University of Redlands
|President||Ralph W. Kuncl|
|204 full-time; 100 adjunct|
|Students||4500 under and post-graduate|
|Location||Redlands, California, United States|
|Campus||Suburban, 160 acres (65 ha)|
|Colors||Maroon and Gray|
|Athletics||NCAA Division III
The University of Redlands is a private liberal arts university located in Redlands, California, United States. The university's main campus is situated on 160 acres (65 ha) near downtown Redlands. Founded in 1907 as a Baptist institution, the school is now independent and ended compulsory religious services in 1972, although it maintains an informal relationship with the group American Baptist Churches USA.
- 1 History of the University of Redlands
- 2 Organization
- 3 Academics
- 4 Athletics
- 5 Campus housing
- 6 Greek life
- 7 Diversity-based organizations
- 8 Filming at Redlands
- 9 Redlands culture and traditions
- 10 Notable alumni
- 11 References
- 12 External links
History of the University of Redlands
Founding the University
The University of Redlands had its roots in the founding of two other American Baptist institutions, California College in Oakland, and Los Angeles University. After the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 damaged the finances of California College, a Baptist commission began exploring the liquidation of both institutions to develop a new institution in Southern California. The Reverend Jasper Newton Field, a Baptist pastor at Redlands, persuaded the Redlands Board of Trade to propose a donation of at least 100,000 dollars and 40 acres (16 ha) for an interdenominational campus (on land donated by layman Mr. K.C. Wells). On June 27, 1907 the Commission voted all in favor of the Redlands proposal.
Ground was broken on April 9, 1909, on the hill where the administration building now stands. Nine founding faculty members held their first day of classes in the Redlands Baptist Church on September 30, 1909, with 39 students attending.
On January 27, 1910, the University of Redlands opened its physical doors by occupying the newly completed Administration building. Bekins Hall and the President's mansion were the only two other buildings completed. President Field was charged with further securing $200,000 for endowment, but the 1912 United States cold wave, which wiped out half the California citrus crop and severely damaged the local economy, made this impossible.
President Field resigned in 1914. Victor LeRoy Duke, Dean and Professor of Mathematics, became the next president. The Southern California Baptist community initiated a campaign to raise $50,000 to clear outstanding debt. The following spring the Northern Baptist Education Board endorsed the school, promising to help raise an endowment.
By 1925 the faculty numbered 25, and student enrollment had increased to 465. Finances had improved to the extent that, with significant volunteer help, UR was able to erect 12 new buildings by the end of the decade. New dormitories, classrooms, a library, memorial chapel and gymnasium were built. A school of education was added. A developing alumni base also started to support the university. By 1928, the University's endowment was $2,592,000, the fourth largest in the state and among the top ten percent of American universities.
Redlands during the Great Depression
By the beginning of 1932, the effects of the Great Depression started to be felt at the University. Enrollment soared, as there was no work to be found, but student indebtedness also increased exponentially, as well as the amount the University owed banks. Salaries were cut, and employees were laid-off. On March 3, 1933, the day after the governor declared a moratorium on banks, President Duke died of a cerebral hemorrhage.
The administration of UR's third President, Dr. Clarence Howe Thurber, soon ran afoul of ultra-conservative churches. Student members complained of a liberal attitude toward Baptist doctrine being taught at the campus. The later affair of Dr. William H. Roberts, a Redlands psychology professor who became the campaign manager of Upton Sinclair's run for governor in 1934, also severely strained town and gown relations.
Redlands during and after World War II
The 1940s brought many changes to the University of Redlands. They began with the bombing of Pearl Harbor. As conscriptions and enlistments for the war depleted classes, courses were set up for the soldiers at Camp Haan and March Field.
The July 1, 1943 arrival of a Navy V-12 unit, composed of 631 men for officer candidate training, along with a civilian enrollment of 473 women and 110 men, was Redlands’ largest enrollment ever, and gradually lead to the easing of social restrictions. Military men were not required to attend chapel, and on New Year's Eve the Marines clandestinely held the first impromptu dance ever on the campus. Two months later, the Navy held the first formal dance on the commons, and the Trustees finally discarded the "no dancing" policy in 1945, after the Redlands V-12 unit had been disbanded.
The passage of the G.I. Bill further opened the doors at Redlands. By special action of Congress, housing units for 50 veteran's families were installed on campus. Of the 219 graduates of June 1949, 126 were veterans, and of these 70 were married.
The 50s saw other changes. Fraternity houses were established for the first time, and other improvements made to the university. The first Ph.D. ever granted by the University was received in 1957, by Milton D. Hummex, in Philosophy.
Compulsory chapel attendance fell to the student militancy of the 1960s and 1970s. The seventh President of the University, Dr. Douglas Moore, was not even Baptist. The campus became truly interdenominational and multicultural, going for some years without clergymen on the Board of Trustees.
Following Dr. Moore, Dr. James R. Appleton served as the eighth president of the University of Redlands for 18 years from 1987–2005. Under his leadership, the University of Redlands saw significant enhancements in campus facilities and technology — strong enrollments; balanced budgets and record-breaking private fund raising.
Dr. Stuart Dorsey served as the ninth president of the University of Redlands from 2005 to 2010. During this period, the University opened the 42,000-square-foot (3,900 m2) Center for the Arts, and renovated the Armacost Library, adding five computer laboratories and a café. Dr. Dorsey resigned his position on March 16, 2010 amid controversy over budget deficits and proposed cuts.
On March 17, 2010, current Chancellor and former president Dr. James R. Appleton was appointed interim president.
Students at the university study in one of five schools: the College of Arts and Sciences, the School of Education, the School of Business, the School of Music, or the Johnston Center for Integrative Studies.
College of Arts and Sciences
The College of Arts and Sciences serves approximately 2,250 undergraduate students from 42 states and 12 foreign countries. About 24 percent are Asian, Latino, African American, Native American or multi-ethnic students.
The college has 167 full-time faculty members serving 45 major areas of study. Eighty-five percent of full-time faculty have a Ph.D. or terminal degree. The student-faculty ratio is approximately 11:1; most class sizes are below 20 students, with upper-division science lectures and all science labs capped at 16 students. Professors or instructors teach all courses and sections.
Johnston Center for Integrative Studies
Born in the midst of the Experiential Education Movement, Johnston College, an endowed college which was to become the first cluster college at the University of Redlands. It began as an experiment in professor-student mentor relationships where a student-initiated, contract-driven education, and operated as an autonomous unit of the university for approximately 10 years. The first class of approximately 30 students, graduated in 1972. The structure of the educational system was based on seminars (8–10 students), tutorials (3–8), and independent studies.
In 1979, it was integrated into the College of Arts and Sciences (CAS) as the Johnston Center for Individualized Studies. It operated under that name until the mid-1990s, when it was renamed The Johnston Center for Integrative Studies.
Today, over 150 Redlands students live and learn together in the Johnston complex, which includes two residence halls and five faculty offices. Students design their own majors in consultation with faculty, and write contracts for their courses, for which they receive narrative evaluations in lieu of traditional grades.
School of Music
The University of Redlands School of Music was founded along with the University as its School of Fine Arts. It is today an accredited institutional member of the National Association of Schools of Music, and its requirements for entrance and graduation comply with the standards of this accrediting organization.
Approximately 350 students study Music with 13 full-time and 26 adjunct faculty. The School of Music offers Bachelor of Music (BM) degrees in Composition, Performance, and Education, Bachelor of Arts (BA) degrees in Music, as well as Master of Music (MM) degrees.
Any University student may participate in musical activities through enrollment (usually by audition) in the University Choir, Chapel Singers, Madrigals, Wind Ensemble, Concert Band, Studio Jazz Band, Symphony Orchestra, Chamber Orchestra, University Opera, and a variety of chamber music ensembles. Students are invited to register for private, group, or class lessons, available on all instruments and for voice.
Renowned concert organist Frederick Swann is professor of organ.
School of Education
The oldest graduate division within the university, the School of Education was founded in 1924. As of 2006, it serves 516 students in graduate coursework, with 17 full-time professors and 30 adjunct professors, and offers a nationally unique "Doctorate in Leadership for Educational Justice" (Ed.D.), the only doctoral program on campus, which engages 20 students each year.
Geared primarily for the working professional, the school partners with the College of Arts and Sciences to offer undergraduates a chance to earn their teaching credential. The school currently offers students the chance to obtain their Preliminary Teaching Credential, as well as Administrative and Pupil Personnel Services Credentials. It also offers Master's of Arts Degrees in School Counseling, Curriculum and Instruction, Educational Administration and Higher Education. In January 2012 the school enrolled its first cohort of students in the Special Education Credential program, this mild/moderate credential also includes the autism certificate. In the fall of 2012 the school will offer a Master's in Clinical Mental Health Counseling, this will lead to eventual licensure in the state of California through the Board of Behavioral Sciences.
In 2001 the School of Education partnered with the Lewis Center for Educational Research in Apple Valley. They offer Preliminary Teaching Credentials onsite and serve Apple Valley and the surrounding high desert communities.
In the Fall of 2008, the University of Redlands, School of Education expanded to a second satellite campus in Orange County. Working with the University of Redlands, School of Business, the School of Education offers Multiple and Single Subject Teacher Credential Programs and an Education master's degree in Counseling. Credential courses are held twice a week and Masters level courses are held one to three nights a week. As of 2012 he school now offers the multiple and single subject credentials in Temecula and Rancho Cucamonga.
School of Business
Founded in 1976 as the Alfred North Whitehead College for Lifelong Learning, the School of Business started as an experiment in providing educational services to working adults in locations throughout Southern California. It was one of the first successful ventures in quality education through off-site learning. It evolved to become the School of Business in 2001.
The School of Business currently has approximately 700 undergraduate students and close to 800 graduate students(2010), taught by 22 full-time and 46 adjunct professors. Classes are held at the Redlands campus as well as satellite locations in Burbank, Orange County, Rancho Cucamonga/Ontario, Riverside, Temecula, Torrance, and San Diego.
The School of Business also offers a daytime MBA program, which was launched in 2006. The program provides an opportunity for a Redlands graduate to stay a fifth year and complete a masters. Some aptly prepared students could even complete the program in as little as 30 units. According to Keith Roberts, associate dean, "The school of business has traditionally only taught working adults in an evening program, but we saw there was a need for traditional students who completed their bachelor's to move right into a graduate program so this was a new market that our school of business had never really addressed."
The University of Redlands offers traditional undergraduate liberal arts degree programs within the College of Arts and Sciences, along with graduate programs in business, education, and communicative disorders. The Johnston Center for Integrative Studies offers customized degree programs for undergraduates, based upon a contract system and narrative evaluations.
National and regional rankings
In 2012, the U.S. News & World Report ranked Redlands 11th among regional universities in the western United States, and in 2010 it was rated 7th in the western United States for its master's degree programs. The Princeton Review included the University as one of the country's best institutions for undergraduate education in its 2008, 2009, and 2010 editions of 'The Best Colleges'. In 2007 the University earned fifth place (up from 7th in 2006) among western U.S. liberal arts colleges that offer undergraduate and master's degrees but few, if any, doctoral programs. Redlands was the only university in the Inland Empire in this category to make the top ten.
Admissions and Retention
Admission to the University of Redlands is classified as 'selective', with an acceptance rate of approximately 65% and a freshmen retention rate of 85%, on par with those of other similarly ranked regional universities.
Redlands competes in the Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (SCIAC), which operates within NCAA Division III. Redlands was one of the founding members of the SCIAC in 1915 and is one of only two schools to have had continuous membership. The university currently fields ten men’s teams and eleven women’s teams.
The team mascot is the bulldog. The university has traditionally maintained a live bulldog in this capacity. The recently retired mascot is Duke, who held the title since 2003–10. The new pup on campus is Thurber. He is commonly seen at sporting events or around campus.
The University offers its students guaranteed housing during their four years of undergraduate study. Students must live on campus unless there is parental consent and a compelling reason until the age of 23.
Many residence halls are "living-learning communities", with themes such as "freshman", "social justice", "substance-free,", etc. These themes and configurations change from time to time.
Most students live in double-occupancy rooms with hallway or suite-style bathrooms, though triples and quads are available, as well as single rooms for students with special medical needs. In a suite-style layout, two rooms share a single bathroom. In a hallway-bathroom layout, residents share a common hallway bathroom, with a sink provided in each residence hall room (except for East and Williams Halls, where sinks are only in the bathrooms). There are a few semi-private showers that are gender neutral, primarily in the Holt building of the Johnston complex.
Air conditioning is not provided in all residence halls. Where air conditioning is provided, it can be controlled centrally, or with a thermostat in each room. Many students, especially in older halls, complain of poorly functioning central heat/AC systems, leading to hot summer days and very cold nights and mornings in the winter.
Students live in the following halls and complexes:
- Anderson Hall: The largest residence hall on campus, Anderson houses approximately 220 undergraduates. The rooms are in a suite-style layout, with two double-occupancy or triple-occupancy rooms sharing a single bathroom. Air conditioning is only provided in the lobby, leading to uncomfortably warm rooms in the late spring and early fall. The building has not undergone major renovations since the 1960s and many students dislike the dated facilities. However, the suite-style layout and larger-than-average rooms still make Anderson a popular pick for first-year students who might otherwise live in the freshman halls. Anderson is known for its very social community as well as its music-themed hallway on the first floor.
- Bekins Hall: One of the two "Johnston Complex" housing and classroom buildings, Bekins has the distinction of being the first residence hall on campus. Non air-conditioned and does not meet current earthquake standards. Contains a cafe.
- Bekins-Holt: Johnston Complex's other building includes the Johnston lobby and is air conditioned during certain hours of the day. Contains a basement cafe.
- Brockton Avenue Apartments: The newest housing at the University, the Brockton Apartments opened for the 2003–2004 academic year. The complex houses approximately 250 residents in four-person units. These units share two bathrooms and a common area/kitchen. Brockton is viewed as a highly desirable place for upperclassmen to live, but it comes at a higher cost than the halls.
- California-Founders Hall: Consists of an all-male wing (California) and an all-female wing (Founders) joined by a common lobby to form a living area for almost 200 sophomore and junior students. "Cal" houses 80 male students and features hallway bathrooms. Founders is home to about 100 women in a suite-style layout. This hall underwent major renovation in the summer of 2006 to outfit the hall with modern fire equipment, as well as electrical upgrades, structural bolstering, and air conditioning. The hall reopened September 1, 2006 for staff, hosting residents the next day. This residence hall also features a "Sophomore Success" living-learning-community on the second floor.
- Cortner Hall: Home to 130 residents, usually in the upper classes of juniors and seniors. The hall was renovated in 2000 and is viewed by many to be the epitome of upperclass housing within the hall system. Cortner features large rooms, air conditioning, and suite-style bathrooms.
- East Hall: Originally built for the Johnston Complex, East hosts approximately 120 freshmen in its three air conditioned, quadrangle-layout floors.
- Fairmont Hall: The smallest residence hall, Fairmont hosts 60 residents who come together with an interest in Social Justice. It houses a combination of two first-year seminars and upperclass students with an interest in social justice. Fairmont is the only hall with its own mascot: a rock, deemed such a prize for its theft and relocation over the years that Fairmont residents anchored it to the ground in concrete in 1976. To this day, various other halls attack the rock in a friendly water-balloon battle late at night. Fairmont has hallway bathrooms, with the exception of four suites, and is not air-conditioned.
- Grossmont Hall: Home to approximately 120 women, Grossmont is the largest single-sex hall on campus. The financier specified that the hall was to be for the use of women exclusively for the duration of its lifetime; thus it stands today. Non air-conditioned.
- Merriam Hall: The school's dedicated "green hall", Merriam houses a combination of first-year seminars and upperclass students interested in environmental sustainability. Merriam has air-conditioned rooms and features energy-efficient lighting, low-flow plumbing fixtures, and furniture made from recycled materials.
- Melrose Hall: The "quiet" hall, which houses 65 students, features extended quiet hours, from 9pm to 9am daily. It is often referred to as "Hotel Melrose" by students due its large rooms, new facilities, and overall tranquility and cleanliness.
- North Hall: Merriam's twin hall, North is the Wellness Hall, featuring substance-free living and various programs throughout the year to promote wellness. North is a primary pick for athletes due to its proximity to the athletic facilities.
- Williams Hall: East's twin hall, Williams hosts approximately 120 freshmen in its three air conditioned, quadrangle-layout floors. It was originally dubbed "West Hall" but was renamed after a donor.
The University has recently added two new buildings: Lewis Hall (named after U.S. Congressman Jerry Lewis) and Appleton Hall (named after the university's former president). Lewis Hall opened in the fall of 2005, and is home to the Master of Science in Geographic Information Systems Program, the Environmental Studies Program, and the Redlands Institute (an environmental research institute). Appleton Hall opened in the spring of 2006 and is home to the physics, math, astronomy, and computer science departments, which were previously in Duke and Hentschke Halls. Appleton Hall, named after Redlands chancellor and president Jim Appleton, cost the university about $10.3 million. Its southern wall is graced by a giant sundial designed by physics professor Tyler Nordgren, including a version for daylight-saving time, that is accurate within 10 minutes. It is also sometimes referred to as the "Hall of Numbers."
The University also offers alternative housing to various organizations. Merit houses are awarded to organizations for use during the school year. The university also offers a Greek System, unaffiliated with national Greek organizations, which also contains several houses for residence by the groups' members. The houses that compile the group of Greek housing are mostly on "Frat Row," which is located behind the school softball field, all with the exception of the Sigma Kappa Alpha and Chi Rho Psi houses. The Kappa Pi Zeta sorority does not have a house.
Active social fraternities:
- Pi Chi – founded 1909
- Alpha Gamma Nu – founded 1923
- Chi Rho Psi – founded 1927 (re-founded 2001)
- Chi Sigma Chi – founded 1936
- Kappa Sigma Sigma – founded 1916
- Sigma Kappa Alpha – founded 1947
- Alpha Theta Phi – founded 1911
- Alpha Sigma Pi – founded 1914
- Alpha Xi Omicron – founded 1927 (re-founded 1998)
- Beta Lambda – founded 1921(re-founded 1988)
- Delta Kappa Psi – founded 1910
- Kappa Pi Zeta – founded 1926 (re-founded 2011)
Active business fraternities:
- Delta Sigma Pi: Xi Pi chapter – chapter founded 1999
Active service fraternities:
- Alpha Phi Omega: Sigma Beta chapter
- Omicron Delta Kappa – national leadership honor society emphasizing holistic development
- Phi Alpha Theta – a national honor society for the study of history
- Phi Beta Kappa – an interdisciplinary national academic honor society.
- Phi Mu Alpha – a social fraternity for men of musicianly character.
- Pi Gamma Mu – an international social science honor society that is dedicated to community service and interdisciplinary scholarship in the social sciences.
- Psi Chi – a national honor society in the field of psychology
- Sigma Alpha Iota – an international music-based sisterhood founded in 1903
- Sigma Tau Delta – an English honor society that provides social and scholarly opportunities
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (April 2010)|
Rangi Ya Giza (RYG) – founded on May 15, 1992 – non-Greek, diversity based brotherhood that seeks to positively affect the campus and community by organizing service projects, raising awareness of local and global issues, and taking action against injustices in our society. Rangi Ya Giza is Swahili for "A Darker Shade" to represent their East African roots. RYG focuses specifically on benefitting organizations in the community such as Boys & Girls Club of Redlands, Emmerton Elementary school, and the Stillman House.
Wadada Wa Rangi Wengi (WRW), meaning "Sisters of Many Shades" in Swahili – founded on October 15, 1992 – non-Greek sisterhood dedicated to raising awareness about issues of diversity, gender, and social injustice. WRW sponsors many events on campus, including Breast Cancer Awareness Week, Diversity Mixer, and Sexual Violence Awareness Week.
(RYG and WRW are organizations that were founded as a result of the Los Angeles race riots in response to communal apathy.)
Fidelity, Isonomy, Erudition (FIE) – founded on February 10, 2006 – Co-ed Siblinghood that prides itself in its commitment to service and awareness, creating a more empathetic community, and combating a gender binary. Service, Awareness, and Siblinghood are the three pillars the organization's 27 members (Spring 2008) stand firm on. FIE has been recognized as the University's Multicultural Organization of the Year in 2006 & 2010.
Filming at Redlands
Due to its location in the Greater Los Angeles Area, The U of R campus has been used as the setting for films such as Hell Night, Joy Ride, Slackers, and The Rules of Attraction. It has also been used in at least one Perry Mason episode as a stand-in for fictional Euclid College. The campus was also used for the Korean drama The Heirs, where Kim Tan (Lee Minho) attends during his exile in America.
Redlands culture and traditions
- The "R": This letter carved into the vegetation of the San Bernardino Mountains started as prank in 1913, but still stands today and is currently the second-largest collegiate letter in the nation.
- Mascot: The University has an English Bulldog, Thurber, who serves as the official mascot. Thurber took over title from his grandfather Duke in September 2010. Duke and Thurber can be found at various campus events or at their kennel near the office of admission. Histories are kept of the past and present bulldog mascots on the About Redlands website.
- Pete Aguilar, Elected to Congress for the 31st District in November 2014, Former Mayor of Redlands, California
- Gerald Albright, American Jazz saxophonist & composer
- David Boies, Attorney, famous for representing the Justice Department in United States v. Microsoft and Al Gore in Bush v. Gore (attended 1960-1962 as undergraduate; BS degree in 1964 from Northwestern University)
- Gayle Brandeis, Author, Teacher, Activist
- Sam Brown, organiser of the Vietnam Moratorium and former state treasurer of Colorado
- David Byerman, Secretary of the Nevada Senate
- Michael Carona, former Sheriff, Orange County, California
- Glen Charles, writer and producer for Cheers
- Les Charles, writer and producer for Cheers
- David Eick, executive producer of Battlestar Galactica, Bionic Woman and Caprica'
- Willard R. Espy, author and poet
- Mark D. Fabiani, political strategist
- H. R. Haldeman, Chief of Staff to President Richard Nixon, and key player in the Watergate Scandal
- Jared Hamman, current professional mixed martial arts fighter, formerly competing for the UFC
- Harvey Hyde, football coach, analyst
- Les Janka, Deputy Press Secretary for Foreign Affairs under President Ronald Reagan; currently Vice President at Raytheon
- Carl W. McIntosh, president of Idaho State University (1949-1959), California State University, Long Beach (1959-1969), and Montana State University (1970-1977)
- Juanita Millender-McDonald, American politician
- Greta N. Morris, United States Ambassador to the Republic of the Marshall Islands
- Judge Pat Morris Mayor of San Bernardino, California
- Robert Pierpoint, CBS White House correspondent
- Gene Pokorny, principal tuba of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra
- Danny Ragsdale, American football player
- John Raitt, Actor in musical theater
- Thalmus Rasulala, Actor
- George Runner, California Board of Equalization, District 2
- Ross Schunk, Major League Soccer player lately of the Colorado Rapids
- Alan Shugart, co-founder of Seagate Technology
- Cathy Scott, true crime books author
- J. Michael Scott (one year), scientist, environmentalist and author
- Gaddi H. Vasquez, United States Ambassador to the United Nations Organizations in Rome, Italy and former Peace Corps Director
- W. Richard West, Jr. Founding director of Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian
- Laurel Rose Willson, later known as Lauren Stratford and Laura Grabowski – discredited author of books about satanic ritual abuse and Holocaust survival
- James Q. Wilson, Author & Professor at Pepperdine University
- Bob Woods, Vice President Marketing, Frontier Communications
- As of June 30, 2012. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2012 Endowment Market Value and Percentage Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2011 to FY 2012" (PDF). 2012 NACUBO-Commonfund Study of Endowments. National Association of College and University Business Officers.
- NAICU – Member Directory
- Nelson, Lawrence Emmerson, "Redlands: Biography of a College, the first fifty years of the University of Redlands" University of Redlands, CA 1958.
- Moore, Frank E. "Redlands, Our Town" Moore Historical Foundation, Redlands, California, 1987
- Imran Ghori, The Press-Enterprise (2010-03-16). "University of Redlands president quits over budget cuts | San Bernardino County | PE.com | Southern California News | News for Inland Southern California". PE.com. Retrieved 2010-11-21.
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- Kennedy-Ross, Selicia (October 17, 2007). "What's in the future for I. E. universities?". San Bernardino County Sun. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
- "Regional University West Rankings". U.S. News and World Report.
- "Masters Universities West Rankings".
- "University of Redlands Fast Facts". Retrieved March 2, 2012.
- Heiss, David James (2006-07-02). "Physics, up close and personal". Redlands Daily Facts. Retrieved 2007-12-16.
- "The "R"". Redlands.edu. Retrieved 2011-10-22.
- "Mascot". Redlands.edu. Retrieved 2011-10-22.
- "Jared Hamman UFC Bio". Retrieved 2014.
- "Carl McIntosh Dies at 94." Los Angeles Times. January 22, 2009. Accessed 2013-08-14.
- John Raitt – Biography (IMDB)
- Thalmus Rasulala – Biography (IMDB)
- Passantino, Bob & Gretchen and Trott, Jon (October 13, 1999). "Lauren Stratford: From Satanic Ritual Abuse to Jewish Holocaust Survivor". Cornerstone. Retrieved July 26, 2010.
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