founded on 11 February 1826 under the name London University as a secular alternative to the religious universities of Oxford and Cambridge.[29][30] London University's first Warden was Leonard Horner, who was the first scientist to head a British university.[31]

Henry Tonks' 1923 mural The Four Founders of UCL

Despite the commonly held belief that the philosopher Jeremy Bentham was the founder of UCL, his direct involvement was limited to the purchase of share No.633, at a cost of £100 paid in nine installments between December 1826 and January 1830. In 1828 he did nominate a friend to sit on the council, and in 1827 attempted to have his disciple John Bowring appointed as the first professor of English or History, but on both occasions his candidates were unsuccessful.[32] This suggests that while his ideas may have been influential, he himself was less so. However Bentham is today commonly regarded as the "spiritual father" of UCL, as his radical ideas on education and society were the inspiration to the institution's founders, particularly the Scotsmen James Mill (1773–1836) and Henry Brougham (1778–1868).[33]

In 1827, the Chair of Political Economy at London University was created, with John Ramsay McCulloch as the first incumbent, establishing one of the first departments of economics in England.[34] In 1828 the university became the first in England to offer English as a subject[35] and the teaching of Classics and medicine began. In 1830, London University founded the London University School, which would later become University College School. In 1833, the university appointed Alexander Maconochie, Secretary to the Royal Geographical Society, as the first professor of geography in the UK. In 1834, University College Hospital (originally North London Hospital) opened as a teaching hospital for the university medical school.[36]

1836 to 2005[edit]

In 1836, London University was incorporated by Royal Charter under the name University College, London. On the same day, the University of London was created by royal charter as a degree-awarding examining board for students from affiliated schools and colleges, with University College and King's College, London being named in the charter as the first two affiliates.[37]

The Slade School of Fine Art was founded in 1871 following a bequest from Felix Slade.[38]

In 1878 the University of London gained a supplemental charter making it the first British university to be allowed to award degrees to women. The same year, UCL admitted women to the faculties of Arts and Law and of Science, although women remained barred from the faculties of Engineering and of Medicine (with the exception of courses on public health and hygiene).[39][40] While UCL claims to have been the first university in England to admit women on equal terms to men, from 1878, the University of Bristol also makes this claim, having admitted women from its foundation (as a college) in 1876.[41] Armstrong College, a predecessor institution of Newcastle University, also admitted women from its foundation, in 1871.[42] Women were finally admitted to medical studies during the First World War in 1917, although after the war ended limitations were placed on their numbers.[43]

In 1898, Sir William Ramsay discovered the elements krypton, neon and xenon whilst professor of chemistry at UCL.[44][45]

William Ramsay is regarded as the "father of noble gases".

In 1900 the University of London was reconstituted as a federal university with new statutes drawn up under the University of London Act 1898. UCL, along with a number of other colleges in London, became a school of the University of London. While most of the constituent institutions retained their autonomy, UCL was merged into the University in 1907 under the University College London (Transfer) Act 1905 and lost its legal independence.[46]

1900 also saw the decision to appoint a salaried head of the college. The first incumbent was Carey Foster, who served as Principal (as the post was originally titled) from 1900 to 1904. He was succeeded by Gregory Foster (no relation), and in 1906 the title was changed to Provost to avoid confusion with the Principal of the University of London. Gregory Foster remained in post until 1929.[47][48][49]

In 1906 the Cruciform Building was opened as the new home for University College Hospital.[50]

UCL sustained considerable bomb damage during the Second World War, including to the Great Hall and the Carey Foster Physics Laboratory. The first UCL student magazine, Pi Magazine, was published for the first time on 21 February 1946. The Institute of Jewish Studies relocated to UCL in 1959. The Mullard Space Science Laboratory was established in 1967.[51] In 1973, UCL became the first international link to the precursor of the internet, the ARPANET.[52][53]

Although UCL was among the first universities to admit women on the same terms as men, in 1878, the college's senior common room, the Housman Room, remained men-only until 1969. After two unsuccessful attempts a motion was passed that ended segregation by sex at UCL. This was achieved by Brian Woledge (Fielden Professor of French at UCL from 1939 to 1971) and David Colquhoun, at that time a young lecturer in pharmacology.[54]

The Wilkins Building in 1956
A contemporary view of the same

In 1976, a new charter restored UCL's legal independence, although still without the power to award its own degrees.[55][56] Under this charter the college became formally known as University College London, having previously formally been "University of London, University College" since its incorporation into the University. This name abandoned the comma used in its earlier name of "University College, London".

In 1986, UCL merged with the Institute of Archaeology.[57] In 1988 UCL merged with the Institute of Laryngology & Otology, the Institute of Orthopaedics, the Institute of Urology & Nephrology and Middlesex Hospital Medical School.[57]

In 1993 a shake up of the University of London meant that UCL (and other colleges) gained direct access to government funding and the right to confer University of London degrees themselves. This led to UCL being regarded as a de facto university in its own right.[58]

In 1994 the University College London Hospitals NHS Trust was established.[59] UCL merged with the College of Speech Sciences and the Institute of Ophthalmology in 1995, the Institute of Child Health and the School of Podiatry in 1996[60] and the Institute of Neurology in 1997.[57][61] In 1998 UCL merged with the Royal Free Hospital Medical School to create the Royal Free and University College Medical School (renamed the UCL Medical School in October 2008). In 1999 UCL merged with the School of Slavonic and East European Studies[62][63] and the Eastman Dental Institute.[57]

The UCL Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science, the first university department in the world devoted specifically to reducing crime, was founded in 2001.[64]

Proposals for a merger between UCL and Imperial College London were announced in 2002.[65] The proposal provoked strong opposition from UCL teaching staff and students and the AUT union, which criticised "the indecent haste and lack of consultation", leading to its abandonment by the UCL Provost Sir Derek Roberts.[66] The blogs that helped to stop the merger, are preserved, though some of the links are now broken: see David Colquhoun's blog,[67] and the rather more stylish Save UCL blog,[68] which was run by David Conway, a postgraduate student in the department of Hebrew and Jewish studies.

The London Centre for Nanotechnology was established in 2003 as a joint venture between UCL and Imperial College London.[69][70]

Since 2003, when UCL Professor David Latchman became Master of the neighbouring Birkbeck, he has forged closer relations between these two University of London colleges, and personally maintains departments at both. Joint research centres include the UCL/Birkbeck Institute for Earth and Planetary Sciences, the UCL/Birkbeck/IoE Centre for Educational Neuroscience, the UCL/Birkbeck Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, and the Birkbeck-UCL Centre for Neuroimaging.

2005 to 2010[edit]

The UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies building, which was opened in 2005

In 2005, UCL was finally granted its own taught and research degree awarding powers and all new UCL students registered from 2007/08 qualified with UCL degrees. Also in 2005, UCL adopted a new corporate branding, under which, among other things, the name University College London was replaced by the simple initialism UCL in all external communications.[71] In the same year a major new £422 million building was opened for University College Hospital on Euston Road,[72] the UCL Ear Institute was established and a new building for the UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies was opened.

In 2007, the UCL Cancer Institute was opened in the newly constructed Paul O'Gorman Building. In August 2008 UCL formed UCL Partners, an academic health science centre, with Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust and University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.[73] In 2008 UCL established the UCL School of Energy & Resources in Adelaide, Australia, the first campus of a British university in the country.[74] The School is based in the historic Torrens Building in Victoria Square and its creation followed negotiations between UCL Vice Provost Michael Worton and South Australian Premier Mike Rann.[75]

In 2009, the Yale UCL Collaborative was established between UCL, UCL Partners, Yale University, Yale School of Medicine and Yale – New Haven Hospital.[76] It is the largest collaboration in the history of either university, and its scope has subsequently been extended to the humanities and social sciences.[77][78]

2010 to present[edit]

The Torrens Building in Adelaide, South Australia, which houses the UCL School of Energy and Resources

In June 2011, the mining company BHP Billiton agreed to donate A$10 million to UCL to fund the establishment of two energy institutes – the Energy Policy Institute, based in Adelaide, and the Institute for Sustainable Resources, based in London.[79] In November 2011 UCL announced plans for a £500 million investment in its main Bloomsbury campus over 10 years, and the establishment of a new 23-acre campus next to the Olympic Park in Stratford in the East End of London.[80] It revised its plans of expansion in East London and in December 2014 announced to build a campus UCL East covering 11 acres and provide up to 125,000m2 of space on Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park.[81] UCL East will be a part of the planned Olympicopolis that plans to transform the Olympic Park into a cultural and innovation hub where UCL will open its first school of design, a centre of experimental engineering and a museum of the future, along with a living space for students.[82]

The School of Pharmacy, University of London merged with UCL on 1 January 2012, becoming the UCL School of Pharmacy within the Faculty of Life Sciences.[83][84] In May 2012, UCL, Imperial College London and the semiconductor company Intel announced the establishment of the Intel Collaborative Research Institute for Sustainable Connected Cities, a London-based institute for research into the future of cities.[85][86]

In August 2012 UCL received criticism for advertising an unpaid research position; it subsequently withdrew the advert.[87]

UCL and the Institute of Education formed a strategic alliance in October 2012, including co-operation in teaching, research and the development of the London schools system.[88] In February 2014 the two institutions announced their intention to merge[89][90] and the merger was completed in December 2014.[91][92]

In October 2013 it was announced that the Translation Studies Unit of Imperial College London would move to UCL, becoming part of the UCL School of European Languages, Culture and Society.[93] In December 2013, it was announced that UCL and the academic publishing company Elsevier will collaborate to establish the UCL Big Data Institute.[94] In January 2015 it was announced that UCL had been selected by the UK government to be one of the five founder members of the Alan Turing Institute (together with the universities of Cambridge, Edinburgh, Oxford and Warwick), an institute to be established at the British Library to promote the development and use of advanced mathematics, computer science, algorithms and Big Data.[95][96]

In 2015 UCL established a new School of Management focused on technology, innovation and entrepreneurship, replacing its Department of Management Science and Innovation, with plans to move to new premises in One Canada Square, Canary Wharf in May 2016.[97][98]

Campus and locations[edit]


See also: Filming at UCL
The Wilkins Building and main quadrangle
The Rockefeller Building on University Street, one of UCL's largest premises

UCL is primarily based in the Bloomsbury area of the London Borough of Camden, in central London. The main campus is located around Gower Street and includes the biology, chemistry, economics, engineering, geography, history, languages, mathematics, management, philosophy and physics departments, the preclinical facilities of the UCL Medical School, the London Centre for Nanotechnology, the Slade School of Fine Art, the UCL Union, the main UCL Library, the UCL Science Library, the Bloomsbury Theatre, the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, the Grant Museum of Zoology and the affiliated University College Hospital. Close by in Bloomsbury are the UCL Cancer Institute, the UCL Faculty of the Built Environment (The Bartlett), the UCL Faculty of Laws, the UCL Institute of Archaeology, the UCL Institute of Education, the UCL School of Pharmacy, the UCL School of Public Policy and the UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies.[99]

The area around Queen Square in Bloomsbury, close by to other UCL facilities, is a hub for brain-related research and healthcare, with the UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and UCL Institute of Neurology located in the area along with the affiliated National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery. UCL Institute of Child Health and affiliated Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children are located adjacently, forming a hub for paediatric research and healthcare. The UCL Ear Institute, the UCL Eastman Dental Institute and the affiliated Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital and Eastman Dental Hospital are located nearby in east Bloomsbury along Gray's Inn Road and form a hub for research and healthcare in audiology and dentistry respectively.

Statue of Queen Charlotte in Queen Square

Notable UCL buildings in Bloomsbury include the UCL Main Building, including the Octagon, Quad, Cloisters and the Wilkins building designed by William Wilkins; the Cruciform Building, Gower Street (a red, cross-shaped building previously home to University College Hospital); and the Rockefeller Building, University Street, home to the original University College Hospital Medical School and named after the American oil magnate John D. Rockefeller after support from the Rockefeller Foundation in the 1920s. Due to its position within London and the historical nature of its buildings, including most notably the UCL Main Building and Quad, UCL has been used as a location for a number of film and television productions, including Doctor in the House (1954), Gladiator (2000), The Mummy Returns (2001), The Dark Knight (2008) and Inception (2010).[100]

A number of important institutions are based near to the main campus, including the British Library, the British Medical Association, the British Museum, Cancer Research UK, Gray's Inn, the Medical Research Council, RADA, the Royal Academy of Art, the Royal Institution and the Wellcome Trust. Many University of London schools and institutes are also close by, including Birkbeck, University of London, London Business School, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, the Royal Veterinary College, the School of Advanced Study, the School of Oriental and African Studies and the Senate House Library. The nearest London Underground station is Euston Square, with Goodge Street, Russell Square and Warren Street all nearby. The mainline railway stations at Euston, King's Cross and St Pancras are all within walking distance.

Other sites[edit]

Elsewhere in central London are the UCL Institute of Ophthalmology (based in Clerkenwell), the Windeyer Institute (based in Fitzrovia), the UCL Institute of Orthopedics and Musculoskeletal Science (based in Stanmore), The Royal Free Hospital and the Whittington Hospital campuses of the UCL Medical School, and a number of other teaching hospitals. The Department of Space and Climate Physics (Mullard Space Science Laboratory) is based in Holmbury St Mary, Surrey, the UCL School of Energy and Resources is based in Adelaide, Australia and there is a UCL campus in Doha, Qatar specialised in archaeology, conservation and museum studies.[101] Since September 2010 UCL has been running a University Preparatory Certificate course at Nazarbayev University in Astana, Kazakhstan.[102]

In 2014 it was announced that UCL would be building an additional campus at the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, referred to as UCL East, as part of the development of the so-called Olympicopolis site at the southern edge of the park. UCL master planners were appointed in spring 2015, and the first University building is estimated to be completed in time for academic year 2019/20.[103]

Organisation and administration[edit]


Although UCL is a constituent college of the federal University of London, in most ways it is comparable with free-standing, self-governing and independently funded universities, and it awards its own degrees.[104]

UCL's governing body is the Council, which oversees the management and administration of UCL and the conduct of its affairs, subject to the advice of the Academic Board on matters of academic policy, and approves UCL's long-term plans.[105] It delegates authority to the Provost, as chief executive, for the academic, corporate, financial, estate and human resources management of UCL. The Council normally meets six times each year. The Council comprises 20 members, of whom 11 are members external to UCL; seven are UCL academic staff of UCL, including the Provost, three UCL professors and three non-professorial staff; and two are UCL students. The Chair is appointed by Council for a term not normally exceeding five years. The Chair is ex officio Chair of the Honorary Degrees and Fellowships Committee, Nominations Committee and Remuneration and Strategy Committee.[105] The current Chair of the Council is Dame DeAnne Julius.

UCL's principal academic and administrative officer is the President and Provost, who is also UCL's designated principal officer for the purposes of the Financial Memorandum with the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE).[105] The Provost is appointed by Council after consultation with the Academic Board, is responsible to the Council, and works closely with its members, and especially with the Chair of Council. The current and tenth Provost and President of UCL is Michael Arthur, who replaced Sir Malcolm Grant in 2013.[106]

Vice-Provosts are appointed by the Provost, through the Council, to assist and advise the Provost as required. The Vice-Provosts are members of the Provost's Senior Management Team. There are presently six Vice-Provosts (for Education, Enterprise, Health, International, Research, and Operations).[105]

The Deans of UCL's faculties are appointed by Council and, together with the Vice-Provosts and the Director of Finance and Business Affairs, form the members of the Provost's Senior Management Team. The Deans' principal duties include advising the Provost and Vice-Provosts on academic strategy, staffing matters and resources for academic departments within their faculty; overseeing curricula and programme management at faculty level; liaising with Faculty Tutors on undergraduate admissions and student academic matters; overseeing examination matters at faculty level; and co-ordinating faculty views on matters relating to education and information support.[105]

Faculties and departments[edit]

Drayton House, which houses the Faculty of Economics
The UCL School of Pharmacy building
The Faculty of Engineering Sciences building
The Bedford Way building, home to the UCL Institute of Education and the Departments of Geography, Psychology and Language

UCL’s research and teaching is organised within a network of faculties and academic departments. Faculties and academic departments are formally established by the UCL Council, the governing body of UCL, on the advice of the Academic Board, which is UCL’s senior academic authority. UCL is currently organised into the following 11 constituent faculties:[107]

Faculty[108] Academic and research staff
(as at 30 April 2012)[108]
Undergraduate students
Postgraduate students
UCL Faculty of Arts and Humanities 328 2,157 1,075
UCL Faculty of Brain Sciences 1,249 722 1,457
UCL Faculty of the Built Environment (The Bartlett) 355 570 1,241
UCL Faculty of Engineering Sciences 667 2,049 1,642
UCL Faculty of Laws 137 528 458
UCL Faculty of Life Sciences 798 1,183 486
UCL Faculty of Mathematical and Physical Sciences 754 2,187 677
UCL Faculty of Medical Sciences 1,257 1,773 1,342
UCL Faculty of Population Health Sciences 1,092 64 815
UCL Faculty of Social and Historical Sciences 621 2,539 1,894
UCL Institute of Education n/a n/a n/a
Total 5,277 (ex. Institute of Education) 13,772 (ex. Institute of Education) 11,087 (ex. Institute of Education)

To facilitate greater interdisciplinary interaction in research and teaching UCL also has three strategic faculty groupings:

  • the UCL School of Life and Medical Sciences (comprising the Faculties of Brain Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences and Population Health Sciences);
  • the UCL School of the Built Environment, Engineering and Mathematical and Physical Sciences (comprising the UCL Faculty of the Built Environment, UCL Faculty of Engineering Sciences and UCL Faculty of Mathematical & Physical Sciences); and
  • the UCL Faculty of Arts & Humanities, UCL Faculty of Laws, UCL Faculty of Social & Historical Sciences and the UCL School of Slavonic & East European Studies.


In the financial year ended 31 July 2015, UCL had a total income (excluding share of joint ventures) of £1.18 billion (2013/14 – £1.02 billion) and total expenditure of £1.15 billion (2013/14 – £1.01 billion).[1] Key sources of income included £427.5 million from research grants and contracts (2013/14 – £374.5 million), £364.25 million from academic fees and support grants (2013/14 – £292.77 million), £187.44 million from Funding Council grants (2013/14 – £182.44 million) and £6.06 million from endowment and investment income (2013/14 – £5.1 million).[1] During the 2014/15 financial year UCL had a capital expenditure of £149.27 million (2013/14 – £125.93 million).[1] At year end UCL had endowments of £103.61 million (31 July 2014 – £90.54 million) and total net assets of £1.02 billion (31 July 2013 – £890.2 million).[1][note 3]

In 2013/14, UCL had the third-highest total income of any British university (after the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford), and the second-highest income from research grants and contracts (after the University of Oxford).[109] For the 2015/16 academic year UCL has been allocated a total of £171.37 million for teaching and research from the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE), the highest amount allocated to any English university, of which £39.76 million is for teaching and £131.61 millon is for research.[110] According to a survey published by the Sutton Trust, UCL had the eighth-largest endowment of any British university in 2012.[111]

UCL launched a 10-year, £300 million fundraising appeal in October 2004, at the time the largest target ever set by a university in the United Kingdom for such an appeal.[112]

In April 2016 UCL signed a £280 million 30-year loan with the European Investment Bank, the largest loan ever borrowed by a UK university and largest ever loan by the EIB to a university.[113][114] The monies are to be used to fund a £1.25 billion capital expenditure programme in Bloomsbury and Stratford.[113][114]


The UCL academic year is divided into three terms.[115] For most departments except the Medical School, Term One runs from late September to mid December, Term Two from mid January to late March, and Term Three from late April to mid June.[115] Certain departments operate reading weeks in early November and mid February.[115]

Logo, arms and colours[edit]

Whereas most universities primarily use their logo on mundane documents but their coat of arms on official documents such as degree certificates, UCL exclusively uses its logo. The present logo was adopted as part of a rebranding exercise in August 2005.[71] Prior to that date, a different logo was used, in which the letters UCL were incorporated into a stylised representation of the Wilkins Building portico.

UCL formerly made some use of a coat of arms depicting a raised bent arm dressed in armour holding a green upturned open wreath.[116] A version of this badge (not on a shield) appears to have been used by UCL Union from shortly after its foundation in 1893.[117] However, the arms are not known to have ever been the subject of an official grant of arms, and depart from several of the rules and conventions of heraldry. They are no longer formally used by the college, although they are still occasionally seen in unofficial contexts, or used in modified form by sports teams and societies. The blazon of the arms is: Purpure, on a wreath of the colours Argent and Blue Celeste, an arm in armour embowed Argent holding an upturned wreath of laurel Vert, beneath which two branches of laurel Or crossed at the nombril and bound with a bowed cord Or, beneath the nombril a motto of Blue Celeste upon which Cuncti adsint meritaeque expectent praemia palmae. The motto is a quotation from Virgil's Aeneid, and translates into English as "Let all come who by merit deserve the most reward".[118]

UCL's traditional sporting and academic colours of purple and light blue are derived from the arms.


From its foundation the college was deliberately secular; the initial justification for this was that it would enable students of different Christian traditions (specifically Roman Catholics, Anglicans and Protestants) to study alongside each other without conflict. UCL has retained this strict secular position and, unlike most other UK universities, has no specific religious prayer rooms. There has, however, been a Christian chaplaincy since 2005 and there is no restriction on religious groups among students. A "quiet contemplation room" also allows prayer for staff and students of all faiths.

Memberships, affiliations and partnerships[edit]

The main building of University College Hospital

UCL is a constituent college of the federal University of London, of which it was one of the two founding members in 1836 (the other being King's College London).[119]

UCL is a founding member of the Russell Group, an association of British research universities established in 1994,[120] and of the G5 lobbying group, which it established in early 2004 with the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, Imperial College London and the London School of Economics.[121][122] UCL has been a member of the SES-5 engineering and physical sciences research alliance since May 2013, which it formed with the universities of Cambridge, Oxford and Southampton and Imperial College London.[123] UCL is part of three of the 11 biomedical research centres established by the NHS in England and is a founding member of the Francis Crick Institute and the UCL Partners academic health science centre.[13]

UCL has been a member of the League of European Research Universities since January 2006, and is currently one of five British members (the others being the universities of Cambridge, Edinburgh and Oxford and Imperial College London).[124][125] Other international groupings that UCL is a member of include the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association and the Universities Research Association.[126] UCL has a major collaboration with Yale University, the Yale UCL Collaborative, and has hundreds of other research and teaching partnerships, including around 150 research links and 130 student-exchange partnerships with European universities.[12]

UCL is regarded as forming part of the "golden triangle", an unofficial term for a set of leading universities located in the southern English cities of Cambridge, London and Oxford[127] including the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, Imperial College London, King's College London and the London School of Economics.[128]

UCL is the sponsor of the UCL Academy, a secondary school in the London Borough of Camden. The school opened in September 2012 and was the first in the UK to have a university as sole sponsor.[129] UCL also has a strategic partnership with Newham Collegiate Sixth Form Centre.[130]

UCL is a founding member of Knowledge Quarter, a partnership of academic, cultural, research, scientific and media organisations based in the knowledge cluster in the Bloomsbury and King’s Cross area of London.[131] Other members of the partnership include the British Library, the British Museum, Google and the Wellcome Trust.[131]


Faculty and staff[edit]

In the 2014/15 academic year, UCL had an average of 7,070 academic and research staff, the highest number of any UK university, of whom 5,360 were full-time and 1,710 part-time.[3] UCL has the highest number of full professors of any university in the UK, with 648 established and personal chairs.[132] As of March 2016 there were 53 Fellows of the Royal Society, 51 Fellows of the British Academy, 15 Fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering and 117 Fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences amongst UCL academic and research staff.[133]


UCL has made cross-disciplinary research a priority and orientates its research around four "Grand Challenges".[134] According to David Price, Pro-Provost for Research: "We believe we have a moral obligation to make a difference to global problems, and to combine the knowledge that our research generates to develop wisdom that can be applied in each of the four Grand Challenges: Global Health, Sustainable Cities, Intercultural Interaction and Human Wellbeing".[135]

In 2012/13, UCL had a total research income of £334.7 million, the second-highest of any British university (after the University of Oxford).[109] Key sources of research income in that year were OST research councils (£114.3 million), UK-based charities (£95.5 million), UK central government, local/health authorities and hospitals (£48.6 million), EU government bodies (£33.5 million), and UK industry, commerce and public corporations (£12.8 million).[1] In 2012/13, UCL was awarded a total of £135 million in grants from UK research councils, the largest amount of any British university, having made 478 applications and achieved a 33% success rate.[136]

John O'Keefe, neuroscientist and the latest (2014) UCL faculty member to win a Nobel Prize (in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of place cells)

According to a ranking of universities produced by SCImago Research Group, UCL is ranked 12th in the world (and 1st in Europe) in terms of total research output.[137] According to data released in July 2008 by ISI Web of Knowledge, UCL is the 13th most-cited university in the world (and most-cited in Europe). The analysis covered citations from 1 January 1998 to 30 April 2008, during which 46,166 UCL research papers attracted 803,566 citations. The report covered citations in 21 subject areas and the results revealed some of UCL's key strengths, including: Clinical Medicine (1st outside North America); Immunology (2nd in Europe); Neuroscience & Behaviour (1st outside North America and 2nd in the world); Pharmacology & Toxicology (1st outside North America and 4th in the world); Psychiatry & Psychology (2nd outside North America); and Social Sciences, General (1st outside North America).[138] According to a separate analysis by ISI Web of Knowledge, for the period January 2000 to August 2010 UCL was ranked 16th in the world (and 2nd in Europe) for citations per paper in engineering.[139]

In the Microsoft Academic Search, which measures total research output, UCL ranks highly in a diverse range of areas.[140] As of 2012 UCL ranked: among the top five institutions in the world in Chromatography (5th), Geography (2nd), Linguistics (5th), Literature (2nd), Medical Education and Training (2nd), Neuroscience (2nd), Oncology (4th), Ophthalmology (4th) and Pathology (5th);[140] among the top 10 in the world in: Archaeology (6th), Art History (8th), Dentistry (9th), Evolutionary Sciences (10th), Gynecology and Obstetrics (10th), Machine Learning and Recognition (10th), Pharmacology (9th), Plastic Arts (6th), Regional Studies (10th), Religion (6th) and Simulation (10th);[140] and 11th to 20th in the world in Anatomy (15th), Biochemistry (15th), Biomedical Engineering (20th), Biotechnology (16th), Cardiology (20th), Diabetes (11th), Diseases (11th), Endocrinology (17th), Family Medicine (20th), Genetics and Genealogy (14th), History (14th), Hydrology (13th), Immunology (12th), Labor and Demographics Economics (14th), Mineralogy and Petrology (15th), Molecular Biology (16th), Nutrition (12th), Physiology (12th), Psychiatry and Psychology (19th), Public Affairs (12th) and Statistics (16th).[140] UCL is ranked 10th overall in Arts and Humanities and 9th in Medicine.[140]

UCL submitted a total of 2,566 staff across 36 units of assessment to the 2014 Research Excellence Framework (REF) assessment, in each case the highest number of any UK university (compared with 1,793 UCL staff submitted to the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise (RAE 2008)).[141][142] In the REF results 43% of UCL's submitted research was classified as 4* (world-leading), 39% as 3* (internationally excellent), 15% as 2* (recognised internationally) and 2% as 1* (recognised nationally), giving an overall GPA of 3.22 (RAE 2008: 4* – 27%, 3* – 39%, 2* – 27% and 1* – 6%).[142][143][144] In rankings produced by Times Higher Education based upon the REF results, UCL was ranked 1st overall for "research power" and joint 8th for GPA (compared to 4th and 7th respectively in equivalent rankings for the RAE 2008).[144]


The Cruciform Building on Gower Street houses the preclinical facilities of the UCL Medical School

UCL has offered courses in medicine since 1834, but the current UCL Medical School developed from mergers with the medical schools of the Middlesex Hospital (founded in 1746) and the Royal Free Hospital (founded as the London School of Medicine for Women in 1874).[145] Clinical medicine is primarily taught at the Royal Free Hospital, University College Hospital and the Whittington Hospital, with other associated teaching hospitals including the Eastman Dental Hospital, Great Ormond Street Hospital, Moorfields Eye Hospital, the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery and the Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital.

UCL is a major centre for biomedical research. In a bibliometric analysis of biomedical and health research in England for the period 2004–13, UCL was found to have produced by far the highest number of highly cited publications of any institution, with 12,672 (compared to second-placed Oxford University with 9,952).[146] UCL is part of three of the 11 biomedical research centres established by the NHS in England – the UCLH/UCL Biomedical Research Centre, the Moorfields Eye Hospital/UCL Institute of Ophthalmology Biomedical Research Centre and the Great Ormond Street Hospital/UCL Institute of Child Health Biomedical Research Centre.[147] UCL is a founding member of UCL Partners, the largest academic health science centre in Europe with a turnover of approximately £2 billion.[148] UCL is also a member of the Francis Crick Institute, a £600 million medical research centre based next to St Pancras railway station; the other partners are the Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, the Wellcome Trust, Imperial College London and King's College London.[149] It is one of the world's largest medical research centres, housing 1,250 scientists.[150]


Bentham House, the main building of the UCL Faculty of Laws

Admission to UCL is highly selective. For undergraduate entry many of UCL's courses require three A grades at A Level, or a grade equivalent of 6,6,6 on higher level subjects on the International Baccalaureate Program. Due to a very high proportion of applicants receiving the highest school grades, UCL,[151] along with institutions such as Imperial College London and the University of Cambridge,[152] was one of the first universities in the UK to make use of the A* grade at A-Level (introduced in 2010) for admissions to courses including Economics, European Social and Political Studies, Law, Mathematics, Medicine, Theoretical Physics and Psychology.[153]

Undergraduate law applicants are required to take the National Admissions Test for Law[154] and undergraduate medical applicants are required to take the BioMedical Admissions Test.[155] Applicants for European Social and Political Studies are required to take the Thinking Skills Assessment (TSA) should they be selected for an assessment day.[156] Some UCL departments interview undergraduate applicants prior to making an offer of admission.[157]

Undergraduate subjects with the highest applicants to places ratio at UCL in 2015 included Architecture BSc (14:1 ratio),[158] Economics BSc (Econ) (11:1 ratio),[159] Engineering (Mechanical with Business Finance) MEng (10:1 ratio),[160] English BA (10:1 ratio),[161] Fine Art BA (23:1 ratio),[162] Law LL.B (16:1 ratio)[163] and Philosophy, Politics and Economics BSc (30:1 ratio).[164]

Foundation programmes[edit]

UCL runs intensive one-year foundation courses that lead to a variety of degree programmes at UCL and other top UK universities. Called the UCL University Preparatory Certificate, the courses are targeted at international students of high academic potential whose education systems in their own countries usually do not offer qualifications suitable for direct admission. There are two pathways – one in science and engineering called the UPCSE; and one in the humanities called UPCH. The same courses run at the Centre for Preparatory Studies at Nazarbayev University in Kazakhstan. Students completing this course progress onto undergraduate programmes at Nazarbayev University.[165]


The Donaldson Reading Room, part of UCL's Main Library

The UCL library system comprises 17 libraries located across several sites within the main UCL campus and across Bloomsbury, linked together by a central networking catalogue and request system called Explore.[166][167] The libraries contain a total of over 2 million books.[168] The largest library is the UCL Main Library, which is located in the UCL Main Building and contains collections relating to the arts and humanities, economics, history, law and public policy.[166] The second largest library is the UCL Science Library, which is located in the DMS Watson Building on Malet Place and contains collections relating to anthropology, engineering, geography, life sciences, management and the mathematical and physical sciences.[166] Other libraries include the UCL Bartlett Library (architecture and town planning), the Cruciform Library (general clinical and medical sciences), the UCL Eastman Dental Institute Library (oral health sciences), the UCL Institute of Archaeology Library (archaeology and egyptology), the UCL Institute of Education's Newsam Library (education and related areas of social science), the UCL Institute of Neurology Rockefeller Medical Library (neurosurgery and neuroscience), the Joint Moorfields Eye Hospital & the UCL Institute of Ophthalmology Library (biomedicine, medicine, nursing, ophthalmology and visual science), the UCL Language & Speech Science Library (audiology, communication disorders, linguistics & phonetics, special education, speech & language therapy and voice) and the UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies Library (the economics, geography, history, languages, literature and politics of Eastern Europe).[166]

UCL staff and students have full access to the main libraries of the University of London—the Senate House Library and the libraries of the Institutes of the School of Advanced Study—which are located close to the main UCL campus in Bloomsbury.[169] These libraries contain over 3.7 million books and focus on the arts, humanities and social sciences.[168] The British Library, which contains around 14 million books, is also located close to the main UCL campus.

Since 2004, UCL Library Services has been collecting the scholarly work of UCL researchers to make it freely available on the internet via an open access repository known as UCL Eprints.[170][171] The intention is that material curated by UCL Eprints will remain accessible indefinitely.[170]

Museums and collections[edit]

UCL's Special Collections contains UCL's collection of historical or culturally significant works. It is one of the foremost university collections of manuscripts, archives and rare books in the UK.[172] It includes collections of medieval manuscripts and early printed books, as well as significant holdings of 18th-century works, and highly important 19th- and 20th-century collections of personal papers, archival material, and literature, covering a vast range of subject areas. Archives include the Latin American archives, the Jewish collections and the George Orwell Archive.[173] Collections are often displayed in a series of glass cabinets in the Cloisters of the UCL Main Building.[174]

UCL's most significant works are housed in the Strong Rooms. The special collection includes first editions of Isaac Newton's Principia, Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species and James Joyce's Ulysses . The earliest book in the collection is The crafte to lyve well and to dye well, printed in 1505.[175]

The Flaxman Gallery

UCL is responsible for several museums and collections in a wide range of fields across the arts and sciences, including:[176]

  • Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology: one of the leading collections of Egyptian and Sudanese archaeology in the world. Open to the public on a regular basis.[177]
  • UCL Art Museum: the art collections date from 1847 when a collection of sculpture models and drawings of the Neo-classical artist John Flaxman was presented to UCL. There are over 10,000 pieces dating from the 15th century onwards including drawings by Turner, etchings by Rembrandt, and works by many leading 20th century British artists. The works on paper are displayed in the Strang Print Room, which has limited regular opening times. The other works may be viewed by appointment.[178]
  • Flaxman Gallery: a series of plaster casts of full-size details of sculptures by the Neo-classical sculptor John Flaxman, is located inside the Main Library under the central dome of the UCL Main Building.[179]
  • Grant Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy: a diverse Natural History collection covering the whole of the animal kingdom. Includes rare dodo and quagga skeletons. A teaching and research collection, it is named after Robert Edmund Grant, UCL's first professor of comparative anatomy and zoology from 1828, now mainly noted for having tutored the undergraduate Charles Robert Darwin at the University of Edinburgh in the 1826–1827 session. Open at limited fixed times and by appointment.[180]
  • Geology Collections: founded around 1855. Primarily a teaching resource and may be visited by appointment.[181]
  • Institute of Archaeology Collections: Items include prehistoric ceramics and stone artefacts from many parts of the world, the Petrie collection of Palestinian artefacts, and Classical Greek and Roman ceramics. Visits by appointment only.[182]
  • Ethnography Collections: This collection exemplifying Material Culture, holds an enormous variety of objects, textiles and artefacts from all over the world. Visits by appointment only.[183]
  • Galton Collection: The scientific instruments, papers and personal memorabilia of Sir Francis Galton. Housed in the department of biology. Visits by appointment only.[184]
  • Science Collections: Diverse collections primarily accumulated in the course of UCL's own work, including the operating table on which the first anaesthetic was administered. Items may be a viewed by appointment.[185]

Rankings and reputation[edit]

(2015, national)
(2015, world)
(2015/16, national)
(2015/16, world)
(2015/16, national)
(2015/16, world)
THE Reputation[191]
(2015, national)
THE Reputation[191]
(2015, world)
(2017, national)
The Guardian[193]
(2017, national)
Times/Sunday Times[194]
(2016, national)

UCL is consistently ranked as one of the world's leading universities. In the 2015 Academic Ranking of World Universities, UCL is ranked joint 18th in the world (and 3rd in Europe).[195] In the subject tables it is ranked 8th in the world (and 2nd in Europe) for Clinical Medicine & Pharmacy,[196] joint 76th–100th in the world (and joint 13th in Europe) for Engineering, Technology and Computer Sciences,[197] 9th in the world (and 2nd in Europe) for Life & Agricultural Sciences,[198] joint 51st to 75th in the world (and joint 14th in Europe) for Natural Sciences and Mathematics[199] and joint 40th in the world (and 5th in Europe) for Social Sciences.[200]

In the 2015/16 QS World University Rankings, UCL is ranked 7th in the world (and 3rd in Europe).[201] In the 2015/16 faculty rankings it is ranked joint 14th in the world (and 3rd in Europe) for Arts and Humanities, 50th in the world (and 13th in Europe) for Engineering & Technology, 11th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for Life Sciences and Medicine, joint 49th in the world (and joint 9th in Europe) for Natural Sciences and 29th in the world (and 7th in Europe) for Social Sciences & Management. In the 2015/16 Rankings by Subject, UCL is ranked in 35 of the 42 subjects featured, with a ranking in the world top 20 for 16 subjects and in the world top 10 for eight (Archaeology (3rd), Architecture/Built Environment (2nd), Dentistry (8th), Education (1st), Geography (7th), Medicine (9th), Pharmacy & Pharmacology (8th) and Psychology (5th)).[202]

In the 2015/16 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, UCL is ranked 14th in the world (and 5th in Europe).[18] In the subject tables it is ranked 5th in the world (and 2nd in Europe) for Arts and Humanities,[203] 4th in the world (and 3rd in Europe) for Clinical, Pre-Clinical and Health,[204] 38th in the world (and 11th in Europe) for Engineering and Technology,[205] joint 12th in the world (and 5th in Europe) for Life Sciences,[206] 27th in the world (and 10th in Europe) for Physical Sciences[207] and 16th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for Social Sciences.[208] In the 2015 Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings, UCL is ranked 17th in the world (and 5th in Europe).[209] In the 2015 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, UCL is ranked 30th in the world (and 11th in Europe).[210]

In the 2016 U.S. News & World Report Best Global Universities, UCL is ranked 22nd in the world (and 4th in Europe).[211] In the subject tables it is ranked joint 9th in the world for Arts and Humanities, 20th in the world for Biology and Biochemistry, joint 87th in the world for Chemistry, joint 16th in the world for Clinical Medicine, 20th in the world for Computer Science, joint 47th in the world for Economics and Business, joint 123rd in the world for Engineering, 48th in the world for Geosciences, joint 23rd in the world for Immunology, joint 78th in the world for Materials Science, joint 35th in the world for Microbiology, joint 21st in the world for Molecular Biology and Genetics, 2nd in the world for Neuroscience and Behavior, joint 7th in the world for Pharmacology and Toxicology, joint 62nd in the world for Physics, 105th in the world for Plant and Animal Science, 10th in the world for Psychiatry/Psychology, joint 11th in the world for Social Sciences and Public Health and 35th in the world for Space Science.[211]

UCL is ranked 6th in the world (and 3rd in Europe) in the 2014/15 University Ranking by Academic Performance produced by the Middle East Technical University.[15] UCL was ranked 20th in the world in the 2011 300 Best World Universities human competitiveness ranking produced by Human Resources & Labor Review.[212] In a ranking of universities' international reputations produced by The Guardian in 2009, UCL placed 3rd in the UK (behind Oxford and Cambridge).[213] In 2011, UCL was ranked 12th in the world (and 4th in Europe) in a survey of business leaders at top companies carried out by The New York Times.[214] In a separate survey of recruiters at major international companies conducted for The New York Times in 2012, UCL was ranked 16th in the world (and 8th in Europe).[215] UCL is ranked 14th in the world (and 4th in Europe) in the 2014 Global Employability University Survey, a ranking of graduate employability jointly produced by the French human resources consulting firm Emerging Associates and the German polling and research institute Trendence.[216] In a ranking of the universities most frequently searched for on Google published in September 2014, UCL ranked 12th in the world (and 3rd in Europe).[217][218]

UCL is consistently one of the top multi-faculty universities in UK university rankings and ranks joint 12th in the 2016 Times Higher Education Table of Tables of the UK's three main domestic university league tables.[219] UCL has been ranked first in the UK for its staff/student ratio in The Times Good University Guide, The Sunday Times University Guide and The Guardian University Guide,[12] and had the best staff/student ratio in the UK (10.7 students per staff member) in a 2016 study by Times Higher Education.[220] In the 2013 Guardian University Guide subject tables, UCL is ranked first in six subject areas (out of a total of 46): Archaeology and Forensics, Architecture, Art and Design, Civil Engineering, English, and Psychology.[221] In the 2016 Complete University Guide subject tables, UCL is ranked in the top 10 in 26 subjects, and is ranked first for Building.[222] In 2015, UCL was chosen as the 8th best university in the UK for the quality of graduates according to recruiters from the UK's major companies.[223]

Student life[edit]

Performers at the 2014 UCL summer ball

Student body[edit]

In the 2013/14 academic year UCL had a total of 28,859 students, of whom 15,640 were undergraduate and 13,219 were postgraduate.[224] In that year 87% of UCL's students were full-time and 13% part-time,[224] and 54% were female and 46% male.[225]

In 2013/14, 12,330 UCL students were from outside the UK (43% of the total number of students in that year), of whom 5,504 were from Asia, 3,679 from the European Union ex. the United Kingdom, 1,195 from North America, 516 from the Middle East, 398 from Africa, 254 from Central and South America, and 166 from Australasia.[226]

As of 31 July 2015, UCL had around 220,000 alumni across 190 countries, of whom around 137,000 were based in the United Kingdom (and approximately 60,000 were based in London). The largest alumni communities outside of the UK are in the United States, Greece and China.[1]

UCL Union[edit]

The main UCL Union building situated on Gordon Street

Founded in 1893, the UCL Union is one of the oldest students' unions in England, although postdating the Liverpool Guild of Students which formed a student representative council in 1892.[55][227] UCL Union operates both as the representative voice for UCL students, and as a provider of a wide range of services. It is democratically controlled through General Meetings and referendums, and is run by elected student officers. The Union has provided a prominent platform for political campaigning of all kinds in recent years. It also supports a range of services, including numerous clubs and societies, sports facilities, an advice service, and a number of bars, cafes and shops.[228] The union is also responsible for the organisation of a number of events, including, amongst others, the college's annual summer ball.

There are currently over 150 clubs and societies under the umbrella of the UCL Union, including: Pi Media (responsible for Pi Magazine and Pi Newspaper, UCL's official student publications);[229] UCL Union Debating Society, UCL's oldest and the third oldest student society in the UK; UCL Union Film Society, one of the country's oldest film societies with past members including Christopher Nolan; University College London Dramatic Society; and The Cheese Grater (a student magazine containing a mix of news investigations and humorous items).[230]


UCL Union runs over 50 sports clubs, including UCL Cricket Club (Men's and Women's as well as Medical School clubs), UCL Boat Club (Men's and Women's clubs), UCL Cross Country and Athletics Club and UCL Rugby Club (Men's and Women's as well as Medical School clubs).[231]

UCL clubs compete in inter-university fixtures in the British Universities and Colleges Sport (BUCS) competition in a range of sports, including basketball, cricket, fencing, football, hockey, netball, rugby union and tennis. In the 2014/15 season, UCL finished in 24th position in the final BUCS rankings of 151 participating higher education institutions.[232]

UCL sports facilities include a fitness centre at the main UCL campus in Bloomsbury, a sports centre in Somers Town and a 90-acre athletics ground in Shenley.[233]


UCL's mascot is the unnamed Warrior. The Warrior is representative of every UCL student athlete. He is derived from UCL's strong emphasis on strength and togetherness in sport. The Warrior can be seen on University College's coat of arms in the armoured arm holding up the wreath. He is also depicted in the two Roman nudes in front of the Portico; one statue holds a spear, while the other holds a discus, both considered to be among the most important skills of the traditional Greek warrior.

Importantly, the John Flaxman statue that is the centrepiece of the UCL Main Library is that of Saint Michael slaying Satan. Saint Michael is the patron saint of warriors, alongside Saint George, whose cross is seen on the coat of arms of the University of London, of which UCL is one of the two founding members, alongside fierce rivals Kings College London. Despite the statue of Saint Michael, he and the Warrior are not one and the same, owing strongly to UCL's strong secular background.

The Warrior has no name, which is fondly seen as a way to bequeath all of the student body equally with his spirit. No statue has been erected on campus to commemorate the Warrior, despite several pitches by the student body to do so. Perhaps one of the reasons that this has not been done is because the Warrior is an unofficial mascot, along with Phineas.

Rivalry with King's College London[edit]

UCL's Tom Brocket attacks in his team's 2014 Varsity victory. UCL's traditional rivalry with King's College is nowadays most noticeable at the annual varsity rugby game

UCL has a long-running, mostly friendly, rivalry with King's College London (King's), which has historically been known as "Rags".[234] UCL is often referred to by students from King's as the "Godless Scum of Gower Street", in reference to a comment made at the founding of King's, which was based on Christian principles. UCL students in turn refer to King's as "Strand Polytechnic".

The King's' mascot, Reggie the Lion, went missing in the 1990s and was recovered after being found dumped in a field. It was restored at the cost of around £15,000 and then placed on display in the students' union.[235] It is in a glass case and filled with concrete to prevent theft, particularly by UCL students who once castrated it. In turn, King's' students are also believed to have once stolen Phineas, a UCL mascot.[236] It is often claimed that King's' students played football with the embalmed head of Jeremy Bentham. Although the head was indeed stolen, the football story is a myth or legend which is unsupported by official UCL documentation about Bentham available next to his display case (his auto-icon) in the UCL cloisters. The head is now kept in the UCL vaults.[237]

Student campaigns[edit]

Student campaigns at UCL have included: UCLU Free Education Campaign (a campaign for the return of free and non-marketised higher education); the London Living wage Campaign (a campaign for a basic minimum wage for all UCL staff); Disarm UCL (a campaign which successfully persuaded UCL to not invest in defence companies); and Save UCL (this name has been used by two campaigns: one in 2006 which opposed a merger between UCL and Imperial College London in 2006, and a more recent one against education cuts).

As part of the protests against the UK Government's plans to increase student fees, around 200 students occupied the Jeremy Bentham Room and part of the Slade School of Fine Art for over two weeks during November and December 2010.[238][239] The university successfully obtained a court order to evict the students but stated that it did not intend to enforce the order if possible.[239]

Student housing[edit]

Frances Gardner House

All first-year undergraduate students and overseas first-year postgraduates at UCL are guaranteed university accommodation.[240] The majority of second- and third-year undergraduate students and graduate students find their own accommodation in the private sector; graduate students may apply for accommodation but places are limited. UCL's student housing includes: Arthur Tattersall House (115–131 Gower Street); Astor College (99 Charlotte Street); Campbell House East and West (Taviton Street); Frances Gardner House and Langton Close (Gray's Inn Road); Goldsmid House (Gillingham Street); Ifor Evans & Max Rayne Student Residences (109 Camden Road); James Lighthill House (Pentonville Road); John Dodgson House (Bidborough Street); John Tovell House (89 & 93–7 Gower Street); Prankerd House (195 North Gower Street); Ramsay Hall and Ian Baker House Student Residences (Maple Street); and Schafer House Student Residence (Drummond Street). There is limited UCL accommodation available for married students and those with children at Bernard Johnson House, Hawkridge, Neil Sharp House and the University of London's Lilian Penson Hall.[241]

UCL students are eligible to apply for places in the University of London intercollegiate halls of residence.[242] The halls are: Canterbury Hall, Commonwealth Hall, College Hall, Connaught Hall, Hughes Parry Hall and International Hall near Russell Square in Bloomsbury; Lillian Penson Hall (postgraduates only) in Paddington; and Nutford House in Marble Arch. Some students are also selected to live in International Students House.

In 2013, a new student accommodation building on Caledonian Road was awarded the Carbuncle Cup and named the country's worst new building by Building Design Magazine, with the comment "this is a building that the jury struggled to see as remotely fit for human occupation". Islington Council had originally turned down planning permission for the building, but this had been overturned on appeal.[243]

Notable people[edit]

UCL alumni include Mahatma Gandhi (leader of Indian independence movement), Alexander Graham Bell (pioneer of the telephone), Francis Crick (co-discoverer of the structure of DNA), William Stanley Jevons (early pioneer of modern Economics), Jomo Kenyatta ("Father of Kenya"), Kwame Nkrumah (founder of Ghana and "Father of African Nationalism") and Charles K. Kao ("Godfather of broadband"). Notable former staff include Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk ("Father of Czechoslovakia"), Peter Higgs (proposer of the Higgs mechanism which predicted the existence of the Higgs boson), Lucien Freud (artist) and Sir William Ramsay (discoverer of all of the naturally-occurring noble gases).

Nobel Prizes have been awarded to at least 33 UCL academics and students (18 of which were in Physiology & Medicine), as well as three Field Medals.[244][245]

Notable faculty and staff[edit]

Notable former UCL faculty and staff include Jocelyn Bell Burnell (co-discoverer of radio pulsars), A. S. Byatt (writer), Ronald Dworkin (legal philosopher and scholar of constitutional law),[246] John Austin (legal philosopher, founder of analytical jurisprudence),[247] Sir A.J. Ayer (philosopher), Sir Ambrose Fleming (inventor of the first thermionic valve, the fundamental building block of electronics), Lucian Freud (painter),[248] Francis Galton (founder of psychometrics and father of fingerprinting), Peter Higgs[249] (the proposer of the Higgs mechanism, which predicted the existence of the Higgs boson), Andrew Huxley (physiologist and biophysicist), William Stanley Jevons (economist), Sir Frank Kermode (literary critic), Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (first President of Czechoslovakia and "Father of the Nation"), John Stuart Mill (philosopher), Peter Kirstein CBE (computer scientist, significant role in the creation of the Internet), George R. Price (population geneticist), Edward Teller ("Father of the Hydrogen Bomb"), David Kemp (the first scientist to demonstrate the existence of the otoacoustic emissions)[citation needed] and Dadabhai Naoroji (Indian Parsi leader, the first Asian to be elected to UK House of Commons).

All five of the naturally occurring noble gases were discovered at UCL by Professor of Chemistry Sir William Ramsay, after whom Ramsay Hall is named.[250]

Hormones were first discovered at UCL by William Bayliss and Ernest Starling, the former also an alumnus of UCL[26]

Notable alumni[edit]

Notable UCL alumni include:

William Bayliss, co-discoverer of Secretin, the first identified hormone

– artists including Sir William Coldstream (realist painter), Wyndham Lewis (Vorticist painter), Antony Gormley (sculptor), Augustus John (painter, draughtsman and etcher),[251] Gerry Judah (artist and designer), Ben Nicholson (abstract painter), Sir Eduardo Paolozzi (sculptor and artist) and Ibrahim el-Salahi (artist painter and former diplomat);

– authors including Edith Clara Batho, Raymond Briggs,[252] Robert Browning, G. K. Chesterton,[253] David Crystal, Stella Gibbons, Clive Sansom, Marie Stopes,[253] Helen MacInnes, Rabindranath Tagore and Demetrius Vikelas (who was also the first President of the International Olympic Committee);

– business people including Lord Digby Jones (Director-General of the Confederation of British Industry (2001–2006))[254] and Edwin Waterhouse (a founding partner of what is now the professional services firm PwC);

– engineers and scientists including Alexander Graham Bell (inventor of the telephone),[253] Colin Chapman (founder of Lotus Cars),[255] Francis Crick (co-discoverer of the structure of DNA),[256] Hans Eysenck (psychologist who created the modern scientific theory of personality),[257] John Ambrose Fleming (inventor of the vacuum tube), Jaroslav Heyrovský (father of the electroanalytical method), Charles Kuen Kao (pioneer of the use of fibre optics in telecommunications),[258] Joseph Lister (pioneer of antiseptic surgery) and Archie Cochrane (medic, researcher, and pioneer of evidence-based medicine);[259]

– entertainers, musicians, composers and filmmakers including Ken Adam (designer famous for set designs for the James Bond films), Brett Anderson (lead singer of the band Suede), Justine Frischmann (lead singer of the band Elastica), Ricky Gervais (comedian and actor),[253] Gustav Holst (composer), all of the members of the band Coldplay (Chris Martin, Jonny Buckland, Guy Berryman and Will Champion),[260] Christopher Nolan (director of films including The Dark Knight saga),[261] Franny Armstrong (director), Tim Rice-Oxley and Richard Hughes (members of the band Keane) and Jonathan Ross (television presenter);

– journalists and commentators including A. A. Gill (columnist), three former editors of The Economist, most notably Walter Bagehot, two editors of The Times Literary Supplement, Jonathan Dimbleby (television and radio current affairs presenter),[262] Tom Dyckhoff (architecture critic and TV presenter,[263] former ITN Home Affairs Correspondent Sarah Cullen, and Simon Inglis (architectural historian and sports writer);[264]

– politicians including Mahatma Gandhi (leader of the Indian independence movement),[253] Jomo Kenyatta (first Prime Minister, first President and "Father of the Nation" of Kenya),[265] Kwame Nkrumah (first Prime Minister, President and "Founder" of Ghana and "Father" of African Nationalism),[266][267] Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam (first Prime Minister and "Father of the Nation" of Mauritius),[268] Chaim Herzog (President of Israel), Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (first Prime Minister of Nigeria), Itō Hirobumi (first Prime Minister of Japan), Junichiro Koizumi (former Prime Minister of Japan),[269] Wu Tingfang (Acting Premier during the early years of the Republic of China), Sir Stafford Cripps (British Chancellor of the Exchequer 1947–1950), and at least eight serving members of the United Kingdom parliament, including current Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport John Whittingdale;

– lawyers including a Lord Chancellor (Lord Herschell); Chief Justices of England (Lord Woolf),[270] Hong Kong (Sir William Meigh Goodman and Sir Yang Ti-liang), the British Supreme Court for China and Japan (Sir Nicholas John Hannen), India (A. S. Anand), Malaysia (Arifin Zakaria), Nigeria (Samuel Eson Johnson Ecoma), Ghana (Samuel Azu Crabbe), The Straits Settlements (Sir G. Aubrey Goodman) and the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (Rt. Hon. Sir Vincent Floissac); two Masters of the Rolls (Lord Cozens-Hardy and Sir George Jessel); and Attorneys-General of England (Lord Goldsmith[271] and Baroness Scotland), Singapore (Tan Boon Teik and Chao Hick Tin), Hong Kong (Thomas Chisholm Anstey) and Gambia (Hassan Bubacar Jallow);

– sports people including David Gower (former captain of the England cricket team),[272] Patrick Head (co-founder of the Williams Formula One team)[273] and Christine Ohuruogu (Olympic and World 400 metres gold medalist);[274] and

– statisticians including Kirstine Smith (credited with the creation of optimal design of experiments).[275]

Heads of state, government and international organisations[edit]

State/Government Individual Office
 Barbados Sir Elliott Belgrave Governor-General (2011–)
 Barbados Sir Bernard St. John Prime Minister (1985–1986)
Commonwealth of Nations Baroness Patricia Scotland Secretary General (2016-)
 Council of Europe Terry Davis Secretary General (2004–2009)
 Cyprus Nicos Anastasiades (Νίκος Αναστασιάδης) President (2013–)
 Czechoslovakia Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk First President (1918–1935)
 Ghana Kwame Nkrumah First Prime Minister of the Gold Coast, first Prime Minister, first President (1952–1966)
 Israel Chaim Herzog (חיים הרצוג) President (1983–1993)
 Japan Itō Hirobumi (伊藤 博文) First Prime Minister (1885–1888, 1892–1896, 1898, 1900–1901)
 Japan Junichiro Koizumi (小泉純一郎) Prime Minister (2001–2006)
 Kenya Jomo Kenyatta First Prime Minister, first President (1963–1978)
 Mauritius Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam Chief Minister of British Mauritius, first Prime Minister (1961–1982), Governor-General (1983–1985)
 Nigeria Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa First Prime Minister (1960–1966)
Queensland Sir Charles Lilley Premier (1868–1870)
Republic of China Wu Tingfang (伍廷芳) Premier (1917)
 Romania Mihai Răzvan Ungureanu Prime Minister (2012)
 Saint Lucia Sir Vincent Floissac Governor-General (1987–1988)
 Trinidad and Tobago Sir Ellis Clarke Governor-General, first President (1972–1987)
 Turks and Caicos Islands Martin Bourke Governor (1993–1996)
 Uganda Benedicto Kiwanuka Chief Minister of the Uganda Protectorate (1961–1962), first Prime Minister (1962)
 United Nations Angie Brooks President of the United Nations General Assembly (1969–1970)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The title of third-oldest university in England is claimed by three institutions: Durham University as the third-oldest officially recognised university (1832) and the third to confer degrees (1837), the University of London as the third university to be granted a Royal Charter (1836), and University College London as it was founded as London University (1826) and was the third-oldest university institution to start teaching (1828). A fourth institution, King's College London, officially claims to be the fourth-oldest university in England; it was the third university institution to receive a Royal Charter (1829) and some claim it as third oldest on that basis. Deciding which is the "third oldest university" depends largely on the definition of university status.
  2. ^ Universities practice different methods for counting Nobel prize affiliates, from the flattering to the highly conservative. As of March 2016, UCL had an "official count" of 29 Nobel affiliates as students or academics, and a further 11 as honorary graduates or honorary fellows.
  3. ^ The Institute of Education (IOE) merged with UCL in December 2014. In the year ended 31 July 2013 the IOE had a total income of £71.42 million and total expenditure of £69.97 million. The IOE had total net assets of £105.17 million at 31 July 2013.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Annual Report and Financial Statements for the year ended 31 July 2015" (PDF). University College London. Retrieved 15 December 2015. 
  2. ^ "UCL Council". University College London. Retrieved 26 October 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c "2014/15 Staff by HE provider" (XLSX). Higher Education Statistics Agency. Retrieved 21 March 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c "2014/15 Students by HE provider, level, mode and domicile" (XLSX). Higher Education Statistics Agency. Retrieved 19 January 2016. 
  5. ^ "UCL Officers". University College London. Retrieved 4 February 2013. 
  6. ^ "UCL and the Institute of Education merger confirmed". UCL Institute of Education. Retrieved 6 August 2015. 
  7. ^ "World Reputation Rankings 2015 results". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 11 March 2015. 
  8. ^ "The 30 Most Influential Colleges and Universities of the Past Century". Best College Reviews. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 
  9. ^ "University Research Excellence Framework 2014 – the full rankings". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  10. ^ "UCL top performing university in Horizon 2020". University College London. Retrieved 4 October 2015. UCL is the best performing university in the first year of the EU funding scheme Horizon 2020, securing a total of €73.2 million over 55 projects, according to an analysis by Research Professional. 
  11. ^ "2014–2015 World Ranking (1–250)". Middle East Technical University. Retrieved 25 December 2014. 
  12. ^ a b c "University College London (UCL)". Fulbright Commission. Retrieved 4 March 2014. 
  13. ^ a b "UCL Partners to become 'biggest AHSC in the world'". Health Service Journal. 17 October 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2013. 
  14. ^ "Golden opportunities". Nature. 6 July 2005. Retrieved 19 October 2010. 
  15. ^ a b "2014–2015 World Ranking (1–250)". Middle East Technical University. Retrieved 25 December 2014. 
  16. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2014/15". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  17. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities – 2014". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved 17 August 2014. 
  18. ^ a b "World University Rankings 2015–2016". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 30 September 2015. 
  19. ^ "University Research Excellence Framework 2014 – the full rankings". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  20. ^ "Global Employability University Ranking 2014 top 100". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 29 July 2015. 
  21. ^ "What the job market wants". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 July 2015. 
  22. ^ Sherwood, Marika (1996). Kwame Nkrumah: the years abroad : 1935–1947. Legon: Freedom Publ. ISBN 9988771606. 
  23. ^ Reisz, Matthew. "The pioneering foreign students who rebuilt Japan". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  24. ^ "Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  25. ^ "The Life of Sir William Ramsay". Ramsay Memorial Fellowships Trust. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  26. ^ a b Tata, Jamshed R. (2005-06-01). "One hundred years of hormones". EMBO Reports 6 (6): 490–496. doi:10.1038/sj.embor.7400444. ISSN 1469-221X. PMC 1369102. PMID 15940278. 
  27. ^ "Sir John Ambrose Fleming". UCL Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  28. ^ "Department History". UCL Department of Statistical Science. Retrieved 25 August 2015. 
  29. ^ "History". University College London. Retrieved 22 April 2011. 
  30. ^ Americanized Encyclopædia Britannica 10. 1890. p. 6100. Retrieved 9 February 2011. 
  31. ^ Morrell, Jack (2005). John Phillips and the Business of Victorian Science. Ashgate Publishing,. p. 87. ISBN 1840142391. 
  32. ^ Harte, Negley (1998). 'The Owner of Share No. 633: Jeremy Bentham and University College London' in 'The Old Radical, Representations of Jeremy Bentham' Exhibition Catalog. University College London. pp. 5–8. 
  33. ^ "Bentham and UCL". University College London. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  34. ^ Monroe, Paul (1915). A Cyclopedia of Education: Volume Two. The Macmillan Company. p. 388. ISBN 1440061505. 
  35. ^ Barry, Peter (2002). Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. Manchester University Press. p. 12. ISBN 0719062683. 
  36. ^ Wilson, Stanley (1923). The University of London and its colleges: constituting, the most wonderful aggregation of institutions to be found anywhere in the world. University Tutorial Press. p. 129. 
  37. ^ Google Books
  38. ^ Chilvers, Ian (2004). The Oxford Dictionary of Art. Oxford University Press. p. 655. ISBN 0198604769. 
  39. ^ Harte, N.B. (1986). The University of London, 1836–1986: An Illustrated History. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 132. ISBN 0485120526. 
  40. ^
  41. ^ "History of the University". University of Bristol. Retrieved 11 December 2015. 
  42. ^ P. Phillips Bedson (December 1921). "The Jubilee of Armstrong College". Durham University Journal 22: 347–354. 
  43. ^ Google Books
  44. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904: Sir William Ramsay". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 27 June 2012. 
  45. ^ "Sir William Ramsay: The noble chemist". BBC News. 9 February 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2012. 
  46. ^ "University of London, the Historical Record: (1836–1912). University of London. 1912. pp. 7–24. 
  47. ^ Harte and North 2004, pp. 160–61.
  48. ^ "Foster, Sir Gregory: Papers". UCL. 
  49. ^ "Former Provosts". UCL. 
  50. ^ Merrington, W (1976). University College Hospital and its Medical School: A History. Heinemann. ISBN 0434465003. 
  51. ^ Massie, Harrie; Robins, M. (2009). History of British Space Science. Cambridge University Press. p. 220. ISBN 0521123380. 
  52. ^ "30 years of the international internet". BBC News. 19 November 2003. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  53. ^ "UCL marks 30 years of e-networking". Times Higher Education. 21 November 2003. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  54. ^ David Colquhoun. "UCL’s senior common room and the Boston marathon: emancipation in the 1960s, and now". DC's Improbable Science. 2002. 
  55. ^ a b "Landmarks". University College London. Archived from the original on 30 January 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  56. ^ "Royal Charter granted 17 November 1976". Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013. 
  57. ^ a b c d MacLeod, Donald (22 October 2002). "The merger and the man". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 June 2012. 
  58. ^ Rebecca Smithers; Donald MacLeod (10 December 2005). "College vote brings break-up of university a step nearer". The Guardian. Over the past 10 years the university has become an increasingly loose federation of independent institutions that are universities in their own right and receive their grants directly from the Higher Education Funding Council for England, although they still hand out degrees on behalf of the central university. 
  59. ^ Healthcare, Kable (25 March 2011). "University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust – NHS hospital trust profile". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 June 2013. 
  60. ^ "UCL steps up to world class". Times Higher Education. 6 September 1996. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  61. ^ "Medicine in the capital". Times Higher Education. 14 February 1997. Retrieved 27 June 2012. 
  62. ^ "Slavonic school to stay put after UCL merger". Times Higher Education. 5 March 1999. Retrieved 23 June 2012. 
  63. ^ "Language school keeps name in UCL merger". Times Higher Education. 30 July 1999. Retrieved 23 June 2012. 
  64. ^ "Director of Jill Dando Institute appointed". Times Higher Education. 5 January 2001. Retrieved 21 June 2012. 
  65. ^ Richard Alleyne (15 October 2002). "Imperial and UCL discuss merger to be world player". The Daily Telegraph. 
  66. ^ Donald Macleod (18 November 2002). "UCL merger halted to stop "damaging" rows". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 February 2012. 
  67. ^ David Colquhoun. "Committee for UCL". DC's Improbable Science. 2002. 
  68. ^ David Conway. "Save UCL". 2002. 
  69. ^ Frood, Arran (27 January 2003). "London's little idea". BBC News. Retrieved 21 June 2012. 
  70. ^ "Nanotech under the microscope". BBC News. 12 June 2003. Retrieved 21 June 2012. 
  71. ^ a b Baty, Phil (22 July 2005). "Staff fury at '£600K' rebrand". Times Higher Education Supplement (London). 
  72. ^ "PFInancing new hospitals". The Economist. 8 January 2004. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  73. ^ "About Us". UCL Partners. Retrieved 19 September 2010. 
  74. ^ "UCL School of Energy & Resources, Australia, to be established'". University College London. 29 May 2008. Retrieved 1 August 2008. 
  75. ^ The Independent, 29 May 2008
  76. ^ Home. Yale UCL Collaborative (25 March 2013). Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  77. ^ "Research intelligence – Transatlantic affair of the heart takes off in big way". Times Higher Education. 14 July 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2013. 
  78. ^ "Yale joins research alliance". Yale Daily News. 9 October 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2013. 
  79. ^ Edwards, Verity (11 June 2011). "BHP signs $10m deal to set up energy research facilities". The Australian. Retrieved 21 June 2012. 
  80. ^ "UCL has sights set on new East End home". Times Higher Education. 24 November 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2012. 
  81. ^ "UCL to open huge tech and engineering campus". Wired. Retrieved 30 July 2015. 
  82. ^ "London Olympicopolis culture hub plan gets £141m funding". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 July 2015. 
  83. ^ "School of Pharmacy to merge with UCL". Times Higher Education. 13 May 2011. Retrieved 4 July 2012. 
  84. ^ School of Pharmacy merges with UCL. University College London (1 January 2012). Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  85. ^ "UCL and Imperial partner with Intel to create research institute". Times Higher Education. 26 May 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  86. ^ Warman, Matt (24 May 2012). "Intel: London to be city of the future". The Telegraph. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  87. ^ Gibney, Elizabeth. (3 August 2012) Advert for unpaid UCL research role withdrawn | General. Times Higher Education. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  88. ^ "Bloomsbury institutions enter 'strategic partnership'". Times Higher Education. 2 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012. 
  89. ^ "UCL set to merge with Institute of Education". Times Higher Education. 5 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  90. ^ "Institute of Education will bring ‘healthy dowry’ to UCL marriage". Times Higher Education. 13 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  91. ^ "UCL and IoE confirm merger date". Times Higher Education. 25 November 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2014. 
  92. ^ "UCL and IoE merger: a marriage of like minds?". Times Higher Education. 4 December 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2014. 
  93. ^ "Imperial translation unit moves to UCL". Times Higher Education. 2 October 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013. 
  94. ^ "Reed Elsevier announces knowledge partnership with University College London". The Independent. 18 December 2013. Retrieved 25 December 2013. 
  95. ^ "Cambridge University announced as partner in new Alan Turing Institute". Cambridge News. 28 January 2015. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  96. ^ "Five universities named by government to lead Alan Turing Institute". Tech World. 28 January 2015. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  97. ^ "UCL launches School of Management in the heart of London". Financial Times. Retrieved 30 July 2015. 
  98. ^ "University College London comes to Canary Wharf". The Wharf. Retrieved 30 July 2015. 
  99. ^ "Campus location maps, University College London". University College London. Archived from the original on 26 June 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  100. ^ "Nolan's Mind Games". Film London. 14 July 2010. Retrieved 11 August 2010. 
  101. ^ Cunningham, John (16 April 2009). "Energy boost". Times Higher Education (London). Retrieved 14 October 2010. 
  102. ^ "Welcome to the new frontier – Central Asia". The Independent (London). 9 July 2009. Retrieved 26 October 2010. 
  103. ^
  104. ^ Degree Awarding, University College London at the Wayback Machine (archived August 12, 2007)
  105. ^ a b c d e "Governance overview". University College London. Retrieved 9 December 2012. 
  106. ^ "UCL Provost and President". University College London. Retrieved 15 September 2013. 
  107. ^ "UCL Faculties". University College London. Retrieved 19 September 2011. 
  108. ^ a b c d "UCL Annual Review 2012". UCL. Retrieved 5 October 2013. 
  109. ^ a b "Times Higher Education university financial health check 2015". Times Higher Education. 30 April 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2015. 
  110. ^ "Winners and losers in Hefce funding allocations". Times Higher Education. 26 March 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2015. 
  111. ^ "Oxbridge uplift disguises a drop in the size of average UK endowment". Times Higher Education. 26 June 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  112. ^ "University launches £300m appeal". BBC News. 5 October 2004. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  113. ^ a b "UCL to borrow record £280m to expand". Financial Times. 28 April 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2016. 
  114. ^ a b "UCL agrees £280m European Investment Bank loan for campus developments". University College London. Retrieved 28 April 2016. 
  115. ^ a b c "Term Dates: 2013–2014". University College London. Retrieved 25 December 2013. 
  116. ^ "logobig on Flickr – Photo Sharing!". 30 July 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  117. ^ Harte, Negley; North, John (2004). The World of UCL 1828–2004 (3rd ed.). London: UCL Press. p. 154. ISBN 1-84472-068-3. 
  118. ^ Virgil, Storr, Francis, ed., The Aeneid (in Latin) 
  119. ^ "A brief history". University of London. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  120. ^ "Queen's gets key to Russell club door". Times Higher Education. 9 November 2006. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  121. ^ "Super elite in secret bid for cash boost". Times Higher Education. 6 February 2004. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  122. ^ "Universities warned they may face price-fixing fines on fees". The Times. 9 February 2004. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  123. ^ "Research heavyweights deny 'ganging up'". Times Higher Education. 9 May 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  124. ^ "UCL joins League of European Research Universities". University College London. Retrieved 9 August 2014. 
  125. ^ "LERU Members". League of European Research Universities. Retrieved 9 August 2014. 
  126. ^ Malcolm Grant, President and Provost, UCL (March 2005). "The future of the University of London: a discussion paper from the Provost of UCL" (PDF). p. 23. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  127. ^ "Golden opportunities". Nature. 6 July 2005. : "No longer rivals, Oxford, Cambridge and London are now working towards a common goal — ensuring the 'golden triangle' becomes a global science hub."
    • "Oxbridge windfall". Times Higher Education. 4 August 1995. : "A large amount of the cash awarded to humanities postgraduates still goes to the "Golden Triangle" of Oxford, Cambridge and London, British Academy figures reveal."
    • Kershaw, Alison. "UK universities slip in rankings", The Independent, 4 October 2012: "Rankings editor Phil Baty said: "Outside the golden triangle of London, Oxford and Cambridge, England's world-class universities face a collapse into global mediocrity."
  128. ^ "Golden opportunities". Nature. 6 July 2005. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  129. ^ "Academia and the academy: what makes a university open a school?". The Guardian. 19 March 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  130. ^ "UCL announces partnership with Newham Collegiate Sixth Form Centre". University College London. Retrieved 16 November 2014. 
  131. ^ a b "Alan Turing Institute for Data Science to be based at British Library". The Guardian. 4 December 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2015. 
  132. ^ "Key Facts and Figures". University College London. Retrieved 14 September 2010. 
  133. ^
  134. ^ "The Grand Challenges". University College London. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  135. ^ "UCL tops the THE league table in research grant wins". University College London. 3 September 2009. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  136. ^ "UCL leads grant income table". Times Higher Education. 14 November 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  137. ^ SIR World Report 2010 :: Global Ranking at the Wayback Machine (archived November 21, 2010)
  138. ^ "Research powerhouse: UCL top-cited in UK". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  139. ^ "Top European universities in Engineering". Times Higher Education. 18 November 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010. 
  140. ^ a b c d e "Microsoft Academic". Microsoft. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  141. ^ "REF 2014 winners: who performed best?". Times Higher Education. 18 December 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  142. ^ a b "RAE 2008: The results". Times Higher Education. 18 December 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  143. ^ "RAE 2008: results for UK universities". The Guardian. 18 December 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  144. ^ a b "Overall ranking of institutions including power market share". Times Higher Education. 18 December 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  145. ^ "UCL Medical School". University College London. 17 February 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  146. ^ "Bilbliometric analysis of highly cited publications of biomedical and health research in England, 2004–2013". RAND Corporate. 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2016. 
  147. ^ "Biomedical Research Centres". National Institute for Health Research. Retrieved 15 September 2010. 
  148. ^ Carvel, John (7 August 2008). "NHS hospitals to forge £2bn research link-up with university". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 15 September 2010. 
  149. ^ Jha, Alok (19 June 2010). "Plans for largest biomedical research facility in Europe unveiled". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 15 September 2010. 
  150. ^ "Project Press Release". UK Centre for Medical Research and Innovation web site. 21 June 2010. Retrieved 11 August 2010. 
  151. ^ "Mathematics: Undergraduate Prospectus 2010: Prospective Students". UCL. 15 March 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  152. ^ "Cambridge entry level is now A*AA". BBC News. 16 March 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  153. ^ "Undergraduate Prospectus (2015 entry)". University College London. Retrieved 25 January 2015. 
  154. ^ "Law test gains support". Times Higher Education. 10 June 2005. Retrieved 17 June 2012. 
  155. ^ "New test for medics". Times Higher Education. 16 December 2005. Retrieved 20 June 2012. 
  156. ^ "About TSA UCl". Admissions Testing Service. 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014. 
  157. ^ "University College London (University of London) (U80)". UCAS. Retrieved 20 June 2012. 
  158. ^ "Architecture BSc". University College London. Retrieved 18 April 2016. 
  159. ^ "Economics BSc (Econ)". University College London. Retrieved 18 April 2016. 
  160. ^ "Engineering (Mechanical with Business Finance) MEng". University College London. Retrieved 18 April 2016. 
  161. ^ "English BA". University College London. Retrieved 18 April 2016. 
  162. ^ "Fine Art BA". University College London. Retrieved 18 April 2016. 
  163. ^ "Law LL.B". University College London. Retrieved 18 April 2016. 
  164. ^ "Philosophy, Politics and Economics BSc". University College London. Retrieved 18 April 2016. 
  165. ^ "UCL Undergraduate Preparatory Certificates". 
  166. ^ a b c d "Sites & opening hours". University College London. Retrieved 29 September 2010. 
  167. ^ "eUCLid library catalogue". University College London. Retrieved 29 September 2010. "Explore library catalogue". University College London. Retrieved 4 March 2014. 
  168. ^ a b "Review of HEFCE funding for research libraries". Higher Education Funding Council for England. Retrieved 23 June 2012. 
  169. ^ "Libraries". University of London Research Library Services. Retrieved 29 September 2010. 
  170. ^ a b "About UCL Eprints". University College London. Retrieved 29 September 2010. 
  171. ^ "UCL Eprints repository rankings". University College London. Retrieved 29 September 2010. 
  172. ^ "UCL Library Services – Special Collections Library". University College London. 22 January 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  173. ^ "UCL Library Services – Special Collections A-Z Directory". University College London. 8 September 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  174. ^ "UCL Library Services – Special Collections Library". University College London. 22 January 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  175. ^ "UCL Library Services – Special Collections Library". University College London. 10 February 2005. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  176. ^ "UCL Museums & Collections | Home". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  177. ^ "Welcome to The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  178. ^ "UCL Museums & Collections". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  179. ^ "The John Flaxman Collection". University College London. Retrieved 29 September 2010. 
  180. ^ "UCL Museums & Collections". College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  181. ^ "UCL Museums & Collections". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  182. ^ "UCL Museums & Collections". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  183. ^ "UCL Museums & Collections". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  184. ^ "UCL Museums & Collections | Home". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  185. ^ "UCL Museums & Collections". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  186. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2015 - UK". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved 15 August 2015. 
  187. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2015". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved 15 August 2015. 
  188. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2015/16 - United Kingdom". Quacquarelli Symonds Ltd. Retrieved 14 September 2015. 
  189. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2015/16". Quacquarelli Symonds Ltd. Retrieved 14 September 2015. 
  190. ^ a b "World University Rankings 2015-16". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  191. ^ a b "World Reputation Rankings 2015 results". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 11 March 2015. 
  192. ^ "University League Table 2017". The Complete University Guide. Retrieved 25 April 2016. 
  193. ^ "University league tables 2017". The Guardian. 23 May 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  194. ^ "The Times and Sunday Times University Good University Guide 2016". Times Newspapers. Retrieved 21 September 2015. 
  195. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2015". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  196. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities in Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy – 2015". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  197. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities in Engineering/Technology and Computer Sciences – 2015". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  198. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities in Life and Agriculture Sciences – 2015". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  199. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities in Natural Sciences and Mathematics – 2015". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  200. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities in Social Science – 2015". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  201. ^ "QS World University Rankings". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Retrieved 2015-09-15. 
  202. ^ "QS World University Rankings by Subject 2016 - University Colllege London" (PDF). University Colllege London. Retrieved 23 March 2016. 
  203. ^ "Subject Ranking 2015-2016: arts and humanities top 100". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 13 February 2016. 
  204. ^ "Subject Ranking 2015-2016: clinical, pre-clinical and health top 100". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 13 February 2016. 
  205. ^ "Subject Ranking 2015-2016: engineering and technology top 100". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 13 February 2016. 
  206. ^ "Subject Ranking 2015-2016: life sciences top 100". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 13 February 2016. 
  207. ^ "Subject Ranking 2015-2016: physical sciences top 100". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 13 February 2016. 
  208. ^ "Subject Ranking 2015-2016: social sciences top 100". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 13 February 2016. 
  209. ^ "World Reputation Rankings 2015 results". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 11 March 2015. 
  210. ^ "Global Employability University Ranking 2015 results". Times Higher Education. 6 November 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  211. ^ a b "University College London". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 27 March 2016. 
  212. ^ "300 Best World Universities 2011". ChaseCareer Network. 
  213. ^ "Reputation Rankings 2009" (PDF). The Guardian. 20 August 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2013. 
  214. ^ "What business leaders say". The New York Times. 20 October 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2013. 
  215. ^ "What the job market wants". The New York Times. 25 October 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2013. 
  216. ^ "Global Employability University Ranking 2014 results: Cambridge replaces Oxford at the top". Times Higher Education. 8 December 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  217. ^ "The 20 most searched universities in the world on Google". Times Higher Education. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  218. ^ "Google reveals most searched-for universities". BBC News. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  219. ^ "THE ‘Table of Tables’ 2016: University of Cambridge top for fifth year running". Times Higher Education. 15 October 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2016. 
  220. ^ Carly Minsky (22 February 2016). "Top 100 universities with the best student-staff ratio". 
  221. ^ "University guide 2013 subject tables". The Guardian (London). 22 May 2012. Retrieved 24 May 2012. 
  222. ^ "University College London League table performance". The Complete University Guide. Retrieved 25 April 2016. 
  223. ^ "The best UK universities chosen by major employers". Times Higher Education (London). 12 November 2015. 
  224. ^ a b "Student Numbers by Method of Study 2003–04 to 2013–14". University College London. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  225. ^ "Student Numbers by Gender 2003–04 to 2013–14". University College London. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  226. ^ "Comparison of the Numbers of Students of Overseas Nationality 2008–09 to 2013–14". University College London. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  227. ^ "History of the Guild". Liverpool Guild of Students. Archived from the original on 21 June 2014. 
  228. ^ "UCL Union". University College London Union. 13 April 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  229. ^ "University College London student publications – Home". Pi Media. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  230. ^ "About UCL Union". University College London Union. Retrieved 26 May 2011. 
  231. ^ "UCLU Sport". University College London Union. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  232. ^ "BUCS Points 2014/15". British Universities and Colleges Sport. Retrieved 4 April 2016. 
  233. ^ Boehm, Klaus; Lees-Spalding, Jenny (2006). Student Book 2007. Crimson Publishing. p. 711. ISBN 1844550737. 
  234. ^ "Mayhem in the Metropolis: King's College versus University College in Student Rags". King's College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  235. ^ "Mayhem in the Metropolis: King's College versus University College in Student Rags". King's College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  236. ^ "Mayhem in the Metropolis: King's College versus University College in Student Rags". King's College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  237. ^ "Auto-Icon". University College London. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  238. ^ "Students stage day of protests over tuition fee rises". BBC News. 24 November 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  239. ^ a b "University College London granted eviction order". BBC News. 8 December 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  240. ^ "University College London – Accommodation". The Complete University Guide. Retrieved 12 January 2013. 
  241. ^ "Accommodation". University College London. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  242. ^ "University of London – Intercollegiate Halls". University of London. 26 March 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  243. ^ "Carbuncle Cup: UCL student block crowned worst building". BBC News. 29 August 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2016. 
  244. ^ "Facts and Figures". University College London. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  245. ^ "20th Nobel Prize for UCL community". University College London. 8 October 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  246. ^ Liptak, Adam (14 February 2013). "Ronald Dworkin, Scholar of the Law, Is Dead at 81". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  247. ^ "Bentham and UCL". UCL. 24 May 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  248. ^ "Lucian Freud, OM". The Telegraph. 21 July 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  249. ^ Butterworth, Jon (7 September 2010). "Peter Higgs, UCL and the Right Honorable William Waldegrave". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 July 2012. 
  250. ^ "Sir William Ramsay: Noble Gas Pioneer—On the 100th Anniversary of His Nobel Prize". Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  251. ^ "Augustus John". BBC. Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  252. ^ Wroe, Nicholas (18 December 2004). "Profile: Raymond Briggs". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  253. ^ a b c d e Davidson, Max (27 October 2009). "University College London: halls of high distinction". The Telegraph. Retrieved 20 June 2012. 
  254. ^ Morgan, Oliver (12 September 2004). "The CBI's megaphone man". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  255. ^ "Lotus fleet turns out for Colin Chapman tribute". The Telegraph. 3 November 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  256. ^ "Obituary: Francis Crick, OM". The Telegraph. 30 July 2004. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  257. ^ Gray, Jeffrey (2009). "Obituary Hans Jurgen Eysenck (1916-97)". Nature 389: 794. doi:10.1038/39755. 
  258. ^ "Charles Kuen Kao receives Nobel Prize". CCTV. 11 December 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  259. ^ "Archie Cochrane: The name behind Cochrane". Cochrane Collaboration. 5 December 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  260. ^ Sutherland, John (13 September 2004). "Hours of Idleness". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  261. ^ Tempest, Matthew (24 February 2011). "I was there at the Inception of Christopher Nolan's film career". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  262. ^ Dowell, Ben (7 June 2010). "Jonathan Dimbleby: BBC's culture of compliance is 'extremely damaging'". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  263. ^ "TV architecture critic Tom Dyckhoff to give Cheltenham Civic Society annual lecture". Gloucestershire Echo. 18 March 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
  264. ^
  265. ^ "Jomo Kenyatta: emblematic figure of the Independence Movement". Daily Observer. 20 June 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  266. ^ "Nkrumah's birthday declared a holiday". Modern Ghana. 8 September 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2009. 
  267. ^ Birmingham, David (1998). Kwame Nkrumah : the father of African nationalism (Rev. ed.). Athens: Ohio Univ. Press. ISBN 0821412426. 
  268. ^ "Commemorating the Saint of Mauritius and the Father of the Nation". Mauritius News. 8 September 2010. Archived from the original on 15 September 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  269. ^ "Reform leader has thoroughly traditional background". USA Today. 11 September 2005. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  270. ^ Curtis, Polly (17 June 2004). "UCL appoints Lord Woolf to ruling council". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  271. ^ "Lord Goldsmith: Profile". The Guardian. 23 June 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  272. ^ "No smarter than an ox?". Times Higher Education. 22 September 2000. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  273. ^ "Patrick Head's exit stage left another break with the past as F1 enters 2012". The Telegraph. 2 January 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  274. ^ "Passed/Failed: An education in the life of the Olympic gold medallist Christine Ohuruogu". The Independent. 25 June 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  275. ^ Guttorp, P.; Lindgren, G. (2009). "Karl Pearson and the Scandinavian school of statistics". International Statistical Review 77: 64. doi:10.1111/j.1751-5823.2009.00069.x. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Bellot, H. Hale (1929). University College, London 1826–1926. London: University of London Press. 
  • Harte, Negley; North, John (2004). The World of UCL 1828–2004 (3rd ed.). London: UCL. ISBN 1-84472-025-X. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 51°31′29.24″N 00°08′00.88″W / 51.5247889°N 0.1335778°W / 51.5247889; -0.1335778