University of Cincinnati
|Motto||Juncta Juvant and Alta Petit (Latin)|
Motto in English
|"Strength in Unity" and "Seek the Highest"|
|Type|| • Public
• Research university
• NSA Cyber Operations Centers of Academic Excellence
|Endowment||$1.2 billion (November 2014)|
|President||Beverly Davenport (interim)|
|Provost||Peter E. Landgren (interim)|
|Students||44,251 (all campuses, 2014) 34,379 (uptown, 2013)|
|Undergraduates||31,983 (all campuses, 2013) 23,706 (uptown, 2013)|
|Location||Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.
Main Campus: 137 acres (0.55 km2)
Uptown Campus (Main and Medical): 194 acres (0.79 km2)
All campuses: 473 acres (1.91 km²)
|Student newspaper||The News Record|
|Athletics||NCAA Division I, FBS
|Affiliations||University System of Ohio
GCU (formerly Urban 13)
The University of Cincinnati (commonly referred to as UC or Cincinnati) is a comprehensive public research university in Cincinnati, in the U.S. state of Ohio, and a part of the University System of Ohio.
Founded in 1819 as Cincinnati College, it is the oldest institution of higher education in Cincinnati and has an annual enrollment of over 40,000 students, making it the second largest university in Ohio and one of the 50 largest universities in the United States. In the 2010 survey by Times Higher Education (UK), the university was ranked in the top 100 universities in North America and as one of the top 200 in the world. Beginning with the 2011 edition of the U.S. News and World Report "Best Colleges" rankings, the University of Cincinnati has been ranked as a Tier One university, ranking as the 140th National University and 71st Top Public University in the 2016 rankings. This includes being the number 3 ranked university in the nation in the "Up-and-Coming" National Universities section of the 2014 edition. In 2011-2012 academic year the Leiden University ranking put the University of Cincinnati at the 93rd place globally and at the 63rd place in North America by the proportion of top-cited publications. In 2014, U.S. News and World Report ranked UC in the top 200 of universities worldwide.
The university garners roughly $400 million per annum in research funding, ranking 22nd among public universities in the United States. Numerous programs across the university are nationally ranked, including: aerospace engineering, anthropology, architecture, classics, composition, conducting, cooperative education, criminal justice, design, environmental science, law, medicine, music, musical theater, neurology, nursing, opera, otolaryngology, paleontology, pediatrics, and pharmacy.
The school offers over 100 bachelor's degrees, over 300 degree-granting programs, and over 600 total programs of study, ranging from certificates to doctoral and first professional education. With an economic impact of over $3.5 billion per year, it is the largest single employer in Greater Cincinnati. After extensive renovations through the implementation of the 1989 Master Plan, the university has been recognized by campus planners and architects as one of the most distinguished campus settings in the world.
- 1 History
- 2 Campuses
- 3 Professional Practice Program
- 4 Academic profile
- 5 International activities
- 6 Research
- 7 Athletics
- 8 Student life
- 9 Notable alumni and faculty members
- 10 Controversies
- 11 References
- 12 External links
In 1819, Cincinnati College and the Medical College of Ohio were founded in Cincinnati. Local benefactor Dr. Daniel Drake founded and funded the Medical College of Ohio. William Lytle of the Lytle family donated the land, funded the Cincinnati College and Law College, and served as its first president. The college survived only six years before financial difficulties forced it to close. In 1835, Daniel Drake reestablished the institution, which eventually joined with the Cincinnati Law School.
In 1858, Charles McMicken died of pneumonia and in his will he allocated $1 million to the City of Cincinnati to found a university. The University of Cincinnati was chartered by the Ohio legislature in 1870 after delays by livestock and veal lobbyists angered by the liberal arts-centered curriculum and lack of agricultural and manufacturing emphasis. The university's board of rectors changed the institution's name to the University of Cincinnati.
By 1893, the University expanded beyond its primary location on Clifton Avenue and relocated to its present location in the Heights neighborhood. As the university expanded, the rectors merged the institution with Cincinnati Law School, establishing the University of Cincinnati College of Law. In 1896, the Ohio Medical College joined Miami Medical College to form the Ohio-Miami Medical Department of the University of Cincinnati in 1909. As political movements for temperance and suffrage grew, the university established Teacher's College in 1905 and a Graduate School in the College of Arts and Sciences in 1906. The Queen City College of Pharmacy, acquired from Wilmington College (Ohio), became the present James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy.
Public liberal arts university
In 1962, the Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music was acquired by the university. The Ohio legislature in Columbus declared the university a "municipally-sponsored, state-affiliated" institution in 1968. During this time, the University of Cincinnati was the second oldest and second-largest municipal university in the United States.
By an act of the legislature, the University of Cincinnati became a state institution in 1977.
Campus Master Plan and UC|21
In 1989, President Joseph A. Steger released a Master Plan for a stronger academy. Over this time, the university invested nearly $2 billion in campus construction, renovation, and expansion ranging from the student union to a new recreation center to the medical school.
It included renovation and construction of multiple buildings, a campus forest, and a university promenade.
Upon her inauguration in 2005, President Nancy L. Zimpher developed the UC|21 plan, designed to redefine Cincinnati as a leading urban research university. In addition, it includes putting liberal arts education at the center, increasing research funding, and expanding involvement in the city.
In 2009, Gregory H. Williams was named the 27th president of the University of Cincinnati. His presidency expanded the accreditation and property of the institution to regions throughout Ohio to compete with private and specialized state institutions, such as Ohio State University. His administration focused on maintaining the integrity and holdings of the university. He focused on the academic master plan for the university, placing the academic programs of UC at the core of the strategic plan. The university invested in scholarships, funding for study abroad experiences, the university's advising program as it worked to reaffirm its incredible history and academy for the future. Williams resigned for personal reasons on Aug. 21, 2012. Beverly Davenport was appointed interim president of the university.
The Uptown campus includes the West (main), Medical, and Victory Parkway campuses.
- West (main) Campus: This campus includes 62 buildings on 137 acres (0.55 km2). The university moved to this location in 1893. Most of the undergraduate colleges at the university are located on main campus. The exceptions are part of the University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center on the Medical campus. In spring of 2010 the University of Cincinnati was honored by being one of only 13 colleges and universities named by Forbes as one of "The World's Most Beautiful College Campuses".
- Medical Campus: this campus contains nineteen buildings on 57 acres (230,000 m2). It is catty corner to West campus on Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd. The undergraduate colleges of Allied Health Sciences and Nursing and graduate colleges of Medicine and the James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy are located there. The hospitals located there include University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati VA Medical Center, and the Shriners Hospital for Children.
- Victory Parkway Campus: this campus was formally home to the College of Applied Science. It is roughly 3 miles (4.8 km) from main campus in the Walnut Hills neighborhood of Cincinnati and overlooks the Ohio River. When it merged with the College of Engineering to become the College of Engineering and Applied Science many of the classes were moved to main campus, however limited courses are still taught there. There is a shuttle that runs between this and main campus throughout the day.
- Blue Ash College (UCBA) (regional campus, located in Blue Ash, Ohio)
- Clermont College (CLER) (regional campus, located in Batavia, Ohio)
- UC East (located in a renovated Ford plant in Batavia, OH, this facility serves as expansion space for Clermont College and select programs in the College of Nursing and the College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, as well as the BTAS in Applied Administration program.)
Off-campus research facilities
- Center Hill Research Facility
- UC Reading Campus & UC Metabolic Diseases Institute
- Cincinnati Center for Field Studies
- Cincinnati Observatory (university owns the facility and the nonprofit Cincinnati Observatory Center operates it)
The university has had a strategic plan for the last decade for new architecture to be built by "signature architects." UC itself has an outstanding architecture and design program, and the efforts to have these famous architects design new campus buildings have encouraged students to attend the College of Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning (DAAP). In recent years, the university has received attention from architects and campus planners as one of the most beautiful in the world.
- Engineering Research Center, Michael Graves (UC alumnus) (1994)
- Aronoff Center for Art and Design, Peter Eisenman (1996)
- College-Conservatory of Music, Pei Cobb Freed and Partners (Henry Cobb) (1999)
- Vontz Center for Molecular Studies, Frank O. Gehry (1999)
- Tangeman University Center, Gwathmey Siegel & Associates Architects (2004)
- Steger Student Life Center, Moore Ruble Yudell (2005)
- Campus Recreation Center, Morphosis (Thom Mayne) (2006)
- Lindner Athletic Center, Bernard Tschumi (2006)
- Care/Crawley Building, STUDIOS Architecture (2008)
In recent years the University of Cincinnati has made significant strides to include more green initiatives and encourage sustainability among students, faculty, and staff. In autumn of 2010, the University of Cincinnati maintained its position in green and sustainability initiatives by being named one of only 286 "Green Colleges" by The Princeton Review. The university has received this distinction each year since. UC was the only public university in Ohio and the only university in the Southern Ohio region included on this list. Some of the programs that helped achieve this distinction include: a bike share program where UC students can rent bikes from the university, an expanded recycling program, improved and expanded campus transportation options, the addition of vehicle charging stations, fuel pellet use in place of coal, greatly decreased energy and water use throughout campus, and the addition of 6 Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified buildings since 2005. In 2007, former university president Nancy Zimpher signed the The American College & University Presidents' Climate Commitment, which confirms the university's dedication to reducing its environmental impact and take the necessary steps to become climate neutral.
In 2010, UC opened up a privately funded athletic practice facility and Women's Lacrosse stadium named Sheakley Athletic Complex. As a continued effort to go green, a chilled water thermal energy storage tank was placed under the fields and at night water is chilled and then used to air-condition buildings on campus. The storage tank helps the university reach annual energy savings of about $1 million. Also, in Autumn of 2010, the university began placing All Recycling containers throughout campus. This expansion of recycling efforts and receptacles provides a greater opportunity for students, staff, and visitors to participate in recycling a broader range of materials. In 2010, UC recycled just over 4,600 tons of material, which was a 23 percent increase over the previous year.
Professional Practice Program
UC is the originator of the co-operative education (co-op) model. The concept was invented at UC in 1906 by Herman Schneider, Dean of the College of Engineering at the time. The program generally consists of alternating semesters of coursework on campus and outside work at a host firm, giving students over one year of relevant work experience by the time they graduate. All programs in the College of Engineering and Applied Science, Architecture and all design programs in the College of Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning, and Information Technology in the College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, require co-operative education experience to graduate. Programs in the McMicken College of Arts and Sciences, Lindner College of Business, and other colleges offer optional co-op opportunities. For a number of years, this system was referred to as "The Cincinnati Plan." Ranked fourth in the U.S., UC's Professional Practice (Co-op) Program is the largest co-op program at a public institution in the United States with over 3,000 participating students at over 2,200 companies in 27 countries. Most recently in 2015, UC was one of 13 institutions cited for quality internships in a category called "A Focus On Student Success" by U.S. News & World Report. The office of Professional Practice is housed in the Steger Student Life Center. The Division of Professional Practice is broken up into three units:
Cooperative Education Program
For over 100 years the Division lead has provided students with the opportunity to alternate full-time classroom time and work to provide them with a solid base of experience and professional development. This unit is the largest and modern successor of the original "Cincinnati Plan". This program also manages built-in, preestablished International Co-op (ICP) opportunities for select colleges.
Academic Internship Program
In 2010, the Division launched the Academic Internship Program, which provides access to opportunities for part-time internships to students. This includes the nationally competitive Singapore Experience brought to UC in 2012.
The Center for Cooperative Education Research and Innovation
This unit seeks to drive the development and implementation of cooperative education at UC as well as serve as an incubator for research and new thinking about approaches to experiential education. An example of this in action is the "Live Well Collaborative". Formed in 2008, this is a collaborative effort between private companies such as Procter & Gamble, Boeing, General Mills, LG Electronics, and Kraft and the colleges of Business, DAAP, and Engineering and Applied Science at UC to help create living solutions for the U.S.'s aging population.
|U.S. News & World Report||140|
|U.S. News & World Report||207|
The University of Cincinnati currently offers over 350 programs of study which include 81 Associate, 114 Baccalaureate, 105 Master's, 66 Doctoral, and 3 First Professional (MD, JD, PharmD) degrees. The university is divided into 14 colleges and schools.
The Mines ParisTech : Professional Ranking World Universities ranked the University of Cincinnati 12th best university in the U.S. and 37th in the world according to the number of alumni holding CEO position in Fortune Global 500 companies. The university has dozens of highly ranked programs. The Princeton Review listed the university in its "Best 373 Colleges" each year since 2008 and the London (UK) Times ranked the University of Cincinnati 190th among all the universities in the world, 69th among United States universities and 28th among public U.S. universities in 2011. Additionally, the influential Academic Ranking of World Universities, published by Shanghai Jiaotong University, ranks the University of Cincinnati in the top 300 of more than 2,500 ranked worldwide and the top 100 of American universities.
In the 2016 U.S. News and World Report rankings, UC was listed as the 207th Best Global, 140th ranked National University (U.S.), and 71st ranked Top Public University (U.S.). The National University rank was an 11-point drop from the previous year after 4 concecutive years of gains (27 spots). The University of Cincinnati has also been listed among the 23 "National Universities" identified as "Up-and-Coming Schools" by U.S. News and World Report. Administrators across the country were asked to nominate universities that recently made promising and innovative changes in the areas of academics, faculty, student life, campus, or facilities, according to the college guide. Out of the following UC programs and colleges that are currently nationally ranked, 34 place in the top 50.
Music and Arts Programs:
Science and Engineering Programs:
Medical and Human Service Programs:
Colleges and schools
The university is broken up into the 14 colleges and schools listed below.
- College of Allied Health Sciences (CAHS)
- School of Social Work (Part of the College of Allied Health Sciences as of Autumn 2010)
- McMicken College of Arts and Sciences (A&S), as the largest and most diverse college, A&S is the academic heart of UC and is home to twenty-one departments, eight co-op programs, and several interdisciplinary programs. The Classics Department is one of the most active centers for the study of Bronze Age and Classical antiquity in the United States. UC's Creative Writing PhD program was ranked 6th in the nation by Poets and Writers' magazine. McMicken's paleontology program is ranked 7th in the nation by U.S. News & World Report.
- Carl H. Lindner College of Business (LCB), one of the top business schools in southern Ohio, particularly known for its programs in operations management, accounting, information systems and marketing as well as the prestigious Carl H. Lindner Honors-PLUS and the Kolodzik Business Scholars programs which consist of some of the top future business professionals in the country. UC is the fifth most influential real estate research institution in the U.S., based on the quality of faculty research and literary citations in journals and has tenth ranked undergraduate accounting program in the U.S.
- Clermont College (CLER) (regional campus)
- College-Conservatory of Music (CCM), a prestigious performing arts school, ranked 6th nationally by U.S. News and World Report and particularly renowned for its voice, composition, piano, musical theater, orchestra, wind studies, drama, and Theater Design departments.
- College of Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning (DAAP), ranked third internationally, particularly known for its programs in interior design (ranked best in the nation), architecture, and industrial design (both ranked second), as well as graphic design and urban planning (both ranked in the top 20).
- College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services (CECH), its criminal justice program is ranked 3rd nationally by U.S. News and World Report.
- College of Engineering and Applied Science (CEAS), as of June 2009, the College of Applied Science and the College of Engineering officially merged to form the new college. The college is regularly ranked as one of the top 75 engineering colleges in the country.
- College of Engineering (ENGR), recognized as having the first co-operative education program in the United States. Winston Koch invented the first electronic organ here.
- College of Applied Science (CAS), organized as the Ohio Mechanics Institute (OMI) in 1828, it merged with UC in 1969 and was renamed the OMI College of Applied Science in 1979. Referred to as the College of Applied Science, CAS offered programs in the engineering technologies and related areas.
- The Graduate School, a collaborative unit of all the university's colleges responsible for providing centralized administrative services for all postgraduate programs.
- College of Law, is the alma mater of William Howard Taft, the only person to serve both as President of the United States and as Chief Justice of the United States. Taft also served as the college's dean when it integrated with the University of Cincinnati in 1896. A statue of the former president stands near the campus law building.
- College of Medicine, ranked among the best 40 medical schools by U.S. News and World Report, it includes both a leading teaching hospital and several biomedical research laboratories. In the 1950s Albert Sabin developed the live polio vaccine at the College of Medicine. Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) was developed here by George Rieveschl in 1946. UC also established the first emergency medicine residency program.
- College of Nursing, recognized as having the first bachelor's degree program in nursing.
- James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy, is one of the most prestigious and competitive pharmacy programs in the U.S. and is ranked 32nd nationally by U.S. News and World Report. It was founded in 1850 as the first pharmacy school west of the Alleghenies, and its graduates have a 100% placement rate prior to graduation.
- Blue Ash College (UCBA) (regional campus, located in Blue Ash, Ohio)
UC is also the home of the Institute for Policy Research, a multidisciplinary research organization which opened in 1971. The center performs a variety of surveys and polls on public opinion throughout Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana, primarily through telephone surveys.
University Honors Program
Each year UC welcomes roughly 375 students to the University Honors Program and usually includes the top 5%-8% of students that apply to UC each year. The average credentials for an UC Honors students is an ACT score of 32 or higher, an SAT score of 1400 or higher (critical reading and math combined), a class rank in the top 10%, and an unweighted high school GPA of 3.8. The program emphasizes experiential learning and engages students in curricular and co-curricular learning opportunities. The program enriches the UC experience of academically talented and motivated students through coursework and out-of-class experiences. The Honors Program focuses on the four pillars of honors:
- Community Engagement
- Global studies
- Research & Creative Arts
Curriculum & Seminars
- Honors courses mesh with major and general education requirements so students can graduate from University Honors without completing extra courses and provide students with priority registration, smaller class sizes, and more academically strenuous expectations from professors. Honors seminars allow honors students to broaden their intellectual horizons regardless of the discipline in which they are majoring. Students may also fulfill honors requirements through experiential learning.
- On-campus Honors housing provides honors students with a close-knit environment of like minded students. Honors housing provides students a network of students taking similar classes and begins fostering long-term relationships.
Organizations and activities
- The UC LeaderShape Institute is an opportunity for new honors students to spend six days creating a comprehensive and powerful vision for the future that defines a bold change for your community, group, cause, or organization and prepares them for their time at UC. Other ways to get involved in the Honors Program are the University Honors Association (UHA), Honor Societies, Mid-East Honors Association (MEHA), and the National Collegiate Honors Council.
The university has a large, diverse international student body, with approximately 3,000 students drawn from over 110 countries. The largest number of foreign students are from India and China with a significant number from France as well. Most international students study at the graduate level, although the university is now aggressively recruiting more talented students into undergraduate fields. To this end, UC is now creating a network of official representatives to assist interested students throughout the world.
A number of new international activities are positioning UC as a leading international innovator among U.S. universities. UC is the first American university to benchmark its international student services, using an instrument known as the International Student Barometer (ISB). In the Fall 2006 survey, UC benchmarked with the highest overall international student satisfaction score among the 40 participating institutions. UC is also among the first universities to pilot the new Standards of Good Practice for Education Abroad, created by the Forum on education abroad.
UC recently initiated a strategy of "comprehensive engagement" with key foreign institutions. The first of these with which a formal agreement was signed was Shandong University, of Jinan, China. In addition to developing a range of activities across their many colleges, the two universities have agreed to create a Joint Center for Urban Research, with offices on both campuses. UC's new COSMIC database (Cincinnati Online System for Managing International Collaboration) provides a view of its international relationships.
Study and co-op abroad
UC has offered the opportunity to study or work abroad in over 80 countries since 2003. In 2013 nearly 1,400 undergraduate students studied abroad. There are four types of study abroad opportunities at UC:
- Exchange programs: These are run in collaboration with UC's partner institutions. They offer short-term and long-term options and they cost the same amount of tuition as UC.
- External programs: These offer packaged costs, meaning students pay a general fee that typically includes; housing, tuition, meals, excursions, books, health insurance, on-site advising, and a host of other services.
- UC Faculty-Led programs: These are organized and led by the university's very own professors.
- College-specific programs: These offer students the opportunity to study abroad with their cohort. For example, the College of Business has a program in Nantes, France and the College of Nursing has a clinical program in Honduras.
The university offers additional opportunities such as international co-op, internships, research, and service learning abroad and can last anywhere from a week over spring break to a full academic year spent abroad. UC International is the office that oversees these programs and offers several scholarships and grants to help fund international experience as well. The programs offered can be program or college specific and apply directly towards degree completion, or used to satisfy area studies or minors.
The University of Cincinnati has a long history of both undergraduate and graduate research and has set the stage for fostering world-changing innovation, scholarship and entrepreneurship. In 2013, UC was named the best "overall" university for economic engagement by the Association of Public and Land Grant Universities’ Commission on Innovation, Competitiveness, and Economic Prosperity and in 2010, UC received the most research funding in the history of the university at more than $443 million, a 17% percent increase over 2009. The same year, corporate research topped $15.2 million, an increase of 21% over the previous year. The university is classified by The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education as a "Research 1" university, since renamed "RU/VH: Research Universities (very high research activity)". Recently, The Center at Arizona State University placed the University of Cincinnati as a "Public University Ranking in the Top 20 public research universities in the United States and The Chronicle of Higher Education named UC as a "Research Heavyweight".
Research at the University of Cincinnati is not just limited to labs. Students have the opportunity to take part in opportunities from medical research, to engineering labs, to creating sustainable technologies and designing buildings. UC has dozens of research centers across all 14 colleges and offers research opportunities in more than 250 programs while faculty and students are awarded an average of 11 patents each year. As recently as April 2010, the University of Cincinnati has been mentioned as a possible candidate for the prestigious Association of American Universities and has secured more research funding in recent years than several current members.
Facts and figures
Ohio Centers of Excellence
The Ohio Centers of Excellence were designed to recognize the extensive research at universities in Ohio and encourage the development of new technologies and techniques to help retain and create Ohio jobs. Most recently the College-Conservatory of Music was honored for its excellence in Cultural & Societal Transformation and is the only performing arts program in Ohio to earn the designation:
- Advanced Energy: Sustaining the Urban Environment
- Advanced Transportation and Aerospace: Intelligent Air & Space Vehicle Energy Systems
- Biomedicine and Health Care: Transforming Health Care in the 21st Century
- Cultural & Societal Transformation: Music and Theater Arts
- Cultural & Societal Transformation: Center for Design and Innovation
- Enabling Technologies: Materials and Sensors, Nanoscale Sensor Technology
Off-campus research facilities
- Center Hill Research Facility
- UC Reading Campus & UC Metabolic Diseases Institute
- Cincinnati Center for Field Studies
- Cincinnati Observatory (university owns the facility and the nonprofit Cincinnati Observatory Center operates it)
There have been several discoveries, inventions, accomplishments, and "firsts" that have taken place at the University of Cincinnati.
The University of Cincinnati has 14 libraries, which are housed in 11 different facilities. This also includes the Digital Projects Department. The university library system has holdings of over 4 million volumes and 70,000 periodicals. The average circulation is around 451,815 items and 116,532 reference transactions. The University of Cincinnati is a member of the Association of Research Libraries. This is a collection of 123 libraries at research-intensive institutions in the U.S. and Canada. UC is also part of OhioLINK which gives students access to libraries across 16 public universities, 23 community/technical colleges, and 49 private colleges with tens of millions of volumes at their fingertips.
- Walter C. Langsam Library (main library)
- Named after a former president of the university, Langsam Library is the main and largest library on campus. It offers a 24/7 computer lab named UCIT@Langsam which is available to students for computer, printing, copying and study use. It is also a Federal Depository Library Program, allowing students free access to thousands of federal publications.
- Donald C. Harrison Health Sciences Library (formerly AIT&L)
- Archives and Rare Books Library
- Business & Economics Library (Langsam)
- Ralph E. Oesper Chemistry-Biology Library
- John Miller Burnam Classical Library
- Albino Gorno Memorial Music (CCM) Library
- Robert A. Deshon and Karl J. Schlachter Library for Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning (DAAP)
- College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services
- College of Engineering and Applied Science (CEAS) Library
- Geology-Mathematics-Physics Library
- Robert S. Marx Law Library
- Henry R. Winkler Center for the History of the Health Professions
- Clermont College Library
- Raymond Walters College Library
The university competes in 19 Division I (NCAA) sports and its athletics teams are known as the "Bearcats". Since July 1, 2013, they have been members of the American Athletic Conference (The American). They were previously members of the Big East Conference, Conference USA (of which they were a founding member), the Great Midwest Conference, the Metro Conference, and the Mid-American Conference, among others.
The university's most well-known rivalries are with the Miami University (compete annually in the oldest non-conference football rivalry in the U.S., the Battle for the Victory Bell), the University of Louisville, the University of Pittsburgh, and Xavier University. The Bearcats and Musketeers meet anually in one of the most fierce rivalries in college basketball, the Crosstown Shootout. UC is known for its rich tradition in basketball, but have enjoyed recent sustained success in football. It is the fifth oldest program in college football, having started collegiate play in 1885 and participated in the first collegiate football game in the State of Ohio. Besides its varsity sports, the university also has a diverse number of intercollegiate club sports teams and has recently passed legislation to distinguish some clubs as Club Varsity. Some include the Wrestling club and the club Rowing team, which produced 2004 Olympian Kelly Salchow.
The university has four individual and six team championships. The Bearcats won the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship in 1961 and 1962, both times against Ohio State. Charles Keating won the 1946 200m butterfly national title for UC as a member of the men's swimming team and most recently, Josh Schneider did the same in the 50-yard (46 m) freestyle in 2010. In women's diving, Pat Evans (3 m Dive – 1989) and Becky Ruehl (10 m dive – 1996) have brought home titles for the Bearcats. The UC Dance Team has won 4 National Championships from 2004 through 2006 and again in 2009. They are the first team in UC history to ever capture three consecutive national titles. They remain one of the top dance programs in the country and are the winningest team in University of Cincinnati history. In 2009 the dance team was also selected to represent the United States of America in the first ever world dance championships where they won the gold medal in all three dance categories.
Notable athletics alumni include: Baseball Hall of Famers Sandy Koufax and Miller Huggins; Basketball Hall of Famers Oscar Robertson and Jack Twyman; New York Yankees first baseman Kevin Youkilis; FC Cincinnati forward Omar Cummings; New York Knicks forward Kenyon Martin; Olympic gold medalist Mary Wineberg; and tennis great Tony Trabert.
|This section does not cite any sources. (November 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
In May 2006, former Athletic Director (AD) Thomas introduced his vision for Bearcats Athletics, titled CATAPULT. Thomas's five-year vision for UC's 19-sport intercollegiate program was launched six months after his hiring as AD. The plan focuses on three main initiatives: winning championships, high-level academic achievement, and a comprehensive integration with the greater Cincinnati community. This action initiative tracks UC's 19 teams towards conference Championships in every sport within the next five years, encourages continued leadership by UC student-athletes in academics, and stresses community engagement. CATAPULT —an acronym for Championships, Academics, and Together— sets the goal that in the next five years UC will win a conference championship in every sport; UC's student-athletes will lead the general student body in graduation rate and grade point average; and UC's student-athletes and coaches will engage the Cincinnati community in service. During the 2006 Fall Quarter, the first under the CATAPULT plan, UC's sports teams made major improvements in academics, achieving an overall grade point average (GPA) of 2.938. Additionally, 11 of the 17 squads posted team GPAs higher than the general UC student body GPA of 2.965.
- The Bearcat men's basketball team made the greatest improvement in the classroom, as its 2.875 team GPA a half a grade point better than that of last year's squad for Fall Quarter. Five Bearcats had GPAs of 3.0 or above with two student-athletes making the Dean's List.
- The Bearcat women's soccer team also earned a national Team Academic Award from the National Soccer Coaches Association of America for having a team GPA of at least 3.2 for the 2005–06 school year.
- A total of 247 student-athletes from UC's athletic squads were named to either the Bearcat or the Topcat Honor Roll. To qualify for the Bearcat Honor Roll, a student-athlete must have earned a grade point average between 3.0 and 3.49 for the quarter, while Topcat honorees must maintain between a 3.5 and a 4.0 GPA.
In 2006, four of the six UC fall sports teams improved their finish in the final Big East conference standings over that of Fall 2005. The Bearcat teams collectively posted an improvement of three places. UC's men's soccer team became the first Bearcat squad to claim a BIG East title, winning the Red Division of the league's regular season race. Most recently, football won the Big East Championship in 2008, 2009, and 2011 and women's volleyball won the Big East regular season title in 2010 and the Big East tournament in 2011.
In December 2007 ESPN stated that if academics and athletics achievement were factored in, that Cincinnati team would be playing in the BCS Championship game. UC finished the season with a 10–3 record and a #17 national ranking.
All of the athletic facilities (with the exception of Fifth Third Arena and Marge Schott Stadium) are open 24/7 for student use.
- Richard E. Lindner Varsity Village
- Commissioned as part of UC's entrance into the Big East and serves as the centerpiece of UC's athletic facilities. It opened in 2006 and includes the Richard E. Lindner Center, which provides training, meeting, studying, and classroom space, as well as the George and Helen Smith Athletics Museum. Construction of the Varsity Village project included Gettler Stadium (Soccer), Trabert-Talbert Tennis Center, Baseball Stadium (eventually named Marge Schott Stadium), and an open athletic field for student use called Sheakley Lawn.
- Marge Schott Stadium
- Armory Fieldhouse
- Home of UC indoor Track and Field teams and former home of the men's and women's Basketball teams
- Fifth Third Arena
- Home to UC Men's and Women's Basketball as well as volleyball teams
- Nippert Stadium
- Home to UC's Football team (sometimes used for Women's Lacrosse)
- Ben and Dee Gettler Stadium
- Home to UC Men's and Women's Soccer and Men's and Women's Track and Field teams
- Trabert-Talbert Tennis Center
- Home to UC Women's Tennis team
- Keating Aquatics Center
- Home to UC Men's and Women's Swimming and Diving teams
- Sheakley Athletics Center
- New facility constructed in 2010 that provides one full and one half football field for varsity teams to practice on and the home facility for the Women's Lacrosse team. From November to February a temporary bubble is inflated over the facility to provide teams practice space during cold months.
Center for First Year Experience
The Center for First-Year Experience provides leadership for each student's first-year experience and related academic program. The center serves as a resource for all the university’s undergraduate colleges and programs. This collaboration between UC colleges, academic programs, and student groups allow freshman to continue the transition from high school to college. The program is designed to help freshmen and their faculty to develop relationships that will continue and grow throughout their time at the University of Cincinnati.
Many students at the University of Cincinnati have the opportunity to participate in learning communities. These are diverse groups of students and faculty in which 20–25 students have at least two classes together throughout their first year on campus. Students have the opportunity to join these based on their major or area of study. There are nearly 120 learning communities to choose from. They are offered in the following colleges: College of Allied Health Sciences, College of Business, College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, College of Engineering & Applied Sciences, College of Nursing, and the McMicken College of Arts & Sciences. A few majors require freshmen to be in these learning communities. Many of these groups have specialized courses taught by their academic advisor.
Transition and Access Program
The Transition and Access Program, which does not lead to a degree, allows certain disabled adults to take classes, interact with other students, and intern at companies. After four years, participants receive a certificate which can be used to get a job.
Student Activities & Leadership Development (SALD) oversees over 550 registered student organizations ranging from student government to religious organizations to spirit groups. Housed in the Steger Student Life Center, the divisions overseeing these groups include Club Sports Board, Diversity Education, Greek Life, Leadership Development, Programming, RAPP, and Student Government. Additionally, there are several other Student Life Offices on campus, such as the African American Cultural & Resource Center, Bearcat Bands (the largest and oldest student group at UC), Early Learning Center, Ethnic Programs & Services, University Judicial Affairs, Resident Education & Development, Wellness Center, and the Women's Center.
The university describes service learning as reflective, educational experiences blended with service activities that foster a deeper understanding of course content and an enhanced sense of civic responsibility. Each year students at the University of Cincinnati log tens of thousands of hours of community service on campus and in the surrounding city and communities through courses and other opportunities. The University of Cincinnati was one of the first universities in the country to be classified by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching as a Community Engagement focused university and was one of only 35 research universities on this list. In the 2013–2014 academic year, UC offered nearly 100 courses with a service learning component with over 3,000 students enrolled in them.
Among the hundreds of events that take place annually, two of the largest and most successful student-run community service events are the 18-hour Relay for Life and the 24-hour Cincinnati Dance Marathon. In support of the American Cancer Society’s education, advocacy and research programs, UC’s Relay for Life raised more than $126,000 in 2010 when over 1,800 students and over 170 teams participated by collecting pledges and walking the relay route through McMicken Commons on main campus. The event was recognized as one of the top 10 collegiate Relay for Life events in the nation and the largest Relay for Life in their region, which includes Ohio and Pennsylvania. Although the Cincinnati Dance Marathon at UC has only been taking place in the Campus Recreation Center for a few years, in 2010 500 students danced all night to raise $13,500 in donations and then in 2011 raised nearly $24,000 for Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center.
Fraternity and sorority life
Fraternities and sororities have been a part of the university since 1840. There are over 2,500 students participating in fraternities and sororities, which represents approximately 11% of the undergraduate population (Uptown Campus). 52 chapters have called UC home over the years, and currently includes 39 social fraternities and sororities: 21 Interfraternity Council fraternities, 9 Panhellenic Council sororities, 7 National Pan-Hellenic Council (three fraternities and four sororities), and two non-affiliated (Delta Phi Lambda and Phi Sigma Rho) organizations.
There are several media outlets for university students. The student newspaper is The News Record and has been in production for more than 130 years, taking its current name in 1936. It is an independent, student run newspaper and not attached to any academic program and therefore any student, regardless of program, is able to apply and work for the newspaper. There is a student-run radio station, named Bearcast that is housed in the College-Conservatory of Music on campus. The programming streams online as opposed to a traditional radio station and, like the News Record, is open to any student attending the university. There is also a television station called UCast.
The 48-hour film festival is held each year for the general public to attend. Notable speakers and filmmakers are known to kick off the event including Fraser Kershaw, as well as guest speakers and artists from Kenyatta University in Nairobi, Kenya. Actors, directors, editors, and composers are showcased at the MainStreet Cinema for students' and professionals.
UC Housing & Food Services runs three award winning dining centers: Center Court, MarketPointe, and Stadium View Café. Meal plans are purchased at the beginning of each year and first year students living in residence halls are required to purchase one. Upper classmen are offered the option to opt-out of a meal plan. There are also independent meal plans that students not living in residence halls may purchase. There is also a food court in the Tangeman University Center (student union) and many other restaurants and cafes are also available on campus.
UC is regularly recognized for excellent dining centers and restaurants and they have been awarded multiple awards since 2005. CenterCourt has received the greatest acclaims for UC dining, winning for best concept in 2007 and Grand Prize in 2006 National Association of College and University Food Services' awards. CenterCourt and Market Pointe Dining Program received the honorable mention award in 2009 and Market Pointe@Siddal received an honorable mention in 2008 and a Silver Award in 2005. In 2011, UC's Mick and Mack's Contemporary Café, one of the full service restaurants on campus, received the bronze award with Brown University's Blue room. UC placed third in the category of 'Retail sales – Single concept'.
6,500 students live on campus in ten residence halls that offer both traditional and suite style options. Students also have the option to live in themed housing, which include (among others) honors, business, STEM, etc. specific floors. Additionally, in fall of 2012, Campus Recreation Center Housing (CRC) was named on The Fiscal Times "10 Public Colleges with Insanely Luxurious Dorms" list. Nearly 80% of Uptown Campus incoming freshman students live on campus their first year.
In recent years, record freshman classes and increased interest by upperclass students has led to higher demand than supply for on-campus residence halls. To meet this demand, UC Housing and Food Services has added residence halls (Morgens Hall in 2013) and purchased block leases at University Park Apartments, Campus Park Apartments (formerly Sterling Manor), University Edge Apartments, and Stetson Square Apartments near campus. This has pushed the "on-campus" housing student population higher and the university announced that Scioto Hall will undergo a renovation and open in fall 2016 in addition to plans for a new residence hall and dining center where Sawyer Hall once stood.
- Calhoun Hall
- Campus Recreation Center Housing (CRC is only available to students who are sophomores or older)
- Dabney Hall
- Daniels Hall
- Siddall Hall
- Jefferson Complex
- Consists of Schneider Hall and Turner Hall. (JCSH, JSTH)
- Stratford Heights (as of Summer 2009)
- Morgens Hall
- Scioto Hall
The University also offers limited housing to graduate students. Bellevue Gardens is an apartment community owned and operated by the University. It is located close to the Academic Health Center (AHC) and medical campus. Two off-campus university-affiliated (but not university-managed) housing options were introduced in 2005; Stratford Heights and University Park Apartments. All leases in the Stratford Heights housing area have been terminated, and control of the housing complex reverted to University control as a residence hall in Summer 2009.
Notable alumni and faculty members
On July 19, 2015 Sam DuBose was shot and killed by University Police Officer Raymond Tensing. DuBose had been stopped near the intersection of Vine and Thill Street for driving without a front license plate. Body camera footage plainly contradicted Officer Tensing's account of the incident. On July 29 Officer Tensing was indicted for murder. Hamilton County Prosecutor Joe Deters said that this shooting was "the most asinine act I've ever seen a police officer make." 
- "List of Centers of Academic Excellence for Cyber Operations". Aug 18, 2014. Retrieved Feb 19, 2015.
- "University of Cincinnati endowment up $180 million - Cincinnati Business Courier". Cincinnati Business Courier. 6 November 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- "Davenport Sypher Named UC Chief Academic Officer". June 10, 2013. Retrieved July 1, 2013.
- "UC Facts, University of Cincinnati". Uc.edu. September 12, 2012. Retrieved September 2012. Check date values in:
- https://www.uc.edu/about/ucfactsheet.html. Missing or empty
- "University of Cincinnati". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
- "UC's Enrollment Confirmed as the Highest in the University's 194-Year History". http://www.uc.edu. Retrieved 21 May 2014. External link in
- "KENT STATE FIFTEENTH DAY ENROLLMENT STATISTICS" (PDF). Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- "50 Largest Universities in the United States". American School Search. Retrieved August 23, 2014.
- "Top Universities in North America 2010–2011". Timeshighereducation.co.uk. Retrieved September 19, 2010.
- "Top 200 – The Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2010–11". Timeshighereducation.co.uk. Retrieved September 19, 2010.
- "Up and Coming Schools -Top National Universities - US News Best Colleges". Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- "Best Colleges 2011 – National Universities Rankings". http://www.usnews.com/rankings. September 19, 2010. Retrieved January 1, 2011. External link in
- Centre for Science and Technology Studies (CWTS). "CWTS Leiden Ranking 2015". CWTS Leiden Ranking 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- "University of Cincinnati". Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- "Facts and Figures". Retrieved 7 August 2016.
- Pascale Le Draoulec (August 31, 2010). "In Pictures: The World's Most Beautiful Campuses". Forbes.com. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "University of Cincinnati Master Plan". UC.edu. April 27, 2006. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- Ratha Tep (October 7, 2011). "America's Most Beautiful College Campuses". Travel Magazine. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
- "McMicken Will Notice Found in Cincinnati German Newspaper – LiBLOG". Libraries.uc.edu. May 13, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "University of Cincinnati – Ohio History Central – A product of the Ohio Historical Society". Ohio History Central. July 1, 2005. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "University of Cincinnati History". Libraries.uc.edu. June 19, 2011. Retrieved June 19, 2011.
- "Carl S. Sterner - Main Street and the Urban Campus". Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- "The University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio". Uc.edu. Retrieved 2012-02-05.
- "2010 Strategic Plan for UC" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-10-24.
- Pascale Le Draoulec (August 31, 2010). "The World's Most Beautiful College Campuses". Forbes.com. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "BTAS". University of Cincinnati. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- "About UC East". ucclermont.edu. September 2010. Retrieved July 7, 2011.
- "Center for Field Studies". University of Cincinnati. May 1, 2011. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- "America's Most Beautiful College Campuses", Travel+Leisure (September 2011)
- "286 Green Colleges (by State)". Princetonreview.com. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "UC Sustainability gets high marks". Newsrecord.org. November 4, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "President signs charter to join 'The American College & University Presidents' Climate Commitment (ACUPCC)". UC.edu. April 2007. Retrieved March 20, 2011.
- "UC Breaks Ground On Jefferson Avenue Sports Complex – University of Cincinnati Official Athletics Site". Gobearcats.com. March 16, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "Recycling Grows at UC – By Tons at a Time". UC.edu. May 2, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2011.
- "University of Cincinnati Co-op: 100 years of success". University of Cincinnati. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- "Rankings for the University of Cincinnati". University of Cincinnati. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- "To Innovate for Boomers, P&G and LG Are Tapping... College Kids?!". Fast Company Magazine. March 14, 2011. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
- "University of Cincinnati". Retrieved 8 June 2016.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2016: USA". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- "America's Top Colleges". Forbes. July 5, 2016.
- "Best Colleges 2017: National Universities Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. September 12, 2016.
- "2016 Rankings - National Universities". Washington Monthly. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2016". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2016. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- "QS World University Rankings® 2016/17". Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
- "World University Rankings 2016-17". THE Education Ltd. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
- "Best Global Universities Rankings". U.S. News & World Report LP. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
- "Best Engineering School Rankings | Engineering Program Rankings | US News". Grad-schools.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
- "It's a 'Threepeat' for UC's Paleontology Program". Uc.edu. April 23, 2009. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "Undergraduate B-School Profiles". Businessweek.com. August 15, 2007. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "The World's 25 Best Design Schools - Business Insider". Business Insider. 23 November 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- "College of Engineering & Applied Science, University of Cincinnati". UC.edu. Archived from the original on December 15, 2005. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "College of Engineering & Applied Science, University of Cincinnati". UC.edu. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "OMI CAS 175th Anniversary". Omicas175.uc.edu. August 30, 2007. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "OMI CAS 175th Anniversary". Omicas175.uc.edu. Retrieved September 19, 2010.
- "Top Medical Schools". grad-schools.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
- "Prospective First-Year Students, University of Cincinnati". Uc.edu. 2011-11-04. Retrieved 2012-02-05.
- "About the Program, University of Cincinnati". Uc.edu. 2011-10-27. Retrieved 2012-02-05.
- "Academics & Curriculum, University of Cincinnati". Uc.edu. 2011-01-27. Retrieved 2012-02-05.
- "Activities & Events, University of Cincinnati". Uc.edu. 2011-10-31. Retrieved 2012-02-05.
- "Forum on Education Abroad". Forumea.org. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "UCosmic: UC Online System for Managing International Collaboration". UC.edu. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "UC Students Abroad". UC.edu. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "UC Students Abroad". UC.edu. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
- "Research- The Center for Measuring University Performance". Mup.asu.edu. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "Chronicle of Higher Education: UC Identified as "Research Heavyweight"". UC.edu. April 22, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "Chart: Many Universities Outside the AAU Receive More Research Dollars Than Its Members – Administration – The Chronicle of Higher Education". Chronicle.com. April 21, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "Four Cypro-Minoan inscriptions from Maroni-Vournes - Aegeus - Society for Aegean Prehistory". Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- "Ohio Centers of Excellence". Ohiocentersofexcellence.ning.com. December 15, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "Sustaining the Urban Environment – Ohio Centers of Excellence". Ohiocentersofexcellence.ning.com. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "Intelligent Air & Space Vehicle Energy Systems – Ohio Centers of Excellence". Ohiocentersofexcellence.ning.com. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "Transforming Health Care in the 21st Century – Ohio Centers of Excellence". Ohiocentersofexcellence.ning.com. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "Cultural & Societal Transformation – Ohio Centers of Excellence". Ohiocentersofexcellence.ning.com. Retrieved March 4, 2011.
- "University of Cincinnati gets another Center of Excellence designation". Cincinnati Business Courier. October 20, 2011. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
- "Nanoscale Sensor Technology – Ohio Centers of Excellence". Ohiocentersofexcellence.ning.com. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "UC Famous Firsts". UC Magazine. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- "Club Sports Board, University of Cincinnati". UC.edu. October 5, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "University of Cincinnati swimmer Josh Schneider won national championship. Next up? Olympics, University of Cincinnati". Magazine.uc.edu. August 18, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "World Champions!". Gobearcats.com. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
- "University of Cincinnati Official Athletic Site". Gobearcats.com. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "Center for First Year Experience". Retrieved March 19, 2011.
- "Learning Communities". Retrieved January 1, 2011.
- "Glee's Becky wants to be a Bearcat". WXIX-TV. November 19, 2013.
- "SALD, University of Cincinnati". UC.edu. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "Community Engagement Elective Classification". carnegiefoundation.org. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- "Student philanthropy after hours ... way after hours". UC Magazine. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- "CDM Raises $23,300 for Cincinnati Children's medical Center". Cincinnatidm.org. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- "Greek Life, University of Cincinnati". Uc.edu. 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2011-10-24.
- "News Record". Libraries.uc.edu. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "News Record". ccm.uc.edu. Retrieved July 8, 2011.
- "Food, University of Cincinnati". UC.edu. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "Mick and Mack's wins national award". UC.edu. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
- "10 Public Colleges with Insanely Luxurious Dorms". thefiscaltimes.com. Retrieved 2013-04-24.
- "Bearcats Move Back to Campus Aug. 20-21". uu.edu. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
- "UC Housing, University of Cincinnati". Uc.edu. Retrieved 2011-10-24.
- Robinette, Tom (2013-04-08). "A Bright, 'Green' Future for the University of Cincinnati". UC.edu. Retrieved 2013-08-06.
- Three Other Black Men Have Died In Altercations With University Of Cincinnati Police by Salvador Hernandez; Buzzfeed.com posted on Jul. 30, 2015, at 1:09 a.m.
- Recent Event: University Police Officer Shoots and Kills Non-University-Affiliated Motorist During Off-Campus Traffic Stop, 129 Harv. L. Rev. 1168 (2016).
- University of Cincinnati Agrees to Pay Samuel DuBose's Family $4.8M Jan 18 2016, 10:35 am ET by Jon Schuppe and Tom Winter NBC News.com
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to University of Cincinnati.|
|Wikisource has the text of a 1920 Encyclopedia Americana article about University of Cincinnati.|