University of King's College

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University of King's College
Kings Coat of Arms.png
Motto Deo Legi Regi Gregi
Motto in English
For God, Law, King, People
Established 1789
Type Liberal arts university
Endowment $51.4 million
Chancellor The Honourable Kevin Lynch
President Dr George Cooper [1]
Visitor The Bishop of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island ex officio
Academic staff
64
Students 1,070
Undergraduates 1,020[2]
Postgraduates 50[2]
Location Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
44°38′15″N 63°35′43″W / 44.63750°N 63.59528°W / 44.63750; -63.59528Coordinates: 44°38′15″N 63°35′43″W / 44.63750°N 63.59528°W / 44.63750; -63.59528
Campus Urban, 5-acre (2.02 ha) site on the campus of Dalhousie University
Colours Blue      and White     
Affiliations AUCC, Dalhousie University, CUP.
Website http://www.ukings.ca/
University of Kings College logo.png

The University of King's College is a liberal arts university in Halifax, Nova Scotia, established in 1789.[3] It is the first university in English Canada, and the first English-speaking university in the Commonwealth outside the United Kingdom.[4] The university is renowned for its Foundation Year Programme, a comprehensive and interdisciplinary examination of Western culture through Great Books, designed for first-year undergraduates.[5] It has also garnered acclaim through its upper-year interdisciplinary programs - particularly its Contemporary Studies program, Early Modern Studies program, and its History of Science and Technology program. In addition, the university boasts a Journalism school which attracts students across the world[6] for its intensive Master's program.[7]

Although the university was first established at Windsor, Nova Scotia in 1789, a fire destroyed the original university in 1920, and the institution relocated to Halifax.[4] The relocation was made possible with the help of Dalhousie University, which has since maintained a joint faculty of Arts and Social Sciences with King's. This partnership provides students at King's to full access to Dalhousie’s facilities and services.[5] Despite this initial and future support, King's remains a constituent college that operates independently under its own charter.[8]

The university is located on the northwest corner of the Dalhousie University campus.

History[edit]

Late 18th century and 19th century[edit]

King's College traces its origins to the King's College of New York City. On 31 October 1754, King George II of Great Britain issued the charter for King's College within New York City, establishing it as the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States.[9] In 1776, during the eruption of the American Revolutionary War, studies at the university halted for the subsequent eight years. Within this time, the College's library was looted, and its sole building was requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and then British forces.[10][11] When Patriots took over the university, Bishop Charles Inglis, the rector of Trinity Church, led the flight of Loyalists to Windsor, Nova Scotia. After the American Revolution, the old institution was resuscitated and eventually renamed Columbia College, which would develop into Columbia University.[12]

In 1788, these resettled Anglician Loyalists founded the King's Collegiate School in Windsor. During the following year, the University of King's College emerged from the Collegiate. In the same year, 1789, an Act passed for "the permanent establishment and effectual support of a college at Windsor," and £400 per annum granted towards its maintenance.[13] This Act established King's College as the first university in English Canada, and the first English-speaking university in the Commonwealth outside the United Kingdom.[4] In 1790, the university officially opened, becoming the first College to be granted University powers in British North America[14] In 1802, the university received Royal Charter from King George III,[4] becoming Canada's first university to receive a Royal Charter. Even though the University of New Brunswick traces its history to King's College at Fredericton, which was established in 1785, it did not initially receive university powers and did not receive a Royal Charter until 1827. Similarly, McGill University traces its origins to 1801 but did not receive a Royal Charter until 1821.

The university was generally modeled on older English universities which were residential, tutorial, and closely tied to the Church of England.[15] With its strong Anglican affiliation, all students at King's College were required to take oaths affirming their assent to the 39 Articles of the Anglican Church during the 19th century.[citation needed]

It is asserted by Windsor residents that students at King's College invented ice hockey c. 1800 on Long Pond adjacent to the campus. A similar game developed, perhaps independently, in Kingston, Ontario several years later which has led to occasional confusion about the sport's origins.[citation needed]

The noted Canadian poet Sir Charles G.D. Roberts taught at King's College from 1885 to 1895.[16]

Early and middle 20th century[edit]

A view of the A&A, North Pole Bay, and Cochran Bay from across the Quad in a spring fog.

On February 3, 1920, a fire consumed the university campus. Though the cause of the blaze is still unknown, tradition states it was caused by students 'playing with matches' in a dormitory. Due to frozen fire hydrants, the blaze could not be put out and the buildings burned to the ground.[citation needed]

In 1922, the Carnegie Foundation offered a conditional grant to rebuild King's College. Among the provisions were that King's College was to be rebuilt in Halifax, the capital city of Nova Scotia, and that it was to enter in association with Dalhousie University.[17] The partnership required King's to pay the salaries of select Dalhousie professors, who, in return, would help manage King's College.[17] In addition, students at King's would be permitted to study at Dalhousie, while Dalhousie would be permitted to study at King's with the exception of Divinity; the granting of all other degrees outlined in the 1802 charter were to be 'temporarily' stopped.[17] The conditions were in hope that one day all of Nova Scotia's universities would merge into a single body, much like the University of Toronto.[citation needed]

King's College accepted the funding, and relocated adjacent to Dalhousie's Studley Campus, at the corner of Oxford street and Coburg road. Alongside the move, the institution renamed itself 'University of King's College'.[citation needed] Other universities in Halifax similarly did not follow through with the Carnegie Foundation's merger plan. Seven decades later, in 1997, a directive from the provincial government saw the Technical University of Nova Scotia (TUNS) merge with Dalhousie.

In the formative years of King's College, many more types of degrees were offered than the institution offers today; for example, the University of New Brunswick Faculty of Law traces its history to the 'King's College Law School' that was established in 1892 in Saint John, New Brunswick by King's College (Windsor). While the University of King's College has never lost nor relinquished interest in these granting powers, they are held in abeyance due to agreements with the University of King's College's partner, Dalhousie University, as part of the agreement to allow the portion of Dalhousie's campus to be used by the University of King's College.

Consolidation was a way to strengthen this small and financially insecure institution. In the early part of this century, professional education expanded beyond the traditional fields of theology, law and medicine. Graduate training based on the German-inspired American model of specialized course work and the completion of a research thesis was introduced.[15]

In 1923, the former site of King's College in Windsor was designated a National Historic Site of Canada.[18]

When World War II broke out, King's was requisitioned by the military for the training of naval officers between 1941 to 1945.[17] King's functioned as a "stone frigate", providing a facility for navigation training before officers were sent to their ships. This role is highlighted in the 1943 Hollywood feature film, Corvette K-225, a part of which was filmed on the University campus. The academic life of the College carried on during those years elsewhere in Halifax, aided by Dalhousie University and the United Church's Pine Hill Divinity Hall. In reflection of this naval past, the student bar on campus is known as the HMCS King's Wardroom, often referred to as "the Wardroom" or "the Wardy".

During the war, the Germans would occasionally broadcast names of Allied ships they had sunk. As ships had to keep radio silence, these reports could not be verified, and it was suspected that many were false. Allies circulated lists of non-active ships in the hopes of feeding the Germans misinformation; when the Germans broadcast that they had sunk HMCS King's, their ruse was exposed.[citation needed]

After the war, the campus was returned to the University. The policy of university education initiated in the 1960s responded to population pressure and the belief that higher education was a key to social justice and economic productivity for individuals and for society.[3]

Late 20th century and 21st century[edit]

University of King's College in Autumn with Castine Way along the foreground.

Until the spring of 1971, the university granted graduate theological degrees as well as undergraduate degrees. In the same year, the Faculty of Divinity was moved to Pine Hill, where it was formally amalgamated into the Atlantic School of Theology, an ecumenical venture with the United Church of Canada and the Roman Catholic Church. While this new institution now grants its own degrees, King's holds in abeyance its rights to grant divinity credentials and still continues to grant annual honorary degrees.

In 1972, King's faculty and alumni created the Foundation Year Programme (FYP), a first-year Great Books course that would count for four of a student's five first-year credits. The programme consisted of six sections from The Ancient World to The Contemporary World, in which students would read the work of major philosophers, poets, historians and scientists, receive lectures from a range of experts in all these areas, write critical papers and engage in small-group discussion and tutorials. The programme initially had 30 students; it now draws almost 300 a year, most of whom live in residence on campus. Many of those who taught in the programme in its early days were colleagues and students of the philosopher James Doull, who exercised a not inconsiderable degree of influence on the programme in its formative stages. In 1989, Doull was awarded an honorary doctorate by the College.

In 1977, King's introduced two Bachelor of Journalism programs: a four-year Honours degree and a one-year compressed degree for students who already hold a bachelor's degree.

In 1989, a campus library building was erected to commemorate the bicentennial of the university.[19] It replaced a smaller one in the Arts and Administration building. The library has won numerous architectural awards. In 2000, the same architect designed the school's New Academic Building. In 2001, additional residence rooms were added in the basement of Alexandra Hall to accommodate some of the new students. Residence can currently accommodate 274 students, and nearly all on-campus living spaces are reserved for FYP students, though some spaces are reserved for upper-year students. All buildings on the present campus are celebrated reconstructions and derivations of the buildings of the original 1789 campus in Windsor, Nova Scotia. A system of tunnels connects the residences to the other buildings of the campus: a feature common to North American universities, and particularly common to many institutional buildings in Halifax.

The King's Library houses an impressive collection not only of rare Anglican church documents, but also a vast collection of original artwork, Renaissance and medieval books, and extensive archival material of relevance both to the history of Nova Scotia and the university. It also has some ancient artifacts, along with the Weldon Collection of fine imported china. Many of the rare books stem from the original, private collection of university founder, Charles Inglis. Recently, the blueprints for the buildings of the current campus were consulted in the library to restore the famed cupola crowning the A&A Building to its original, 1920s condition.

In 1993, King's created the Contemporary Studies program. In 1999, King's launched the Early Modern Studies program. In 2000, King's commenced the History of Science and Technology program.[4] Each of these Programme can constitute one component of a jointly conferred combined honours degree with Dalhousie. The Upper Year Programmes, like the Foundation Year Programme, place a strong emphasis on historical contextualized, interdisciplinary study as opposed to traditional university departmentalization.

Today, there are over 1,000 students at King's, which, although a small number for a university, represents significant growth over enrollment in the 1960s and 1970s. Its first year class is made up mainly of Foundation Year Programme students. In 2001, the FYP class was 274 students, with slightly over a hundred of these students coming from Ontario. The growing number of students from out of province reflects King's growing academic reputation and its transformation from a small, local college to a nationally acclaimed university. However, King's maintains strong ties to its host city and province and the number of Nova Scotians attending King's rose 23% between 1994 and 2004.[citation needed]

The largest ever FYP class was in 2004, with 309 students. However, the administration has resolved to cap future classes at just under 300.[citation needed] With improved retention rates, the school's population looks to stabilize at around 1,200 in future years. The number of students leaving after first year has dropped significantly since the introduction of the upper year inter-disciplinary programs.

King's' transformation from a small college catering mainly to local Anglican students into a more intellectually cosmopolitan university with a strong national profile has been a resounding success. In terms of teaching quality, King's has been placed in the same academic league as top Canadian research universities like McGill and Toronto. One recent academic commentator summed up King's growing renown for its quality of teaching and eccentric student culture by remarking "If there is a Harvard of the North, it’s more likely King’s than McGill — although a better analogy would be a cross between Harry Potter’s Hogwarts and Camp Wanapitei in Temagami." The new programs, combined with a rigorous set of academic expectations and a cooperative academic culture, have proven a hit with high achieving high school students. Conservative estimates put the entrance average of first year King's students at 87%, or a strong A in Canadian high school marks.[20]

One problem for King's, as for all of Nova Scotia's universities, has been the relative decline in government funding. In 1990, 78% of the University's operating costs were government funded; in 2004, only 31% were. Part of the reason has been a large expansion of the University, with only modest increases in government funding. Another reason is that the government of Nova Scotia funds its universities on a "per Nova Scotia student" basis, resulting in under-funding to universities with large numbers of out-of-province students. Large increases in tuition fees have been used to cover the University's costs. As of 2005, more than 50% of costs were covered by student fees.

In 2005, the Nova Scotia government reached a Memorandum of Understanding with the province's universities. It limited tuition increases to 3.9% for 3 years. In exchange, the government guaranteed a 5.8% increase in funding the first year, and slightly smaller increases for the remaining 2 years. Since King's relies more heavily on tuition than government funding, the University's financial situation will suffer as a result.

In October 2003, Dr. William Barker was installed as President and Vice-Chancellor, replacing Dr. Colin Starnes. Dr. Barker and the rest of the University administration have declared that King's has grown as much as it can and should. They describe the coming years as "a time of consolidation", with a focus on retention and development of new programs.

The University's growth has changed some King's traditions. Formal meals, with Latin grace and academic gowns, formerly held at regular intervals, were suspended from 2001 until 2003. Only with the arrival of Dr. Barker were they reinstated. They now take place on the first Wednesday of every month.

In July 2006, the King's Student Union founded the King's Co-op Bookstore; it stocks every title on the FYP Reading List, as well as all necessary books for King's other courses and a number of Dalhousie courses and general interest fiction and non-fiction. The Bookstore is student-owned co-operative which functions separately from both the student union and the college.

King's College administration has not avoided controversy. After the Sodexo cleaning staff unionized in 2004, the housekeeping contract was awarded to a different company during the summer. The King's Student Union had been involved in encouraging the workers to unionize in order to improve their working conditions, and there were strenuous objections with the awarding of the new contract.

University of King’s College's Arms were registered with the Canadian Heraldic Authority on August 15, 2007.[21]

Academics[edit]

The Arts & Administration Building

King's best known program is its Foundation Year Programme (FYP) for first year students, an intensive survey course of history, philosophy, and literature in the western tradition. The Contemporary Studies Programme (CSP), the Early Modern Studies Programme (EMSP), and the History of Science and Technology Programme (HOST) are offered jointly with Dalhousie University as combined honours degrees requiring a second honours discipline. A Bachelor of Journalism program is offered as either a four-year honours degree or an intensive one-year program to students already holding a bachelor's degree. King's College and Dalhousie University also jointly offer a 10-month master of journalism program.[22]

King's students generally take FYP in their first year and choose a specific degree program to pursue in their final three years. Most students at King's take at least some classes through programs at Dalhousie University. With the exception of the Journalism program, King's students graduate with joint degrees from King's and Dalhousie. King's students are eligible to complete these degrees in any subject from Dalhousie's Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences or Faculty of Science.

Foundation Year Programme[edit]

The Foundation Year Programme is a core-text programme[23] for first-year students; it surveys the history of western thought and culture from ancient times to the present day.[24] It has been offered since 1972. The course has traditionally been divided into six sections.[25]

The Foundation Year Programme (FYP) has been described by the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada as having "a national reputation for excellence as an alternative first-year of undergraduate studies",[26] and is regarded as a prototype for similar programs elsewhere; the principal Canadian news magazine Maclean's, which is well known for its university ranking guide, expresses the view in a discussion of small, specialized undergraduate programs in Canada that "it's unlikely that any of the other programs would exist if not for the Foundation Year at King's".[27] In both 2008 and 2009, the FYP program had been ranked first in Canada by the National Survey of Student Engagement.[4]

Student Life[edit]

Traditions[edit]

On the first Wednesday of every month, formal meals are held. Students wearing traditional academic gowns are lead into the meal hall by a bagpiper. Once they have found their seat, a Latin grace is said. Afterwards, the catered meal begins. These meals were formerly held at regular intervals, but were suspended between 2001 until 2003. They were reinstated during the presidency of Dr. Barker at his behest.

Residence[edit]

The residences are built in the Georgian style typical of the original campus. Each Bay, as the original residences were termed in Windsor, are modeled on the system of 'staircases' at England's Oxford University. Each has also been named with a seemingly ironic moniker: North Pole Bay sits atop the university's boiler rooms, and is arguably, the warmest location on campus; Chapel Bay is named after the campus chapel, but is located the furthest distance from it; Radical Bay originally housed the refined, quiet divinity students; Middle Bay, which was named for its location as it is between Chapel and Radical, is named ironically as being the only non-ironic name; in addition, there is Cochran Bay is named after the first president of the College, William Cochran, and is the closest to the campus chapel.

Often residence-wide parties, known as 'bay parties,' occurred, but were cancelled for in 2003. However, there was a brief a revival during the 2005-2006 school year, with both Radical Bay and Cochran Bay hosting several highly successful events. In place of this tradition, each Bay now organizes a themed-event on campus during different times of the school year.

Another consequence of increased enrollment has been a more unbalanced composition of the residences. Traditionally, students from all years of study have lived in residence, but increasingly, very few upper year students continue to live on campus, thus making way for more first years. In 2006, Alexandra Hall, traditionally the all-women's residence, was made co-ed for the first time with rooms in the basement alternating between male and female occupants as well as one wing of the first floor becoming all-male. In addition, two of the five bays were re-converted to co-ed living spaces in 2006.

Annual events[edit]

Alex Fountain Memorial Lecture[edit]

Since 2011, an annual memorial lecture is given by an individual chosen each year by the student body. After a nomination process at the beginning of the winter semester, a long list of twenty is narrowed to a short list of ten by student election. The short list is then prioritized by a student committee, which includes the programme directors and president.[28] The lecture is free, open to the public, and concludes in a question and answer period.[29] Previous lecturers and lectures include Michaëlle Jean on 'Building Social Change Locally and Globally',[30] Charles Taylor on 'Is Democracy in Danger?', Michael Ondaatje on 'Mongrel art: A discussion of literature and its neighbours', and Jan Zwicky on 'What Meaning Is and Why It Matters'.

The event is held in memorial after Alex Fountain, a student who committed suicide on 22 August 2009 at the age of 20. His family donated $1 million to the mental health program at Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre Foundation, as well as additional contributions to other mental health programs at Dalhousie University, the IWK and Capital Health.[31] In addition, they founded the lecture series.

Athletics[edit]

King's is a member of the Atlantic Colleges Athletic Association (ACAA). The Varsity athletics teams at the University of King's College are named the Blue Devils.[32] Sporting teams include men's and women's volleyball, basketball, soccer, badminton and rugby.[33]

The Blue Devils supporter group is a student society known as the King's Army.[34]

People[edit]

List of presidents[edit]

  • The Rev. Dr. William Cochran (1789–1804)
  • The Rev. Thomas Cox (1804–1805)
  • The Rev. Dr. Charles Porter (1805–1836)
  • The Rev. Dr. George McCawley (1836–1875)
  • The Rev. Dr. John Dart (1875–1885)
  • The Rev. Dr. Isaac Brock (1885–1889)
  • The Rev. Dr. Charles E. Willets (1889–1904)
  • Dr. Ian Hannah (1904–1906)
  • The Rev. Dr. C.J. Boulden (1906–1909)
  • The Rev. Dr. T.W. Powell (1909–1914)
  • The Rev. Dr. Charles E. Willets (Acting President, 1914–1916)
  • The Rev. Dr. T.S. Boyle (1916–1924)
  • The Rev. Dr. A.H. Moore (1924–1937)
  • The Rev. Dr. A. Stanley Walker (1937–1953)
  • The Rev. Dr. H.L. Puxley (1954–1963)
  • Dr. H.D. Smith (1963–1969)
  • Dr. F. Hilton Page (Acting President, 1969–1970)
  • Dr. J. Graham Morgan (1970–1977)
  • Dr. John Godfrey (1977–1987)
  • Dr. Marion G. Fry (1987–1993)
  • Dr. Colin Starnes (1993–2003)
  • Dr. William Barker (2003–2011)
  • Dr. Anne Leavitt (2011–2012)
  • Dr. George Cooper (2012–present) [1]

Notable current and former faculty[edit]

  • Dr. Michael Bishop - Author of The Endless Theory of Days and Scholar of French Contemporary. Director of Editions VVV Editions
  • Dr. Wayne J. Hankey - Carnegie Professor and Chair of the Classics department at Dalhousie
  • Prof. Henry How - Chemist and mineralogist, described two minerals new to science: howlite and mordenite
  • Prof. Dean Jobb - Associate Professor of Journalism, former reporter and editor for The Chronicle Herald
  • Prof. Kim Kierans - Vice president (2010–present), former director of the King's School of Journalism, and writer/editor for CBC Radio One
  • Prof. Stephen Kimber - Rogers Communications Chair in Journalism, prominent journalist and columnist for The Daily News
  • Dr. Gordon McOuat - former Director of the History of Science and Technology Programme
  • Prof. Susan Newhook - Assistant Professor of Journalism and researcher, reporter and editor for CBC from 1980 to 1998
  • Rev. Dr. Samuel Henry Prince - Founder of the Dalhousie School of Social Work, and author of Catastrophe and Social Change.
  • Dr. Stephen Snobelen - Director of the History of Science and Technology Programme; Featured in BBC documentary Newton: The Dark Heretic
  • Prof. Kelly Toughill - Director of the King's School of Journalism and former Deputy Executive Editor of the Toronto Star
  • Fred Vallance-Jones - Associate Professor of Journalism and former Investigative reporter at The Hamilton Spectator and CBC Radio

Notable alumni[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Dr George Cooper selected as interim president". www.ukings.ca. 
  2. ^ a b "Enrolment by university". univcan.ca. 
  3. ^ a b Roper, Henry. "Aspects of the History of a Loyalist College: King's College, Windsor, and Nova Scotian Higher Education in the Nineteenth Century." Anglican and Episcopal History 61 (1991).
  4. ^ a b c d e f CHERYL BELL. "University of King's College". The Canadian Encyclopedia. 
  5. ^ a b "University of King's College". University Study. 
  6. ^ "Best Journalism Schools in Canada". UniversityHub.ca. 
  7. ^ Alex Ballingall. "Where wannabe journalists are flocking". Macleans.ca. 
  8. ^ [dead link]"University of King's College". 
  9. ^ "A Brief History of Columbia". Columbia University. 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-14. 
  10. ^ Schecter, Barnet (2002). The Battle for New York: The City at the Heart of the American Revolution. Walker & Company. ISBN 978-0-8027-1374-2. 
  11. ^ McCullough, David (2005). 1776. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-2671-4. 
  12. ^ A History of Columbia University, 1754–1904. New York: Macmillan. 1904. ISBN 1402137370. 
  13. ^ "The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Makers of Canada: Index and Dictionary of Canadian History, Edited by Lawrence Johnstone Burpee and Arthur G. Doughty.". gutenberg.org. 
  14. ^ https://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext04/tlctd10.txt The Project Gutenberg EBook #6466 of 'The Intellectual Development of the Canadian People, A historical review' by John George Bourinot, House of Commons, Ottawa, February 17th, 1881
  15. ^ a b http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0008242
  16. ^ John Coldwell Adams, "Sir Charles G.D. Roberts," Confederation Voices, Canadian Poetry, UWO, Web, March 2, 2011.
  17. ^ a b c d "History". ukings.ca. 
  18. ^ King's College. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
  19. ^ "About the Library". ukings.ca. 
  20. ^ The Walrus Magazine » Education » Student Failure » Failure to Fail
  21. ^ http://archive.gg.ca/heraldry/pub-reg/project.asp?lang=e&ProjectID=1183 Arms and Badge
  22. ^ "Master of journalism". ukings.ca. 
  23. ^ "Association for Core Texts and Courses & The ACTC Liberal Arts Institute". coretexts.org. 
  24. ^ "Foundation Year Programme". ukings.ca. 
  25. ^ "The Programme". ukings.ca. 
  26. ^ The Directory of Canadian University - University of King's College
  27. ^ http://www.macleans.ca/education/universities/article.jsp?content=20060626_129460_129460
  28. ^ "'What Meaning Is and Why It Matters': 4th Annual Alex Fountain Memorial Lecture by Jan Zwicky - King's College, Halifax". mqup.ca. 
  29. ^ "Fountain Memorial Lecture". watchmagazine.ca. 
  30. ^ University of King's College. "ISSUU - Tidings Winter 2011 by University of King's College". Issuu. 
  31. ^ "Couple give $1 million in son’s memory". The Chronicle Herald. 
  32. ^ "University of King’s College". NEXT Network. 
  33. ^ "Blue Devils". ukings.ca. 
  34. ^ http://ukings.ca/kings-army
  35. ^ Eaton, Arthur Wentworth (1891). "Chapter XI. King's College". The Church of England in Nova Scotia and the Tory Clergy of the Revolution. New York: Thomas Whittaker. Retrieved 1 June 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Roper, Henry. "Aspects of the History of a Loyalist College: King's College, Windsor, and Nova Scotian Higher Education in the Nineteenth Century". Anglican and Episcopal History 61 (1991).
  • Vroom, Fenwick Williams. King's College: A Chronicle, 1789-1939.
  • DeWolf, Mark. All the King's Men: The Story of a Colonial University (1972)
  • Kinghorn, Alexander Manson. University of King’s College Halifax, Nova Scotia : The Overseas Commonwealth’s Oldest University (1965)

External links[edit]