University of Phoenix
(a wholly owned subsidiary of Apollo Group Inc.)
|Location||Phoenix, Arizona (headquarters), United States|
|Campus locations||91 campuses and online|
The University of Phoenix (UOPX) is an American for-profit institution of higher learning, headquartered in Phoenix, Arizona, United States. The university has an open-enrollment admission policy, requiring a high-school diploma, GED, or its equivalent as its criterion for admissions. The university confers degrees in over 100 degree programs at the associate, bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degree levels. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Apollo Education Group Inc., a publicly traded (NASDAQ: APOL) Phoenix-based corporation that owns several for-profit educational institutions.
- 1 History
- 2 Campuses
- 3 Academics
- 4 Organization and administration
- 5 Marketing
- 6 Political and corporate alliances
- 7 Criticism
- 8 Lawsuits and investigations
- 9 People
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
The university was founded by John Sperling. Started in 1976, the first class consisted of eight students. In 1980, the school expanded to San Jose, California, and in 1989, the university launched its online program.
In 1994, University of Phoenix leaders made the decision to take the parent company, Apollo Group public. Capital from Wall Street launched the school. Phoenix had more than 100,000 students within the first five years of going public. Growth in the company made John Sperling a billionaire. According to Senator Tom Harkin, who chaired hearings on for-profit colleges, "I think what really turned this company is when they started going to Wall Street," he says. "[They] started raising hedge fund money, and then they had to meet quarterly reports, and all they were interested in, basically, was 'How much money ya makin'?
In February 2016, the Apollo Group announced it would be sold to a private investment group, made up Apollo Global Management, the Vistria Group, and the Najafi Companies,for $1 billion. Former U.S. Department of Education Deputy Secretary Anthony W. Miller, partner and chief operating officer of Vistria, will become chairman. The sale will have to be approved by both the U.S. Department of Education and the accreditation group the Higher Learning Commission in order to go forward.
While the school specializes in online programs, the campuses offer additional programs and services. Online students are also able to use tutoring and social centers, which can also be used for social and student meetings. The first center opened in 2007 in Plano, Texas.
Students have access to class-specific online resources, which include an electronic library, textbooks, and other ancillary material required for a course. The university says that the electronic textbooks include search features and hyperlinks to glossary terms that make the books easier to use for research.
The university offers degree programs through the following schools and colleges:
- School of Advanced Studies
- School of Business
- College of Security and Criminal Justice
- College of Education
- College of Humanities and Sciences
- College of Information Systems and Technology
- College of Social Sciences
- College of Health Professions
- School of Nursing
- School of Health Services Administration
In addition to its traditional education programs, the school offers continuing education courses for teachers and practitioners, professional development courses for companies, and specialized courses of study for military personnel.
Students spend 20 to 24 hours with an instructor during each course, compared with about 40 hours at a traditional university. The university requires students to collaborate by working on learning team projects, wherein the class is divided into learning teams of four to five students. Each learning team is assigned a team forum where team members discuss the project and submit their agreed upon portions of the learning team assignment for compilation by the nominated learning team leader.
Through its online portal, eCampus, students also have access to software required for coursework. Students have access to virtual companies created by the university to provide students with assignments, which Adam Honea, UOPX's dean and provost, claims are more realistic than those available with case studies. In August 2011, Apollo group announced it would buy 100% of Carnegie Learning to accelerate its efforts to incorporate adaptive learning into its academic platform.
Some academics and former students argue the abbreviated courses and the use of learning teams result in an inferior education. The University of Phoenix has been criticized for lack of academic rigor. Henry M. Levin, a professor of higher education at Teachers College at Columbia University, called its business degree an "MBA Lite," saying "I've looked at [its] course materials. It's a very low level of instruction."
The university runs a program called "corporate articulation agreements" that allows people who work at some companies to earn college credit for the training they have completed at their jobs. As of December 2015, the university had agreements in place with around 300 companies.
To qualify for college credit, students can either create a professional training portfolio or write an "experiential essay". A professional training portfolio is a collection of documents such as transcripts from other schools, certificates, licenses, workshops or seminars.
Admissions and financial aid
The University of Phoenix has an open admissions policy. In 2010 the university began an orientation program designed to lower dropout and default rates. Students must successfully complete a three-week orientation workshop in order to be eligible to start their first credit/cost bearing course.
Phoenix recruited students using high-pressure sales tactics, including making claims that classes were filling fast, by admissions counselors who are paid, in part, based on their success in recruiting students. Since 2010, changes were implemented to the way the university recruits students.
The university recruits students and obtains financial aid on their behalf, such as the Academic Competitiveness Grant, Federal Pell Grant, National Science & Mathematics Access to Retain Talent Grant (National SMART Grant), Federal Direct Student Loan Program, Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant, Federal Direct PLUS Loans, Federal Perkins Loan, and the Wounded Warrior Project. For the 2008–2009 fiscal year, the University of Phoenix student body received more Pell Grant money ($656.9 million) than any other university.
USA Today has listed University of Phoenix as a "red flag" institution for posting a student loan default rate (26%) that surpassed its graduation rate (17%). A 2010 report found that the University of Phoenix's online graduation rate was only 5 percent.
According to the U.S. Department of Education's College Scorecard, the University of Phoenix's average annual cost was $14,166 (about average). The average graduate earned $53,000 a year (above average). The institution's graduation rate was 20% (significantly below average).
The University of Phoenix has been regionally accredited since 1978 by The Higher Learning Commission (HLC) as a member of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools (NCA). In February 2013, a peer review group recommended to the HLC that the university be put on probation because the University of Phoenix "has insufficient autonomy relative to its parent corporation." On May 9, 2013, the Apollo Group filed a report with the Securities and Exchange Commission which stated that the HLC Institutional Actions Council First Committee ("IACFC") had recommended to the HLC that the university retain its regional accreditation, but that the university be placed on "notice" for two years. Their concerns center on the university's governance, student assessment, and faculty scholarship in relation to PhD programs. In July 2015, the Higher Learning Commission removed University of Phoenix from Notice Status.
Some individual colleges within the University of Phoenix hold specialty accreditation or are pre-accredited by accrediting agencies that are recognized by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation.
- School of Business – accreditation through the Association of Collegiate Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP). Because Phoenix's business programs are not accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB), some companies will not provide tuition reimbursement for employees attending Phoenix.
- College of Education – Master of Education is accredited by the Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC)
- College of Nursing – B.S. and M.S. degree programs are accredited by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE),
- College of Social Sciences – The Master of Science in Counseling program in Community Counseling (Phoenix and Tucson campuses ONLY), the Master of Science in Counseling program in Mental Health Counseling (Utah campuses ONLY), and the Master of Science in Counseling program in Clinical Mental Health Counseling (Phoenix and Tucson campuses ONLY) are accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP).
Organization and administration
University of Phoenix is a wholly owned subsidiary of Apollo Group, a S&P 500 corporation based in Phoenix, Arizona. In February 2016, the company announced it will be acquired by a consortium of private equity investors. The deal is estimated at $9.50 per share for all of the campuses across the nation. The total price will be approximately $1.1 billion. The deal is subject to approval of shareholders. The university reported enrollment of 176,900 in Q1 2016. This is compared to 227,400 in Q1 2015. The Apollo Group is looking to close 150 campuses across the country, and reported a Q1 2016 loss of $45.2 million.
Apollo Group, University of Phoenix's parent company, spends between $376 million and $655 million per year on advertising and marketing, which includes the University of Phoenix brand. Much of this advertising is Internet advertising.
The university paid $154.5 million for 20-year naming rights for advertising purposes of the University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, Arizona, a municipal sports arena, home of the NFL's Arizona Cardinals, and the site of the NCAA's Fiesta Bowl. The university does not participate in intercollegiate sports.
Political and corporate alliances
Several American policymakers have been affiliated with the University of Phoenix and its parent company, Apollo Group. Former Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings, has been a member of the Apollo Group Board of Directors. Jane Oates, a former staffer for Senator Ted Kennedy and the Department of Labor, became the Apollo Group's vice president for external in 2013. US Representative Nancy Pelosi's close friendship with University of Phoenix founder John Sperling has been documented by Suzanne Mettler in her book Degrees of Inequality.
University of Phoenix has also had an alliances with the Boys and Girls Clubs of America. In November 2014, University of Phoenix partnered with 47 historically black colleges and universities to offer UoP classes that transfer to these institutions.
In 2016, University of Phoenix partnered with the ASIS Foundation to provide scholarships for students studying for security-related degrees. In March 2016, the first ten scholarship recipients were announced.
A co-founder of University of Phoenix, John D. Murphy, wrote in Mission Forsaken (2013) about the school's devolution from a provider of working adult continuing education programs into a money making machine whose sole criterion for admission was eligibility for federally funded student loans.
University of Phoenix students owe more than $35,000,000,000 in student loan debt, the most of any US college.
Since 2009, the University of Phoenix has received $1.2 billion of federal money issued through the G.I. Bill. The university enrolled almost 50,000 such students in 2014, twice as many as any other institution.
Lawsuits and investigations
The university has paid several government fines and settled whistle-blower lawsuits concerning its admissions practices and education programs. In 2000, the federal government fined the university $6 million for including study-group meetings as instructional hours. In 2002, the Department of Education relaxed requirements on instructional hours.
A 2003 lawsuit filed by two former university recruiters alleged that the university improperly obtained hundreds of millions of dollars in financial aid by paying its admission counselors based on the number of students they enrolled, a violation of the Higher Education Act. The university's parent company settled by paying the government $67.5 million, plus $11 million in legal fees, without admitting any wrongdoing.
In 2004, the Department of Education alleged that UOPX again violated Higher Education Act provisions that prohibit offering financial incentives to admission representatives and pressured its recruiters to enroll students. UOPX disputed the findings but paid a $9.8 million fine as part of a settlement where it admitted no wrongdoing and was not required to return any financial aid funds. The university also paid $3.5 million to the Department of Labor to settle a violation of overtime compensation regarding hours worked by UOPX's recruiters. The University of Phoenix settled a false-claims suit for $78.5 million in 2009 over its recruiter-pay practices.
In 2008, the university was the top recipient of student financial aid funds, receiving nearly $2.48 billion. In 2009, the Department of Education produced a report that claimed the untimely return of unearned Title IV funds for more than 10 percent of sampled students. The report also expressed concern that some students register and begin attending classes before completely understanding the implications of enrollment, including their eligibility for student financial aid. In January 2010, the parent company Apollo Group was required to post a letter of credit for $125 million by January 30 of the same year. In 2010, UOPX came under government scrutiny after its Phoenix and Philadelphia campuses were found to have been engaging in deceptive enrollment practices and fraudulent solicitation of FAFSA funds.
In 2014 the US Department of Education's Office of the Inspector General demanded records from the University of Phoenix and its parent company Apollo Group going back to 2007 "related to marketing, recruitment, enrollment, financial aid, fraud prevention, [and] student retention."
In October 2015, the U.S. Department of Defense suspended the university's ability to recruit on U.S. military bases and receive federal funding for educating members of the U.S. military. In describing the suspension, The Washington Post noted that "the decision arrives amid allegations that the university sponsored recruiting events in violation of an executive order preventing for-profit colleges from gaining preferential access to the military." Some federal legislators, including U.S. Senators John McCain, Jeff Flake, and Lamar Alexander protested the suspension, which was lifted in January 2016.
In 2016, stockholders of Apollo Education Group filed a class-action lawsuit against the corporation, arguing that the company withheld information that led to significant losses in stock prices. Several of the allegations are related to University of Phoenix's recruiting of military personnel and veterans.
The University of Phoenix claimed a peak enrollment of almost 600,000 students in 2010, but its numbers have declined to 155,600 as of May 2016.
Various reasons have been given for the enrollment drop (and more than 100 campus closings). An article in The Wall Street Journal attributed the drop to operational changes amid criticism of high debt loads and low job prospects for students of for-profit colleges, while the University of Phoenix attributed it to operational changes including the implementation of student orientation, a free three week trial period and a new entrance exam.
The average age of a University of Phoenix undergraduate student is 33. The average graduate student is 36. In 2007-08 the institution stated that nearly two-thirds of its students were women and that a plurality of students attending the school studied business (undergraduate students representing 29.9% and graduate students 12.9%), followed closely by those enrolled in Axia College for associate degrees (28.1%).
In 2013, the US Department of Defense ended its contract with University of Phoenix for military bases in Europe.
When calculated using the standards set by the Department of Education, the university's overall graduation rate in 2007 was 16 percent, which, when compared with the national average of 55 percent, was among the nation's lowest. The federal standard measured graduation rates as the percentage of first-time undergraduates who obtain a degree within six years.
The university acknowledged the 16-percent graduation rate but took exception to the standard used by the Department of Education to calculate the rate, saying that the rate was based upon criteria that applied to only seven percent of the university's student population. The university published its own graduation rate of 59 percent to account for its large population of non-traditional students.
The institution depends heavily on contingent faculty: 95 percent of Phoenix instructors teach part-time, compared to an average of 47 percent nationwide. This reliance on part-time faculty has been criticized by regulators and academic critics. Most of the classes are centrally crafted and standardized to ensure consistency and to maximize profits. Additionally, no faculty members get tenure.
According to a university officer, pre-screened instructional candidates participate in a training program in the discipline in which they teach, which has the effect of weeding out 40 percent to 50 percent of the "less-committed" or -capable applicants.
Adjuncts make approximately $1000–$2000 per course.
More than 925,000 alumni are counted as graduates of the university, according to the new president of the university. Phoenix alumni in the government sector include White House cybersecurity coordinator Howard Schmidt, former U.S. Secretary of Transportation Mary Peters ('94), and member of the Utah House of Representatives Brad Dee ('91).
In military and law enforcement, alumni include U.S. Navy Admiral Kirkland H. Donald, and Director of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Harold Hurtt ('91). MSNBC anchor and a host of NBC's Early Today Christina Brown is also an alumna of the university.
Athletes who have earned degrees from the university include four-time NBA Championship-winner Shaquille O'Neal ('05), three-time WNBA MVP Lisa Leslie, professional tennis player Michael Russell ('12). and Arizona Cardinals professional NFL football player Larry Fitzgerald ('16)  who since graduation has become a paid spokesperson for the university.
- "Timothy Slottow, President, University of Phoenix". phoenix.edu.
- "Apollo Education Group, Inc. Reports Third Quarter Fiscal Year 2016 Results". BusinessWire. Jul 7, 2016. Retrieved Jul 14, 2016.
- Jon Marcus (Mar 4, 2016). "Can the University of Phoenix Rise From the Ashes?". Money. Retrieved Apr 17, 2016.
- "Admissions Requirements – University of Phoenix". University of Phoenix. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
- Allen, Lee (August 8, 2008). "University of Phoenix Provides Growth Opportunities for Working Adults". Inside Tucson Business. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
- Ronald J. Hansen, Matthew Casey (August 26, 2014). "John Sperling, University of Phoenix founder, dead at 93". abcentral. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
- Andrew Farrell Forbes (hosted on CBCNews), The Web Billionaires, September 19, 2008
- "Telephony Online, Desktop degrees, University of Phoenix takes education on-line, May 26, 1997". Telephonyonline.com. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- "The Story of the University Phoenix". American Public Media.
- Caleb Melby. "John Sperling – In Photos: Gangsters, Games and Gold: Billionaire Drop-Offs 2013". Forbes.
- Emily Hanford. "The Case Against For-Profit Colleges and Universities". American Public Media. Retrieved Jul 14, 2016.
- Patrick Gillespie (Mar 25, 2015). "University of Phoenix has lost half its students". Money. Retrieved Jul 14, 2016.
- Aimee Picchi (Mar 26, 2015). "Is the University of Phoenix flaming out?". CBS News. Retrieved Jul 14, 2016.
- "Form 10-Q for APOLLO EDUCATION GROUP INC". Yahoo. Apr 7, 2016. Retrieved Jul 14, 2016.
- Robert Shireman (Jun 9, 2016). "For-Profits Have Incentives to Misuse Federal Money". New York Times. Retrieved Jul 14, 2016.
- Cohen, Patricia; Bray, Chad (Feb 8, 2016). "University of Phoenix Owner, Apollo Education Group, Will Be Taken Private". New York Times. Retrieved Feb 10, 2016.
- Bomey, Nathan (Feb 8, 2016). "University of Phoenix to be sold amid shrinking enrollment". USA Today. Retrieved Feb 10, 2016.
- Pepalis, Bob (July 28, 2008). "University of Phoenix Fills Online, Campus Classrooms". NorthFulton.com. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- Staff (July 19, 2007). "University of Phoenix Opens First Resource Center". Dallas Business Journal. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- Leonard, Wendy (August 25, 2008). "E-Books Make Learning Cheaper – They're Popular with University of Phoenix Faculty, Students". Deseret News. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- Apollo Education Group, Inc. and Subsidiaries Form 10-Q, for the Quarter Ended May 31, 2016. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 2016.
- "2014 Academic Annual Report". University of Phoenix. Retrieved January 19, 2016.
- "UoP Online and Campus Programs". University of Phoenix. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
- "Learning Teams – University of Phoenix". University of Phoenix. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- Wasley, Paula (August 8, 2008). "University Offers Real Job Training at Unreal Companies". The Chronicle of Higher Education.
- Gabriel, Trip (August 2, 2011). "Apollo Group to Buy Maker of Math Courses". The New York Times.
- Dillon, Sam (February 11, 2007). "Troubles Grow for a University Built on Profits". The New York Times, February 11, 2007.
- Katherine Mangu-Ward, Katherine (July 2008). "Education for Profit – Why Is Everyone Flaming the University of Phoenix?". Reason. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- "Corporate Articulation". www.phoenix.edu. University of Phoenix. Retrieved 2015-12-28.
- "Professional Training Portfolios". www.phoenix.edu. University of Phoenix. Retrieved 2015-12-28.
- National Center for Education Statistics (2008). "College Navigator – University of Phoenix". Retrieved August 5, 2010.
- John Hechinger, For-Profit College Slump Converging With Student Life-Debtors, Bloomberg, December 28, 2010, Accessed January 8, 2011.
- KHOU "Get Your Degree" February 17 2012
- Blumenstyk, Goldie (October 8, 2004). "U. of Phoenix Uses Pressure in Recruiting, Report Says – Archives – The Chronicle of Higher Education". Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
- "Changes to enrollment-recruiting-practices – ". Retrieved January 2, 2013.
- "Federal Financial Aid Plan – University of Phoenix". Phoenix.edu. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
- "New Default Rate Data for Federal Student Loans: 44% of Defaulters Attended For-Profit Institutions". The Pew Charitable Trusts. December 15, 2009. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- Marklein, Mary Beth (Jul 2, 2013). "College default rates higher than grad rates". USA Today. Retrieved Apr 27, 2015.
- Lewin, Tamar (November 23, 2010). "Report Finds Low Graduation Rates at For-Profit Colleges". The New York Times. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- "University of Phoenix-Online Campus". College Scorecard. United States Department of Education. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- Gonzales, Angela (February 25, 2013). "Senior Reporter". Phoenix Business Journal. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- "SEC Filings | Apollo Group". Investors.apollo.edu. May 13, 2013. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
- "Accreditor Removes U of Phoenix from 'Notice' Sanction". Inside Higher Ed. 10 July 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- "Current ACBSP Educational Institution Members". Acbsp.org. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- Gilbertson, Dawn (December 5, 2006). "Losing Intel a Blow to School". The Arizona Republic.
- Stu Woo, Intel Cuts 100 Colleges From Its Tuition-Reimbursement Program for Employees, The Chronicle of Higher Education, February 2, 2007.
- "University of Phoenix Staggers Under Growing Criticism, ConsumerAffairs.com, by Truman Lewis, February 11, 2007". Consumeraffairs.com. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- "TEAC Members". Teacher Education Accreditation Council. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- CCNE-Accredited Baccalaureate and Master's Nursing Degree Programs
- "Directory of CACREP Accredited Programs" (PDF). Cacrep.org. January 1, 1980. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
- "Embattled Univ. of Phoenix Operator to be Taken Private in $1.1 Billion Transaction - CoStar Group". www.costar.com. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- "University of Phoenix Maxing Out on Defaults". Bank Talk. April 27, 2012. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
- Goldie Blumenstyk (Jan 31, 2008). "U. of Phoenix Basks in the Super Exposure the Super Bowl Brings". Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved Sep 3, 2010.
- David Halperin (May 4, 2016). "Ellen DeGeneres Shills for For-Profit College Facing Law Enforcement Probes". Huffington Post. Retrieved Jul 14, 2016.
- "Margaret Spellings Joins Apollo Group Board of Directors". Reuters.
- "Apollo hires Jane Oates, former Labor Department official @insidehighered". insidehighered.com.
- Mettler, Suzanne (2010). Degrees of Inequality: Culture, Class, and Gender in American Higher Education. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801899126. Retrieved Apr 27, 2015.
- "University_of_Phoenix". Bgca.org. Retrieved 2015-06-06.
- Eric Kelderman (Nov 14, 2014). "U. of Phoenix and Thurgood Marshall Fund Announce Partnership". Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved Jul 14, 2016.
- "University of Phoenix students receive scholarships for security professionals". Higher Education Tribune. 2016-03-31. Retrieved 2016-04-13.
- Zucchino, David; Rivera, Carla (July 16, 2012). "Anger grows over GI Bill profiteers – Los Angeles Times". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- "Who's really benefiting from the GI Bill?". PBS NewsHour.
- Murphy, John (2013). Mission Forsaken--The University of Phoenix Affair With Wall Street. Proving Ground Education. ISBN 096696831X. Retrieved Jul 15, 2016.
- Catey Hill (Sep 11, 2015). "Student-loan crisis: 10 colleges where students owe the most". MarketWatch. Retrieved Jul 14, 2016.
- William M. Arkin and Alexa O'Brien, "The Top 100 Most Militarized Universities in America" Vice News, November 6, 2015
- Lewin, Tamar (August 9, 2011). "Education Management Corporation Accused of Widespread Fraud". The New York Times.
- "University's Owner Settles Federal Dispute Over Student Aid". The New York Times. May 14, 2000. Retrieved September 7, 2009.
- Gilbertson, Dawn (October 4, 2009). "University of Phoenix case may get closure". Arizona Republic. Retrieved October 4, 2009.
- "For-Profit Educator to Pay $67.5 Million Settlement". The Wall Street Journal. December 15, 2009. p. B4.
- "US DOE Program Review Report" (PDF). Retrieved March 21, 2014.
- Student-recruitment Tactics at University of Phoenix Blasted by Feds Univ. of Phoenix Audit Leads to $9.8 mil Fine The Arizona Republic, September 14, 2004, by Dawn Gilbertson
- University of Phoenix Receives Record Fine Austin Business Journal, September 14, 2004
- University of Phoenix, Dept. of Labor Reach Overtime Agreement Phoenix Business Journal, July 23, 2004
- Apollo to pay Department of Labor $2M-$3M to Settle Case Austin Business Journal, July 17, 2004.
- Gilbertson, Dawn (December 15, 2009). "Apollo Group Settles Suit for $78.5 Million". Arizona Republic. Retrieved May 30, 2011.
- Top 100 Recipients of Federal Assistance for FY 2008, Usaspending.gov, US government
- "Apollo Repaid Education Aid Late, Gave Lax Counseling". BusinessWeek. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
- Lauerman, John (August 4, 2010). "For-Profit Colleges Misled Students, Witnesses Say". Bloomberg News. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- Lauerman, John (April 2, 2014). "Apollo Falls as Education Department Demands Records". Bloomberg News. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- Danielle Douglas-Gabriel (October 9, 2015). "Why the Defense Department is kicking the University of Phoenix off military bases". Retrieved December 12, 2015.
- Hansen, Ronald J. (2015-10-26). "McCain, Flake urge review of U of Phoenix military base ban". The Arizona Republic. Phoenix, Arizona. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
- "Pentagon Lifts Probation of U of Phoenix". Inside Higher Ed. January 18, 2016. Retrieved February 11, 2016.
- Gonzales, Angela (Mar 18, 2016). "Shareholders file class-action lawsuit against University of Phoenix parent". Phoenix Business Journal. Retrieved Apr 16, 2016.
- Rameses Te Lomingkit vs. Apollo Education Group, Inc., Case Number: 2:16-cv-00689-JZ (U.S. District Court, District of Arizona Mar 14, 2016).
- "Apollo Group 4Q Net Soars on Fewer Charges; Enrollment Falls". The Wall Street Journal. October 19, 2011.
- Hensley-Clancy, Molly (29 January 2015). "The University Of Phoenix Wants Its Reputation Back". Buzzfeed. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- "Why Recent Criticism of the University of Phoenix is Unjustified, Rhonda P. Urban, Ementor, ezine by Warsaw School of Economics". E-mentor.edu.pl. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- "University of Phoenix 2007 Fact Book". Phoenix.edu. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- "U. of Phoenix Says Test Scores Vindicate Its Academic Model, Chronicle of Higher Education, BLUMENSTYK June 13, 2008" (PDF). Upxnewsroom.com. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- "University of Phoenix Ranks #1 in Graduating Master's Degree Students from Underrepresented Populations, Hispanic PR Wire". Hispanicprwire.com. July 18, 2007. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- Nealy, Michael (August 20, 2009). "Pride and Peril: Historically Black Colleges and Universities". Diverse – Issues in Higher Education. Retrieved September 25, 2009.
- Jennifer H. Svan. "DOD renews contracts with four schools, drops University of Phoenix – News". Stripes. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
- "Supporting E-Learning at the University of Phoenix" (PDF). Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- "Faculty". phoenix.edu.
- "Search Results". Adjunct Project.
- "An open letter from the president". www.phoenix.edu. Retrieved 2016-01-20.
- "Howard Schmidt, Cybersecurity 'Czar': Who Is He?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved December 29, 2009.
- Adams, Marilyn (February 5, 2008). "Events, Drive Keep DOT Chief in the Spotlight". USA Today. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- "Brad L. Dee". Utah House of Representatives. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
- United States Navy Biography U.S. Navy Web Site. Retrieved March 13, 2008.
- "Mayor Bill White Announces Police Chief Nominee". City of Houston. February 27, 2004. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
- "Christina Brown". MSNBC. 2010. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
- The Big Executive? Shaq masters MBA MSNBC. Retrieved February 12, 2008.
- Los Angeles Sparks Lisa Leslie Receives her Masters at University of Phoenix WireImage Website. Retrieved March 20, 2009.
- "Michael Russell completes undergrad program from University of Phoenix". Tennisworldusa.org. January 15, 2012. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
- "Larry Fitzgerald Gets His College Degree". azcardinals.com. May 17, 2016. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- "Larry Fitzgerald: Playing for the future". phoenix.edu. September 15, 2016. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- Cuomo, Chris; Vlasto, Chris; Wagschal, Gerry; Pearle, Lauren; Andreadis, Cleopatra (August 19, 2010). "ABC News Investigates For-Profit Education: Recruiters at the University of Phoenix". ABC News. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to University of Phoenix.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: University of Phoenix|