Pierre and Marie Curie University
|UPMC – Sorbonne Universités|
|Established||1 January 1971 – following the division of the University of Paris|
|Budget||400 million euros|
|Nickname||University of Paris VI|
|Affiliations||Sorbonne University, CNRS, LERU, EUA|
Pierre and Marie Curie University (French: Université Pierre-et-Marie-Curie; abbreviated UPMC), also known as University of Paris VI, is a public research university and was established in 1971 following the division of the University of Paris (Sorbonne), and is a principal heir to Faculty of Sciences of the Sorbonne (French: Faculté des sciences de Paris), although it can trace its roots back to 1109 and the Abbey of St Victor.
The university is located on the Jussieu Campus in the Latin Quarter of the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France. The French cultural revolution of 1968, commonly known as "the French May", resulted in the division of the world's second oldest academic institution, the University of Paris, into thirteen autonomous universities.
UPMC is the largest scientific and medical complex in France, active in many fields of research with scope and achievements at the highest level, as demonstrated by the many awards regularly won by UPMC researchers, and the many international partnerships it maintains across all five continents. Several university rankings have regularly put UPMC at the 1st place in France, and it has been ranked as one of the top universities in the world. The ARWU (2014) has ranked UPMC as the 1st in France, 6th in Europe and 35th in the world and also 4th in field of mathematics, 25th in field of physics, 14th in field of natural sciences and 32nd in field of engineering, technology and computer science.
It has more than 125 laboratories, most of them in association with the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS). Some of its most notable institutes and laboratories include the Institut Henri Poincaré, Institut d'astrophysique de Paris, Laboratoire d'informatique de Paris 6 (LIP6), Institut de mathématiques de Jussieu (shared with University Paris-Diderot) and the Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel (shared with École Normale Supérieure).
The University's Faculty of Medicine Pierre and Marie Curie is located in the teaching hospitals Pitié-Salpêtrière and Saint-Antoine (the latter itself being the successor to Saint-Antoine-des-Champs Abbey).
- 1 History
- 2 Sorbonne University (alliance)
- 3 University rankings
- 4 Nobel laureates from UPMC
- 5 Research sectors
- 6 UPMC doctoral schools
- 7 Notable people
- 8 Campus locations
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The historic University of Paris (French: Université de Paris) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was reorganized in 1970 as 13 autonomous universities after the student protests of the French May.
Following months of conflict between students and authorities at the University of Paris at Nanterre, the administration shut down that university on 2 May 1968.
Students of the Sorbonne protested the closure and the threatened expulsion of several students at Nanterre on 3 May 1968. More than 20,000 students, teachers and supporters marched towards the Sorbonne, still sealed off by the police, who charged, wielding their batons, as soon as the marchers approached. While the crowd dispersed, some began to create barricades out of whatever was at hand, while others threw paving stones, forcing the police to retreat for a time. The police then responded with tear gas and charged the crowd again.
Hundreds more students were arrested. Negotiations broke down and students returned to their campuses after a false report that the government had agreed to reopen them, only to discover the police still occupying the schools. The students now had a near revolutionary fervor. Another protest was organized on the Rive Gauche by students on 10 May. When the riot police again blocked them from crossing the river, the crowd again threw up barricades, which the police then attacked at 2:15 in the morning after negotiations once again foundered.
The confrontation, which produced hundreds of arrests and injuries, lasted until dawn of the following day. Well over a million people marched through Paris on Monday, 13 May; the police stayed largely out of sight. Prime Minister Georges Pompidou personally announced the release of the prisoners and the reopening of the Sorbonne. However, the surge of strikes did not recede. Instead, the protesters got even more active.
When the Sorbonne reopened, students occupied it and declared it an autonomous "people's university." Approximately 401 popular action committees were set up in Paris, including the Occupation Committee of the Sorbonne, and elsewhere in the weeks that followed to take up grievances against the government and French society. With the fall of the French Fourth Republic in 1958, and after the tumultuous events of May 1968, the French Fifth Republic proposed various drastic reforms of the French university system.
In 1971, the five ancient faculties of the former University of Paris (Paris 6 as the Faculty of Sciences) were split and then re-formed into thirteen interdisciplinary universities by the Faure Law. The campus was built in the 1950s and 1960s, on a site previously occupied by wine storehouses.
The Dean, Marc Zamanski, saw the Jussieu campus standing as a tangible symbol of scientific thought in the heart of Paris, with the Faculty of Science, set in the Latin Quarter, as part of an intellectual and spiritual continuum linked to the university history of Paris. In 1968, the Paris Faculty of Science was divided into a number of different universities.
The University of Paris 6 became the scientific center and was set up in 1971; it shared the Jussieu campus with the University of Paris 7 and the Paris Geophysical Institute (Institut de Physique du Globe).
In 1974, the University of Paris 6 chose prestigious champions when it adopted the name Université Pierre et Marie Curie, after Pierre and Marie Curie, and ever since has endeavored to perpetuate the scientific legacy of these forebears.
UPMC is now the largest scientific and medical complex in France, active in all fields of research with scope and achievements at the highest level.
In 2008 the university joined the association Paris Universitas changing its logo accordingly and adding the name of the association after its own.
Two years later the association dissolved and reformed as PRES (pôle de recherche et d'enseignement supérieur) Sorbonne Universités, including the Pantheon-Assas University, the Paris-Sorbonne University, the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, the INSEAD and the Université Technologique de Compiègne and the Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University; for this occasion the logo were changed again.
Sorbonne University (alliance)
Sorbonne University (French: Sorbonne Universités [sɔʁbɔn ynivɛʁsite]) is an alliance founded by Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University (Paris 6) and Paris-Sorbonne University (Paris 4) in June 2010. The two previous universities are direct inheritors of the Sorbonne (divided into 13 autonomous universities after the French riots in 1968). Other members include the INSEAD, the University of Technology of Compiègne and the National Museum of Natural History.
Members are currently working on several projects in order to strengthen the relations between them and potentially create a new international institution in the next following years. Most famous projects are the "Sorbonne College" (Collège de la Sorbonne) for Bachelor's degree and the "Sorbonne Doctoral College" (Collège doctoral de la Sorbonne) for PhD candidates.
The alliance has received €130 million from the French State. Its budget was of €680 million as of 2012.
The university is ranked 35th in the world, 6th in Europe and 1st in France by the 2014 Academic Ranking of World Universities. It was ranked 4th in the world in the field of mathematics by the same study. The 2013 QS World University Rankings ranked the university 112th overall in the world and 3rd in France. In 2013, according to University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP), Pierre and Marie Curie University is the 1st ranked university in France and 44th ranked university in the world. The UPMC is a member of Sorbonne Universités.
Nobel laureates from UPMC
This list includes people who were involved with Faculty of Science from the erstwhile University of Paris, of which UPMC is the main heir:
- Serge Haroche – Physics – 2012
- Françoise Barré-Sinoussi – Medicine – 2008
- Claude Cohen-Tannoudji – Physics – 1997
- Pierre-Gilles de Gennes – Physics – 1991
- Maurice Allais – Economy – 1988
- François Jacob – Medicine – 1965
- Jacques Monod – Medicine – 1965
- André Lwoff – Medicine – 1965
- Frédéric Joliot – Chemistry – 1935
- Irène Joliot-Curie – Chemistry – 1935
- Louis de Broglie – Physics – 1929
- Jean-Baptiste Perrin – Physics – 1926
- Charles Richet – Medicine – 1913
- Gabriel Lippmann – Physics – 1908
- Henri Moissan – Chemistry – 1906
- Henri Becquerel – Physics – 1903
- Marie Curie – Physics and Chemistry – 1903/1911
- Pierre Curie – Physics – 1903
UPMC has more than 5,000 researchers and professors working in over 120 laboratories across four interdisciplinary divisions: Modeling & Engineering; Energy, Matter & the Universe; Living Earth & Environment; Life & Health. The research ranges from fundamental to applied, with the aim to push the boundaries of knowledge and to explore major issues of sustainable development that preoccupy our society in the twenty-first century, including health, climate change, water, biodiversity, energy, and communications.
Knowledge production happens at all levels, in national and international research laboratories, and with industrial partners through technology transfer and innovation. UPMC has particularly focused on multidisciplinary approaches to boost innovation potential.
Research cooperation agreements have been set up with leading industrial groups through the Research and Technology Transfer Department. This department implements science policy at the University, monitoring the activities of research and technology transfer, and supporting University research organizations (teams, laboratories, and research federations). It is the primary contact for the government ministry, research organizations, private companies, foundations, associations, and laboratories.
Modeling and engineering
UPMC has achieved levels of excellence in most fields in the modeling & engineering sector. UPMC is a leading university in the world in mathematics: pure mathematics, digital computation, probability, statistics, and combinatorics. Information Technology is focused on areas of excellence: architecture, networks, systems, artificial intelligence, programming and scientific computation. In the field of electronics, work is concentrated on the articulation of architecture, electronics, artificial intelligence and signal processing.
In mechanics, strong connections have been made with applied mathematics and macroscopic physics to boost future developments: fluid dynamics, instability, turbulence, energy transfers, complex systems and coupled phenomena.
In this sector, UPMC also encourages initiatives in scientific and medical imaging, artificial intelligence and robotics. Such genuinely multidisciplinary initiatives involve the concerted efforts of mathematicians and experts in electronics, information technology and mechanical science, who have the facilities for working with medical teams wishing to collaborate on projects on medical imaging, micro-surgery, assistance for disabilities and artificial organs.
Matter and new materials
UPMC research in physics covers virtually every field in the discipline. Subject areas which are often cross-disciplinary, involving a number of research laboratories, have been organized around four lines where the University has developed extensive expertise and is now at the leading edge of research:
- Basic phenomena: fields, particles, atoms and molecules
- Optics (lasers and measurement) and diluted matter
- Condensed matter: structure, order and disorder and complex materials
- Nanonetworks, surfaces and interfaces
The chemistry laboratories have based their research on the principle of interdependence between synthesis, analysis, studies of structures and properties of new chemical compounds:
- Design and production of new materials
- Characterization of new materials using different forms of spectroscopy and microscopic techniques, and the study of their properties
- Studies of reaction mechanisms
- Modeling of chemical reactions
- Development of new analytical techniques
Projects involving a number of disciplines are mainly joint studies of new materials. Applications concern fields as diverse as concretes, catalysis and new materials for rapid information technology, for analytical sciences and environmental tests, as well as new forms of energy storage and conversion.
Living earth and the environment
Environmental studies, ranging from global to local, are at the borders or intersections of physics, chemistry, Earth sciences and biology, and have expanded greatly. Two key lines have been developed:
- The environment in the terrestrial context with research projects related to climate change, the impact of human activities on the continental and marine ecosystems, and the management of natural resources.
- The environment in the context of space for astrophysics, with the establishment of the Paris Institute of Astrophysics, and investigations in the field of astroparticles.
Life and health
Modern biology requires an integrated approach encompassing genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology, cell biology, the biology of development and physiology. UPMC has focused on two strategic areas as priorities:
1) Further development of Group Research Institutes [IFR – Instituts Fédératifs de Recherche] –
The IFR at Saint-Antoine Teaching Hospital specializes in the physiopathology of cancers, inflammatory processes, and the hormonal mechanisms involved.
The Pitié-Salpêtrière Teaching Hospital contains two IFRs, one concentrating on neuroscience and the other on the heart, muscle and vessels. A third area of research covers the subjects of immunity and infection.
The IFR on Cell Communication & Regulation on the "Cordeliers" campus specializes in the field of cell biology, nutrition and immunology.
On the Jussieu campus, the IFR for integrated biology focuses on the integrated study of cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in development, reproduction, and the major physiological functions of animal and plant organisms, and their evolution.
2) Network development of the interface between physics, chemistry, biology and medicine—by establishing a network of laboratories around an interdisciplinary technological platform development of a group program on post-genomics and proteomics, and specifically focused on the phenotyping and imaging of small animals.
UPMC doctoral schools
The UPMC Doctoral Schools (Les écoles doctorales de l'UPMC) are built around their own research teams, which are mostly associated with the CNRS, INSERM, INRA, INRIA, or IRD, as well as with research teams from other universities and partner organisations in the Île-de-France area. Each school organises doctoral studies in its own particular field and these are grouped around the four main research themes of the university.
Academicians affiliated with UPMC include:
- Haïm Brézis
- Fabrice Bardeche
- Philippe G. Ciarlet
- Gérard Férey
- Jacques-Louis Lions
- Marc Yor
- Bernard Derrida
- François Loeser
- Claire Voisin
- Jean-Michel Coron
- Michel Talagrand
- Claude Cohen-Tannoudji
- Serge Haroche
- Campus Jussieu
- Campus Pitié
- Campus Saint-Antoine
- Campus Les Cordeliers
- Campus Curie
- Campus Raspail
- Biochimie des signaux régulateurs cellulaires et moléculaires
Rest of Île-de-France
- Campus Ivry-sur-Seine
- Chimie théorique
- Cytologie expérimentale et morphogènese végétale
- Physique moléculaire et applications
- Instruments et systèmes
- Interfaces et systèmes électrochimiques
- Plasmas denses
- Utilisation des lasers intenses
- Etude du rayonnement et de la matière en astrophysique
- Physiologie végétale appliquée
- Parasitologie végétale
- Physiologie cellulaire et moléculaire des plantes
- Site Orsay
- Energétique et mécanique des fluides internes
- Fluides automatiques et systèmes thermiques
- Site Saint-Cyr-l'Ecole
- Campus Roscoff
- Campus Banyuls-sur-Mer
- Campus Villefranche-sur-Mer
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- University of Paris#Thirteen successor universities
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- Paris-Sorbonne University Abu Dhabi
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- [dead link]
- Nouveau logo -Université Pierre et Marie CURIE – Sciences et Médecine – UPMC – Paris
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- "Paris 2, 4 et 6 changent de nom". Le Figaro (in French). 25 February 2010.
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