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Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

Coordinates: 49°00′34″N 8°24′42″E / 49.00944°N 8.41167°E / 49.00944; 8.41167
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Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Karlsruher Institut für Technologie
MottoKIT – Die Forschungsuniversität in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft
Motto in English
KIT – The Research University in the Helmholtz Association
EstablishedFridericiana Polytechnic: 1825; 196 years ago
TU Karlsruhe: 1865
KIT: 1 October 2009
Academic affiliation
BudgetEUR 1.163 billion (2023)[1]
ChairpersonMichael Kaschke[2]
PresidentOliver Kraft[3]
Academic staff
414 professors
5,409 (other academic staff) (2023)[1]
Administrative staff
4,211 (2023)[1]
Students22,816 (2023)[1]
Undergraduates12,434 (2023)[4]
Postgraduates8,042 (2023)[4]
950 (2023)[4]
Location, ,

49°00′34″N 8°24′42″E / 49.00944°N 8.41167°E / 49.00944; 8.41167

The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT; German: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie) is a public research university in Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The institute is a national research center of the Helmholtz Association.[5]

KIT was created in 2009 when the University of Karlsruhe (Universität Karlsruhe), founded in 1825 as a public research university and also known as the "Fridericiana", merged with the Karlsruhe Research Center (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe), which had originally been established in 1956 as a national nuclear research center (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, or KfK).[6] KIT is thus the first and only institution in Germany to overcome the division of the German scientific and research landscape into academic and non-academic institutions in the form of a merger of two different types of institutions.[7]

KIT is a member of the TU9, an incorporated society of the largest and most notable German institutes of technology.[8] As part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative KIT was one of three universities which were awarded excellence status in 2006.[9] In the following "German Excellence Strategy" KIT was awarded as one of eleven "Excellence Universities" in 2019.[10]

In the university part of today's KIT, science-based mechanical engineering was founded in the mid-19th century under the direction of Ferdinand Redtenbacher, which influenced the foundation of other technical universities, such as ETH Zurich in 1855.[11] It established the first German faculty for computer science in 1972.[12][13][14] On 2 August 1984, the university received the first-ever German e-mail.[15]

Professors and former students have won six Nobel Prizes and ten Leibniz Prizes, the most prestigious as well as the best-funded prize in Europe. The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology is well known for many inventors and entrepreneurs who studied or taught there, including Heinrich Hertz, Karl Friedrich Benz and the founders of SAP SE.[16]


Fridericiana, founded in 1825
Medal FRIDERICIANA 100th Anniversary in 1925, obverse
The reverse of this medal showing the arms of Baden

The University of Karlsruhe was founded as a polytechnical school (Polytechnische Schule) on 7 October 1825. It was modelled on the École polytechnique in Paris. In 1865, Grand Duke Friedrich I of Baden raised the school to the status of a Hochschule, an institution of higher education. Since 1902 the university has also been known as the Fridericiana in his honour. In 1885, it was declared a Technische Hochschule, or institute of technology, and in 1967, it became an Universität, a full university, which gave it the right to award regular doctorate degrees. It had hitherto been allowed to award doctorates only in engineering, identified as Dr.-Ing., a right bestowed on all technical institutes in 1899.

The Victoriapensionat I

The University of Karlsruhe is one of the leading German institutions in computer science. A central computer laboratory was founded in 1966. The department of informatics was established three years later, along with the first regular course in informatics.[17] On 2 August 1984, the university received Germany's first email. The Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung (Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research) was founded at the university in 1985.

The university also cooperated extensively with the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Karlsruhe Research Centre), and this relationship was formalised on 6 April 2006 when Professor Horst Hippler and Dr. Dieter Ertmann from the University of Karlsruhe, and Professor Manfred Popp and Assistant Jur. Sigurd Lettow from Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe signed a contract for the foundation of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The name was inspired by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the leading technical university in the United States.[18] In February 2008, the merger of the university and the research centre to form KIT was agreed by the state of Baden-Württemberg and Germany's federal government.[19] The necessary state law was passed on 8 July 2009.[20] KIT was formally established on 1 October 2009.

The main reason for establishing KIT was to strengthen Karlsruhe's position in the German Universities Excellence Initiative, which offered elite universities grants of up to 50 million euros per annum. This aim was not achieved. While the University of Karlsruhe was chosen for the initiative in 2006/2007, KIT failed to secure a place in 2012. It did, however, attract funds from other sources. In 2008, Hans-Werner Hector, co-founder of SAP, raised 200 million euros to support researchers at the institute. (Hector is the only founder of SAP who did not graduate from the University of Karlsruhe; he was given an honorary doctorate for his support of intellectually gifted children in 2003.)

Institute of Electric Engineering at KIT



Campus Nord

KIT locations in Germany and Karlsruhe

The Campus Nord (Campus North), the former Forschungszentrum, was founded in 1956 as Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) (Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre). Initial activities focused on Forschungsreaktor 2 (FR2), the first nuclear reactor built by Germany. With the decline of nuclear energy activities in Germany, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe directed its work increasingly towards alternative areas of basic and applied sciences. This change is reflected in the change of name from Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe to Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with the subheading Technik und Umwelt (technology and environment) added in 1995. This subheading was replaced by in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft (in the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers) in 2002.

Campus Nord is the site of the main German national nuclear engineering research centre and the Institute for Transuranium Elements. Also at the site is a nanotechnology research centre and the neutrino experiment KATRIN.

Campus Nord also hosts a 200-metre-tall guyed mast for meteorological measurements.

Organization and administration




The university has eleven faculties:

  1. Mathematics
  2. Physics
  3. Chemistry and Biology
  4. Humanities and Social sciences
  5. Architecture
  6. Civil engineering, Geology, and Ecological Sciences
  7. Mechanical Engineering
  8. Chemical and Process Engineering
  9. Electrical engineering and Information Technology
  10. Computer Science
  11. Economics and Management

Academic profile




The university offers a great range of education options with such possibilities as cross studies and work-study programs. A studium generale (general studies) program was established in 1949, allowing students to attend lectures not directly pertaining their study field.

In the first semesters of a course, education tends to be theoretically oriented at KIT, with a high concentration on mathematics for engineering and natural science courses. It is possible to choose between practical and theoretical topics in later semesters.

Since the winter semester of 2008/2009, KIT has completed the transition from Diplom degrees to bachelor's degrees and master's degrees. Students already enrolled for a Diplom degree when the transition began were allowed to finish their studies, but new students are allowed to apply only for a bachelor's or master's degree.

Admission policies differ among the departments. While students are chosen by the quality of their school degree and their extracurricular activities for courses such as industrial engineering and management (27% of admissions in 2008),[21] other departments do not preselect for their courses, including physics, informatics, and meteorology. All courses require a minimum number of passed exams, called Orientierungsprüfungen or orientation assessments, in the first three semesters before students are allowed to complete their course. There is a substantial drop-out rate in some engineering courses due to the immense study required to meet the prerequisites.

The Zentrum für Angewandte Kulturwissenschaft und Studium Generale (Centre for Applied Culture and General Studies)[22] was founded in 1989 as a central institution to support students engaged in interdisciplinary study. Nowadays, it offers specialised qualifications in the fields of "Leadership and Entrepreneurship", "Media – Culture – Communication", "Internationalisation and Intercultural Decision-making and Responsibility", "Diversity Management", and "European Integration and Identity Studies", as well as the classical studium generale. There is also the possibility of concomitant study in applied culture science.[23]



In 1979, the Interfakultatives Institut für Anwendungen der Informatik (Interfaculty Institute for Informatics Applications)[24] was founded. It brings together research in physics, mathematics, and engineering based on computer science. Its mathematical pendant is the Institut für Wissenschaftliches Rechnen und Mathematische Modellbildung (Institute for Scientific Calculations and Mathematical Modelling).[25] Its aim is to enhance the exchange between mathematics and engineering in the fields of scientific calculations.

The Interfakultatives Institut für Entrepreneurship (Interfaculty Institute for Entrepreneurship)[26] was established with SAP funding. Its teaching professors were entrepreneurs on their own. Before being shut down in 2010, a former professor of this faculty was Götz Werner, founder of dm-drogerie markt.

In 2001, the Centre for Functional Nanostructures (CFN)[27] was established. It merges the fields within material sciences, biology, chemistry, engineering, and physics which are related to nanotechnology. CFN is one of the three Exzellenzzentren (English: Excellence Institutions) of the University of Karlsruhe. Another interdisciplinary institution is the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM).

The Karlsruhe School of Optics and Photonics (KSOP)[28] was established in 2006 as a publicly funded project by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under the German Universities Excellence Initiative. KSOP was the first graduate school at the University of Karlsruhe and covers the fields of photonic materials and devices, advanced spectroscopy, biomedical photonics, optical systems and solar energy. It is supported by several of the university's institutes and professors. It is also a partner in the EUROPHOTONICS consortium,[29] which provides scholarship for master's[30] and PhD degrees[31] under the European Commission's prestigious Erasmus Mundus cooperation and mobility program.

In January 2019 the cluster of excellence "3D Matter made to order" (3DMM2O), affiliated with both the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the University of Heidelberg started to operate. [32] Specializing in two-photon polymerization, it aims to revolutionize 3D printing on micro and nanoscales. By uniting expertise across materials science, engineering, and physics, the cluster seeks to develop precise and versatile fabrication techniques for various applications, from biotechnology to electronics.

KIT operates several TCCON stations as part of an international collaborative effort to measure greenhouse gases globally. One station is near the campus.

KIT is partner of the science project for urban and autonomous freight logistics, efeuCampus in Bruchsal, which is funded by the state of Baden-Württemberg and the European Union. At the Institute for Conveying Technology and Logistics Systems (IFL), conveyor systems for intralogistics are being developed for the research project, which are used for mobile robotics and human-machine interaction. The project develops localization and navigation algorithms for an urban environment, which enable vehicles to navigate independently on the basis of laser and video data.[33][34]

Rankings and reputation

University rankings
Overall – Global & National
QS World 2024[35] 119 6
THE World 2024[36] =140 14
ARWU World 2023[37] 301–400 20–24
QS Europe[citation needed]
QS Employability[citation needed]
THE Employability[citation needed]

According to the QS World University Rankings for 2024, KIT was ranked 119th globally and 6th in Germany.[35] The Times Higher Education World University Rankings for 2024 listed KIT at a global position of 140, and 14th nationally within Germany.[36] Furthermore, the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) for 2023 placed KIT in the 301–400 range worldwide, and between 20th and 24th in the country.[37]

In the 2023 QS Subject Ranking, KIT ranks first in Germany in chemical engineering.[38] In the 2023 THE Subject Ranking, KIT ranks within the global 100 in engineering, computer science, and the physical sciences.[39] In the 2023 ARWU Subject Ranking, KIT ranks first in Germany in metallurgical engineering, atmospheric science, and energy science, while sharing the first place in materials science and water resources.[40]

In the Nature Index (1 May 2022 – 30 April 2023), which measures the scientific strength of different institutions on the basis of publications in 82 high-quality scientific journals, the KIT ranks second in the field of physical sciences among the universities in Germany, 7th in Europe, and 63rd worldwide.[41] TU Munich ranks first in Germany, ranks three to five are followed by LMU Munich, University of Hamburg, and University of Mainz.[42]

Otto Amman Place at KIT

According to a 2015 survey, KIT has produced the largest number of top managers among German universities, with 24 board members of the 100 largest German companies. The other places are followed by the University of Cologne (17), the RWTH Aachen (17), the University of Mannheim (13) and the LMU Munich (13).[43] In the ranking of the German magazine Wirtschaftswoche, in which decision-makers of companies are asked about their preferences, KIT regularly occupies a position among the top ten in the subjects electrical engineering, computer science, mechanical engineering, and industrial engineering in Germany.[44][45][46][47][48][49] In the QS Graduate Employability Rankings 2022, which follow a similar approach as the Wirtschaftswoche ranking on a global level, KIT is ranked 46th worldwide. Thus, KIT takes first place in Germany and 10th place in Europe.[50]

In the CWTS Leiden Ranking of the year 2023, which is based exclusively on bibliometrics to measure the research output of universities, KIT is ranked 56th worldwide in the physical sciences and engineering according to the "Impact" indicator and 49th worldwide according to the "Collaboration" indicator. In Germany, KIT is ranked first ahead of RWTH Aachen University and TU Munich. Europe-wide, KIT is ranked 4th and 8th respectively.[51]

Audimax lecture hall

In the 2023 Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities released by the National Taiwan University, KIT is ranked 4th in the fields of natural sciences and engineering in Germany.[52]

In the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities for the year 2023, KIT ranks fifth among 483 listed universities and scientific institutions in Germany.[53] In the ranking U-Multirank funded by the European Union, KIT is ranked 5th out of 106 universities examined in Germany across all categories in 2022.[54] In the University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP) 2017/2018, KIT is ranked first in Germany in the subjects "Chemical Sciences" (world rank: 49), "Technology" (world rank: 54), "Nanoscience & Nanomaterials" (world rank: 58), "Materials Engineering" (world rank: 48), Chemical Engineering (ranked 43), Mechanical Engineering (ranked 58), Civil Engineering (ranked 76), Environmental Engineering (ranked 98), Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences (ranked 15) and Transportation Science & Technology (ranked 123) Further top rankings are also achieved in "Physical Sciences" (rank Germany: 3; world rank: 55); "Mathematical Sciences" (rank Germany: 2; world rank: 66); "Engineering" (rank Germany: 3 (after rank 1 last year); world rank 107); "Electrical & Electronics Engineering" (rank Germany: 2; world rank: 70), "Information & Computing Sciences" (rank Germany: 2; world rank: 63), "Earth Sciences" (rank Germany: 2; world rank: 54), "Geology" (rank Germany: 5; world rank: 111), "Metallurgy Engineering" (rank Germany: 2; world rank: 34) and "Architecture" (rank Germany: 2; world rank: 71).[55]

KIT is a member of the TU9 German Institutes of Technology e.V. As part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative KIT was awarded an excellence status in 2006 and 2019. In the 2011 performance-ranking of scientific papers, Karlsruhe ranked first in Germany and among the top 10 universities in Europe in engineering and natural sciences.[56] In 2005, more than 20% of its students come from other nations and 0.6% of its students receive grants from the German Studienstiftung (German National Academic Foundation).[57]

Computer facilities


The Scientific Computing Center (SCC), formerly called Steinbuch Centre for Computing, named after Karl Steinbuch, was formed in 2008 when the main computer facilities of the University of Karlsruhe merged with those at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. It is responsible for the university's IP connectivity and provides central services (Mail, Web, campus management) for students and employees. It supplies students with 10 fully equipped computer rooms, one professional print office and a wireless network providing access to the whole campus area. Some departments, like computer science, physics, and mathematics, run their own computer facilities as well.

The SCC operates some of the fastest computers in Germany:

  • HP XC3000 (334 nodes with 8 cores each, 27.04 TFLOPS)
  • HP XC4000 (750 nodes with 4 cores each, 15.77 TFLOPS)
  • a cluster purchased by a corporation of institutes representing different disciplines (200 nodes with 8 cores each, 17.57 TFLOPS)
  • the two vector parallel calculators NEC SX-8R and NEC SX-9

On 2 August 1984, Michael Rotert, a research fellow at University of Karlsruhe, received the first email ever sent to Germany, at his address rotert%germany@csnet-relay.csnet.[58]

GridKa runs the Rocks Cluster Distribution Linux distribution for supercomputers.



The KIT Library with its two branches on Campus South and Campus North provides literature for research and study for about 25,000 students and 8000 scientists with a widespread, interdisciplinary book stock of over 2 million volumes, reports and 28,000 periodicals in print and electronic form. The emphasis of the collection lies in natural and engineering sciences.

KIT Library South

The 24-hour library at Campus South was extended in 2006. It offers many workplaces and an area for relaxing, and is now open around the clock. The combination of a special book security system and an automated issue desk makes it possible to use the 1000 workplaces anytime, day or night. Current and contemporary literature is freely accessible in four specialised reading rooms, each providing cross-linked, modern and well-equipped study and work stations as well as printers, scanners and copy machines.

KIT Library North

The research library at Campus North provides a large specialised book stock (especially reports and primary reports) on energy and nuclear energy. All literature is freely accessible to the user. Thirty modern workplaces, as well as printers, scanners, copy machines and cubicles for individual work are available.

Further libraries at KIT

Additional literature is located in two specialised reading rooms for chemistry and physics, as well as in the Library of the University of Applied Sciences at the Campus at Moltkestrasse, which is administered by the KIT Library. The faculty of physics, the faculty of mathematics, the faculty of computer science, the faculty of architecture and the faculty of economics and management have their own libraries to supply students and researchers with topic-related literature.

Notable people

Karl Benz was granted the patent for the first automobile, which he built in 1885.






  • Georg von Hevesy (1886–1966), winner of the 1943 Nobel Prize for his key role in the development of radioactive tracers to study chemical processes such as in the metabolism of animals, worked with Fritz Haber at University of Karlsruhe without formal appointment



Points of interest


Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c d "Data and Facts". Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. March 2024. Retrieved 7 March 2024.
  2. ^ "KIT – KIT – Organization – Supervisory Board". Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  3. ^ "KIT – KIT – Organization – Executive Board". 15 March 2021. Retrieved 19 February 2024.
  4. ^ a b c "Studierendenstatistik" (PDF). Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (in German). Retrieved 7 March 2024.
  5. ^ "Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) – Serviceportal Baden-Württemberg".
  6. ^ Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Germany): "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 December 2006. Retrieved 25 August 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "KIT 2.0 – Weitere Schritte zur Vollendung der KIT-Fusion / Bauer: "Bundesweit einmalige Rahmenbedingung für Forschung, Lehre und Innovation"". 16 December 2020.
  8. ^ "Karlsruher Institut für Technologie". Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  9. ^ "Erste Runde in der Exzellenzinitiative entschieden". Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  10. ^ "Entscheidungen in der Exzellenzstrategie: Exzellenzkommission wählt zehn Exzellenzuniversitäten und einen Exzellenzverbund aus". Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  11. ^ "Ferdinand Redtenbacher: Der Begründer des wissenschaftlichen Maschinenbaus". Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  12. ^ "QS Graduate Employability Ranking". Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  13. ^ "U-Multirank 2019". Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  14. ^ "Jubiläumsfeier – 40 Jahre Fakultät für Informatik". 26 February 2020.
  15. ^ "Kurze Geschichte der ersten deutschen Internet E-Mail". Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  16. ^ "KIT's profile at Times Higher Education Ranking". Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  17. ^ "KIT-Fakultät für Informatik | Entwicklung und Meilensteine". KIT (in German). 1 May 2023. Retrieved 12 February 2023.
  18. ^ Schwägerl, Christian (22 November 2006). "Elite-Institut KIT: "Aus Partnern wird eine Einheit"" (in German). Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  19. ^ Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Germany): "BMBF: Start frei für das Karlsruhe Institute of Technology". Archived from the original on 19 June 2008. Retrieved 10 August 2008.
  20. ^ Landtag of Baden-Württemberg: "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 August 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  21. ^ Mohr, Petra (SLE). "KIT – Startseite" (PDF). Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  22. ^ Frerichs, Dennis. "ZAK – Startseite". Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  23. ^ Zentrum für Angewandte Kulturwissenschaft und Studium Generale: Course options Archived 3 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ "Universität Karlsruhe (TH) – Interfakultatives Institut für Anwendungen der Informatik – Unser Profil". Archived from the original on 24 September 2008. Retrieved 12 December 2009. Interfakultatives Institut für Anwendungen der Informatik
  25. ^ "Department of Mathematics | Research Group 3: Scientific Computing". KIT (in German). Retrieved 12 February 2023.
  26. ^ "Institut für Entrepreneurship, Technologie-Management und Innovation". KIT (in German). Retrieved 12 February 2023.
  27. ^ "EXC 172: Centrum für Funktionelle Nanostrukturen (CFN)". DFG (in German). Retrieved 12 February 2023.
  28. ^ "Karlsruhe School of Optics & Photonics". KIT. Retrieved 12 February 2023.
  29. ^ "Home « EuroPhotonics". www.europhotonics.org. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  30. ^ "KIT – Karlsruhe School of Optics & Photonics – Erasmus Mundus MSc Program". ksop.idschools.kit.edu. 25 July 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  31. ^ "KIT – Karlsruhe School of Optics & Photonics – Erasmus Mundus PhD Program". ksop.idschools.kit.edu. 25 July 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  32. ^ https://3dmm2o.de/the-cluster/excellence-strategy/
  33. ^ "Vollautomatische Paketzusteller im Test" Archived 19 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Südwestrundfunk (SWR), 5 July 2019 (in German)
  34. ^ "EFRE-Programm Baden-Württemberg"[permanent dead link] Ministerium für Ländlichen Raum und Verbraucherschutz Baden-Württemberg, retrieved March 2020 (in German)
  35. ^ a b "QS World University Rankings 2024". QS World University Rankings. Retrieved 10 July 2023.
  36. ^ a b "World University Rankings 2024". Times Higher Education World University Rankings. 27 September 2023. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  37. ^ a b "2023 Academic Ranking of World Universities". Academic Ranking of World Universities. Retrieved 15 August 2023.
  38. ^ a b "QS World University Rankings by Subject 2022". QS World University Rankings. 23 March 2023.
  39. ^ a b "World University Rankings by subject". Times Higher Education World University Rankings. Retrieved 27 October 2022.
  40. ^ a b "ShanghaiRanking's Global Ranking of Academic Subjects 2022". Academic Ranking of World Universities. Retrieved 2 August 2023.
  41. ^ "Nature Index – Physical Sciences World (1 May 2022 - 30 April 2023)". 29 August 2023.
  42. ^ "Nature Index – Physical Sciences Germany (1 May 2022 - 30 April 2023)". 29 August 2023.
  43. ^ "Where Germany's top managers have studied". Der Spiegel. 28 August 2019.
  44. ^ "University Ranking 2023 of Wirtschaftswoche". 29 August 2023.
  45. ^ "University Ranking 2012 of Wirtschaftswoche". 1 December 2017. Archived from the original on 24 July 2014.
  46. ^ "University Ranking 2013 of Wirtschaftswoche". 1 December 2017. Archived from the original on 2 July 2014.
  47. ^ "University Ranking 2014 of Wirtschaftswoche". 1 December 2017.
  48. ^ "University Ranking 2015 of Wirtschaftswoche". 1 December 2017.
  49. ^ "University Ranking 2016 of Wirtschaftswoche". 1 December 2017.
  50. ^ "QS Graduate Employability Rankings 2022". 29 August 2023.
  51. ^ "Leiden ranking 2023". 29 August 2023.
  52. ^ "Field Ranking". nturanking.csti.tw. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  53. ^ "Webometrics Ranking of World Universities – Germany". Retrieved 29 August 2023.
  54. ^ "U-Multirank 2022". 29 August 2023.
  55. ^ "University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP) 2017–2018: Field Based Ranking by Country". 7 September 2018. Archived from the original on 6 April 2019.
  56. ^ http://taiwanranking.lis.ntu.edu.tw/Default-EN.aspx[permanent dead link]
  57. ^ Spiewak, Martin (8 September 2005). "Hochschule: Die Eliteschmiede". ZEIT ONLINE. Hamburg, Germany: GmbH. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  58. ^ "Vor 25 Jahren: Die erste E-Mail erreicht Deutschland – cio.de". Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  59. ^ Office of the President of Universität Fridericiana Archived 12 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  60. ^ Technologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer (4 June 2022). "KIT – Das KIT – Medien – Presseinformationen – Archiv Presseinformationen". www.kit.edu (in German). Retrieved 12 February 2023.
  61. ^ Lehné, Margarete (11 August 2023). "Holger Hanselka Takes Office as President of Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft". Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Retrieved 19 February 2024.
  62. ^ Landgraf, Monika (23 January 2024). "Supervisory Board Elects Jan S. Hesthaven President of KIT". Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Retrieved 24 January 2024.
  63. ^ Landgraf, Monika (19 February 2024). "KIT Senate Confirms Election of Jan S. Hesthaven". Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Retrieved 19 February 2024.