University Degree Program
University Degree Program (UDP) is or was an unaccredited consortium of diploma mills run by Americans Jason and Caroline Abraham (of Brooklyn, New York; also known by their Hebrew names Yaakov and Chaya Rochel) beginning in the 1990s. In 2004, The Chronicle of Higher Education called UDP the "granddaddy" of diploma mill operations.
The Chronicle of Higher Education reported that the University Degree Program recruited "students" over the telephone from call centers in Romania (where the call center also sold fake international driver's licenses) and Israel. Telephone salespeople, who were paid on commission and received performance-based bonuses, could offer degrees in any field requested. The Abrahams created websites for a diverse variety of bogus institutions whose names were printed on diplomas. Customers were not told which of these "universities" would issue their degree. According to the Chronicle, UDP sent a letter to customers stating: "The policy of not disclosing the name of the University protects you against unscrupulous individuals who do not approve of self study and life style improvement." The letter also said that this was done to avoid "bad publicity".
The operation was estimated to have sold more than 30,000 "degrees" and received proceeds totaling $50 million to $100 million or more.
Two victims of the UDP fraud interviewed on BBC News reported that between 1996 and 2002 institutions of the non-accredited University Degree Program claimed to be subsidiaries of reputable universities such as the Glasgow Caledonian University or the City University of London and ran an actual distant-learning program online or by mail. The correspondence addresses of the bogus institutions were in the immediate vicinity of these universities in order to create a genuine background along with the websites. Study material was prepared in accordance with the syllabus on the website and was regularly sent to the students, who previously had agreed to pay a yearly tuition fee. According to BBC News significant efforts were made to let these institutions blend into the genuine universities with distant-learning programs. These efforts also included personal contact between student and teacher by email or phone. In late 2002 the Abrahams commercialized the operation and began to merely sell their bogus diplomas by using agents.
Early in 2003 the United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and British government authorities took action against UDP and related businesses, including the illegal sale of fake international driver's licenses. The FTC filed a preliminary injunction in January 2003 and amended complaints in February and May 2003. In May the FTC and Israeli government authorities shut down the call center operation in the Mea Shearim section of Jerusalem. The FTC complaint cited "deceptive acts or practices in or affecting commerce". The Abrahams "turned over $100,000 in profits" and promised to stop selling degrees.
In 2004, however, the Chronicle reported that email advertising "remarkably similar" to UDP's and phone solicitations using a "nearly identical" script had continued after that agreement, leading observers to think that the UDP or the Abrahams were still operating diploma mills. The Oregon Office of Degree Authorization observed that some websites that appeared to be University Degree Program "products (or clones)" remained in operation.
Entities associated with UDP
The following are institutions connected to UDP.
- Ashford University (London) (not to be confused with Ashford University of Iowa) 
- Brentwick University 
- Glencullen University 
- Harrington University 
- Hartford University, not to be confused with the University of Hartford in Connecticut. As of 2012, the Oregon Office of Degree Authorization stated that organizations using the "Hartford University" name were operating from the South Pacific island of Vanuatu and Washington, DC.
- Hartley University 
- Kingsfield University 
- Landford University 
- Northfield University 
- Oaklands University 
- Parkhurst University 
- Parkwood University
- Shaftesbury University.
- Shelbourne University 
- Shepperton University 
- Stafford University 
- Summerset University 
- Thornewood University 
- University of Bedford 
- University of Devonshire 
- University of Dorchester 
- University of Dunham 
- University of Hampshire
- University of Palmers Green 
- University of San Moritz 
- University of Wexford 
- Westbourne University 
- Westhampton University 
The following are unrecognized accreditation associations of higher learning connected to UDP.
- Distance Learning Council of Europe (DLCE: accrediting)
- European Council for Distance & Open Learning (ECDOL: accrediting)
- European Committee for Home and Online Education (ECHOE: accrediting))
Websites shut down by the FTC
- www.ashforduniversity.org (domain for Ashford University)
- www.brentwickuniversity.org (domain for Brentwick University)
- www.henryheston.com.cnchost.com (domain containing sites for the University of Devonshire, Glencullen University, Harrington University, and Shelbourne University)
- www.kingsfielduniversity.org (domain for Kingsfield University)
- www.landforduniversity.org (domain for Landford University)
- www.parkwooduniversity.org (domain for Parkwood University)
- www.thornewooduniversity.org (domain for Thornewood University)
- www.universityofwexford.org (domain for the University of Wexford)
- www.westbourneuniversity.org (domain for Westbourne University)
People with UDP degrees
- Perry Beale, who was convicted of defrauding hospitals in Virginia by representing himself as a medical physicist, claimed to hold graduate degrees from the University of San Moritz 
- Leonard Ingram (AKA "Bhagwan Ra Afrika"), a self-proclaimed anger management specialist, claims a PhD in philosophy from Glencullen University. Ingram has written several books and appeared on season five of Penn & Teller: Bullshit! in the episode entitled "Anger Management".
- Kostas S. Margaritis (Κώστας Σ. Μαργαρίτης), Greek politician, member of New Democracy (Greece) lists a degree from Shelbourne University.
- In 2005 a Pennsylvania children's mental health counselor, Leon Shal, was charged with several counts of fraud in connection with his use of a Shaftesbury University bachelor's degree to obtain employment. A state investigation reported that the institution was neither recognized nor accredited in the United Kingdom or the United States and that Shal's university diploma contained two misspellings. Shal avoided trial, but was placed in a pretrial diversion program.
- George Weah, a retired Liberian football player turned politician, lists a degree from Parkwood University.
- Antoine Zahra, member of Lebanon's parliament affiliated with the Lebanese Forces and a candidate in the 2009 elections, claims a Diploma in Business Studies from the University of Harrington.
- Jim Mann, appointed by Governor of Kansas Sam Brownback as the Chief Information Technology Officer of the State of Kansas on October 31, 2011 claims a degree in Business Administration from the University of Devonshire. Mann subsequently resigned the post on November 7, 2011 after questions about his credentials were published.
- Accreditation mill
- Diploma mill
- Educational accreditation
- List of unaccredited institutions of higher learning
- List of unrecognized accreditation associations of higher learning
- Operation Dipscam
- "The University of Spam". The Chronicle of Higher Education. June 25, 2004. Retrieved 2006-10-01.
- "Information about some degree-granting institutions not accredited". Oregon State Office of Degree Authorization. 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-06-27. Retrieved 2006-10-18.
- Ezell, Allen (2009), "Recent developments with degree mills" (PDF), College & University Journal (Vol85 No 2): 40
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Notice of Disqualification Proceedings and Opportunity to Explain, January 20, 2006; among the complaints against the person cited are his claiming degrees from Ashford University and Brentwick University.
- Gollin, George (September 2003). "Unconventional University Diplomas Doesn't Mean it exists (PDF File)" (PDF). University of Illinois. Retrieved 2011-08-30.
- Brentwick U, Best of the Rest, Washington Post, October 15, 2000. The reporter describes his experience obtaining a fake degree from Brentwick, whose address is actually a mail drop above a dry cleaner in London. However, the phone number he was originally given was in New York City; he wired his payment to Cyprus; and the diploma was accompanied by a notice that credit card records would show a payment to "Hyacinth, Romania."
- Unaccredited colleges, Oregon Office of Degree Authorization, accessed 14 February 2012
- Unaccredited Colleges, Oregon Office of Degree Authorization, accessed August 29, 2011
- Forys, Marsha (April 26, 2005). "Children's counselor charged with fraud". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved 2006-10-18.
- "Fake universities thrive on the web". BBC. 5 January 2004. Retrieved 2006-10-18.
- University of Dorchester was identified as a clone of Strassford University c. 2003, using website http://www.uoduk.co.uk/. As of 2011, an entity of the same name (but alternately calling itself Dorchester University) is using the website http://www.dorchesteru.org.uk/. The Oregon Office of Degree Authorization "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 25, 2011. Retrieved May 17, 2012. (accessed 30 August 2011) identifies this entity as unaccredited, but does not link it to UDP.
- Archived version of University of Hampshire website
- Honor Among Thieves, Insidehighered.com, October 16, 2007, and Inspector was not what he claimed, by Jim Hall, The Free Lance-Star (Fredericksburg, Virginia), October 14, 2007
- Leonard Ingram profile, Gaia Community website, accessed April 6, 2008
- Kostas Margaritis' website (see Biography), accessed July 3, 2008. The Shelbourne degree has been discussed in Greek-language news media, including http://www.iospress.gr/ios2008/ios20080622.htm and http://www.iospress.gr/extra/extra20080629.htm.
- Judy Kroeger, Counselor held for court in fraud, Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, July 9, 2005
- Chris Foreman, Man enters ARD in counseling case, Pittsburgh Tribune Review, April 29, 2006
- George Weah in Diploma-Mill Scandal, Gelf Magazine, April 22, 2006
- Farzand Ahmed (March 28, 2010). "Phoney degrees: Pak Law Minister not alone". India Today.
- Tim Carpenter (November 8, 2011). "Brownback sticking by new IT chief". Topeka Capitol Journal.
- John Hanna (November 8, 2011). "Brownback's IT chief resigns over questions about degree". Associated Press.
- University Degree Program – Official website
- Gollin, George (September 2003). Unconventional University Diplomas from Online Vendors, a presentation on an investigation of UDP. PDF format.