University of Tartu
|Latin: Universitas Tartuensis|
University of Dorpat/Yuryev,
Tartu State University
|Established||1632 (closed 1710–1802)|
Utrecht Network ,
|Website||www.ut.ee Official website|
The University of Tartu (Estonian: Tartu Ülikool, Latin: Universitas Tartuensis) is a classical university in the city of Tartu, Estonia. It is the national university of Estonia. University of Tartu is the only classical university in the country and also the biggest and most prestigious university in Estonia. It was established by King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in 1632.
The number of students is nearly 14,000 out of whom over 800 are foreign students. The language of instruction in most curricula is Estonian, but there are some more notable exceptions like Semiotics, Applied Measurement Science, Computer Science, Information Technology Law and European Union - Russia Studies.
According to QS World University Rankings it is ranked 347th in the world and the top-ranked university in the Baltics. The university is also ranked 4th in the Emerging Europe and Central Asia region. Times Higher Education World University Rankings places it in the 351–400 range among world universities. It has been listed as the only university from Baltic countries among the top 200 universities in Europe.
- 1 History
- 2 Buildings
- 3 Research
- 4 Structure
- 5 Studies
- 6 People
- 7 Discrimination lawsuit
- 8 International cooperation
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
The Academia Gustaviana in the then Swedish province of Livonia was the second university founded in the Swedish Empire, following Uppsala University (in Uppsala, Sweden proper) and preceding the Academy of Åbo (in Turku, Finland). A precursor to the academy had been a Jesuit grammar school Gymnasium Dorpatense, founded by Stefan Batory (then king of Poland–Lithuania) in 1583 and existing to 1601, when Tartu (Dorpat) was under Polish–Lithuanian rule.
The first students immatriculated between 20–21 April 1632. The opening ceremony of Academia Dorpatensis (Academia Gustaviana) took place on 15 October in the same year. The academy in Tartu functioned with Philosophy, Law, Theology and Medical Faculties enjoying the privileges of the University of Uppsala. On account of the Russian–Swedish war, the University of Tartu moved to Tallinn in 1656 and in 1665 it closed down. In the 17th century the future outstanding Swedish scholars Urban Hiärne, Olof Verelius, Arvid Moller and others studied at the university. Among the academic staff were Friedrich Menius, Professor of History (the history of Livonia, the first scientific approach to Estonian folklore); Sven Dimberg, Professor of Mathematics (the first in the world to deliver lectures based on Newton’s theory); Olaus Hermelin, Professor of Rhetoric and Poetry; Lars Micrander, Professor of Medicine (founder of balneology, and discoverer of natural mineral water springs); Georg Mancelius, Professor of Theology (author of the first Latvian-German dictionary in 1638). In 1690 Tartu became a university town again. Academia Gustavo-Carolina shortly after that moved from Tartu to Pärnu as a result of the coalition against Sweden and the Great Famine of 1695–1697. Academia Gustavo-Carolina, which had opened in Pärnu on 28 August 1699 was closed because of the surrender to Russian forces on 12 August 1710 during the Great Northern War. According to the terms of the capitulation, the Russians agreed to maintain the university in Pärnu. The university was reopened only in 1802 by the Baltic German Ritterschaften, the new German speaking University was re-launched and had its new charter was confirmed by reform-minded Alexander I of Russia in 1802.
The university was re-opened by the Baltic Germans in Estonia in April 1802. The language of instruction at Dorpat was German from 1802 to 1893. During that time, Dorpat had a dual nature in that it belonged both to the set of German(-language) and Russian universities. Financially and administratively, the latter was more important; intellectually and regarding the professoriate and students, the former was more important (over half the professors came from Germany, at least another third were Baltic Germans). Among the 30 German-language universities, of which 23 were inside the German Empire, Dorpat was the 11th in size. In teaching, the university educated the local Baltic German leadership and professional classes as well as staff especially for the administration and health system of the entire Russian Empire. In scholarship, it was an international university; the time between 1860 and 1880 was its "golden age".
The freedom to be a half-German university ceased with the rise of nationalist tendencies in Russia, which held homogenization more important than retaining a bi-lingual university. Between 1882 and 1898, Russification in language, appointments, etc., was imposed, with some exceptions (such as the Divinity School, which the state feared would be used by the Orthodox clergy to teach dangerous Protestant views and was thus allowed to continue in German until 1916). By 1898, when both the town and the university were renamed Yuryev, virtually all distinguished scholars from Germany had left. The University of Yuryev existed until 1918, when during part of the fall term, it was reopened, under German occupation, as Dorpat. Russian academic staff and students took refuge in Voronezh in Russia, giving rise to the foundation of Voronezh State University, which traces its own history back to the foundation of the University of Tartu and still holds several physical properties of the latter.
University of Tartu (1919–)
Since Estonia became independent in 1918, the University of Tartu has been an Estonian-language institution since 1919. The university was named Ostland-Universität in Dorpat during the German occupation of Estonia in 1941–1944 and Tartu State University (Estonian: Tartu Riiklik Ülikool) in 1940–1941 and 1944–1989, during the Soviet occupation. During Soviet rule, although Estonian remained the principal language of instruction, some courses were taught in Russian, and there were several Russian curricula. Estonia regained independence in 1991, and the full recovery of academic autonomy of the university can be dated to 1992. Presently there are no courses in Russian.
The last decade has been marked by organizational and structural changes, as well as adaptations to various university models (American, Scandinavian, German) against the background of the Soviet and Baltic German past. Most recently, the university has been and is still being marked by the adaptation of the Bologna declaration in Estonia generally and Tartu specifically, leading to major changes in curricula and studies, as well as by strong organizational centralization attempts. Recent plans also include the abolition of the Chair system (an Americanization) and of the faculties, which is supposed to lead to four large divisions (Humanities, Social Sciences, Natural Sciences, and Medicine) under briefly serving deans and rector-appointed financial administrators.
The university’s four museums, its Botanical Gardens, and sports facilities are, by and large, open to the general public. The university possesses some 150 buildings, 30 of which are outside of Tartu. 31 of its buildings decorate the city as architectural monuments. However, the current reforms include attempts to sell, or have the state co-sponsor, several of these buildings and monuments, as well as sports facilities, as they are not seen as part of the university's mission proper.
At the same time, there are numerous recently constructed or renovated university buildings and student dormitories, such as the Von Bock House. Many of the new buildings are built to Maarjamõisa (about 2 km southwest of the historical university centre), such as the Technology Institute, the Biomedical Center, the Chemistry building, and the new Physics building.
At the University of Tartu, currently more than 3,300 scientific publications are produced every year. About half of all publications by Estonian scientists in journals (those covered by citation indexes like "SCI Expanded", "SSCI" or "A&HCI") are written by Tartu authors.
According to the university administration, the most remarkable recent research achievements have been in the fields of molecular and cell biology, laser medicine, materials science, laser spectroscopy, biochemistry, and psychology.
The university cooperates with private enterprises, and acts itself as a nucleus for the development of spin-off firms (examples from recent past include Asper Biotech and others).
The academic structure of the university consists of institutes and colleges of four faculties (valdkond).
While mainly located in Tartu, the university also operates in Narva, Pärnu, Tallinn and Viljandi. Narva and Pärnu Colleges are part of the Faculty of Social Sciences, Viljandi Culture Academy belongs to the Faculty of Arts and Humanities. The School of Law Tallinn office, University of Tartu Tallinn representation and the Estonian Marine Institute are located in the Estonian capital.
|Faculty of Arts and Humanities||Faculty of Social Sciences||Faculty of Medicine||Faculty of Science and Technology|
|School of Theology and Religious Studies||School of Law||Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine||Estonian Marine Institute|
|Institute of History and Archaeology||School of Economics and Business Administration||Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health||Institute of Physics|
|Institute of Estonian and General Linguistics||Institute of Social Studies||Institute of Pharmacy||Institute of Chemistry|
|Institute of Philosophy and Semiotics||Institute of Education||Institute of Clinical Medicine||Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology|
|Institute of Cultural Research and Arts||Institute of Psychology||Institute of Dentistry||Institute of Technology|
|College of Foreign Languages and Cultures||Johan Skytte institute of Political Studies||Institute of Sport Sciences and Physiotherapy||Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences|
|Viljandi Culture Academy||Narva College||Institute of Computer Science|
|Pärnu College||Institute of Mathematics and Statistics|
Nearly quarter of the whole Estonian university student population study at the University of Tartu. While most of the curricula are taught in Estonian, there are a number of degree programmes with English as a medium of instruction.
University of Tartu has 77 study programmes on master's level. These programmes include 16 international master's programmes in English:
- Baltic Sea Region Studies
- European Union - Russia Studies
- Democracy and Governance
- Information Technology Law
- International Law and Human Rights
- International Relations and Regional Studies
- Quantitative Economics
- Wellness and Spa Service Design and Management
Science and Technology
- Applied Measurement Science
- Computer Science
- Excellence in Analytical Chemistry
- Financial Mathematics
- Robotics and Computer Engineering
- Software Engineering
More than 100 doctoral degrees are defended annually, which makes up more than half of the total number in Estonia. The language of instruction for most of the PhD programmes (31) is English. There are four programmes which at least partly has Estonian as a medium of instruction. These programmes are: Estonian and Finno-Ugric Linguistics, Law, History and Pharmacy.
According to the university, the alumni comprise 99% of Estonian doctors, dentists and pharmacists, 40% of the members of the parliament, 60% of the ministers in the government, 87% of the Estonian Bar Association, 100% of judges, and 95% of the prosecutors.
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On December 15, 2015, press outlets reported that a foreign student has sued the University of Tartu for ethnic discrimination. The foreign student suing the university stated that his teacher "neglected him during studies, failed to give him proper guidance, left him out of study groups, while giving him tasks that he could not have performed". The University of Tartu has denied any ethnic discrimination.
Eesti Päevaleht full article (in Estonian) about the ongoing lawsuit is available free of charge in Eesti Üliõpilaskondade Liit (EÜL) — federation of Estonian student unions — website.
In the Erasmus programme for student exchange, the University of Tartu cooperates with more than 200 universities in 26 countries. In 2007/2008, there were about 175 Erasmus students at UT. The vast majority comes from Finland, Germany, Italy, France and Spain.
University has also gotten good reviews from foreign students and received International Student Satisfaction Award based on student feedback.
- List of early modern universities in Europe
- Tartu University Clinic
- Tartu University Library
- Tartu University Press
- Tartu Semiotic School
- Copenhagen-Tartu school
- Tartu Ülikool 350
- University of Tartu Old Observatory
- Õppestatistika Tartu Ülikool (last checked March 28, 2016)
- As stipulated by the § 2 (1) of the University of Tartu Act. University of Tartu Act
- About the University University of Tartu
- Study in Estonia topuniversities.com
- "Tartu ülikool hoiab Eestis kõige mainekama ülikooli tiitlit" Tartu Postimees. June 17, 2015(in Estonian)
- International master's programmes
- "QS University Rankings: EECA 2015". Top Universities. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
- University of Tartu Times Higher Education World University Rankings
- Best universities in Europe 2016 Times Higher Education, March 10, 2016
- Culture: Nine European historical sites now on the European Heritage Label list European Commission, February 8, 2016
- "Lettus, das ist Wortbuch sampt angehengtem täglichem Gebrauch der Lettischen Sprache". Rīga, 1638. (Pilnais nosaukums [complete name]: "Lettus, Das ist Wortbuch Sampt angehengtem täglichem Gebrauch der Lettischen Sprache; Allen und jeden Ausheimischen die in Curland/Semgallen und Lettischen Liefflande bleiben und sich redlich nehren wollen zu Nutze verfertigt Durch GEORGIVM MANCELIVM Anno M. DC. XXXVIII").
- Sirje Tamul on History of Tartu University
- History, Tartu University, Retrieved 30 December 2013
- "Тартуский университет: мы предпочитаем принимать вступительные экзамены на эстонском языке". Postimees. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
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- "Õppekavad ja vastuvõtutingimused | Tartu Ülikool". www.ut.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
- "Bachelor of Business Administration | University of Tartu". www.ut.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
- "Science and Technology | University of Tartu". www.ut.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
- "Medicine in English (6 years) | University of Tartu". www.ut.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
- "Õppekavad ja vastuvõtutingimused | Tartu Ülikool". www.ut.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
- "Master's Programme in Philosophy at the University of Tartu | University of Tartu". www.flfi.ut.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
- "Master of Arts in Humanities - Semiotics | University of Tartu". www.flfi.ut.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
- "Baltic Sea Region Studies | Johan Skytte Institute of Political Studies". skytte.ut.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
- "European Union – Russia Studies | Johan Skytte Institute of Political Studies". skytte.ut.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
- "Democracy and Governance | Johan Skytte Institute of Political Studies". skytte.ut.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
- "Information Technology Law - Master of Arts in Law | Faculty of Law". www.oi.ut.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
- "International Law and Human Rights | Faculty of Law". www.oi.ut.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
- "International Relations and Regional Studies | Johan Skytte Institute of Political Studies". skytte.ut.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
- "Master of Arts in Social Sciences - Quantitative Economics | University of Tartu". www.ut.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
- "Wellness and Spa Service Design and Management – International Master`s Programme in Pärnu, Estonia". wellnesseducation.pc.ut.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
- "Measurements, metrology and analytical chemistry master program | Applied Measurement Science". www.ut.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
- "Masters in Computer Science". compsci.cs.ut.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
- "Excellence in Analytical Chemistry". www.ut.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
- "Master's programme in Financial Mathematics | University of Tartu". www.ut.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
- "Welcome to Robotics and Computer Engineering | Robotics and Computer Engineering". rce.tuit.ut.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
- "Master of Science in Software Engineering". software.cs.ut.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
- "Doctoral Studies | University of Tartu". www.ut.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-18.
- "University of Tartu (booklet) 2016". Issuu. Retrieved 2016-04-18.
- Baltic Business News reports on discrimination lawsuit against University of Tartu
- Postimees Tartu
- Estonian television ETV reports
- "Jaanus Müür: välistudengitega tegelemine peab olema senisest sisulisem | Eesti Üliõpilaskondade Liit". eyl.ee. Retrieved 2016-04-17.
- Erasmus programme at UT
- University of Tartu rated highly by international students ERR News, 9/28/2015
- "Partner Universities". University of Tartu. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
- Reet Mägi; and Wolfgang Drechsler (eds.) (2004). Kaiserliche Universität Dorpat 200, 370 Academia Gustaviana: Tartu Ülikooli juubel. Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus. ISBN 9985-56-950-4. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Siilivask, Karl (ed.) (1985). History of Tartu University, 1632-1982. Tallinn: Perioodika.
- Die Universitäten Dorpat/Tartu, Riga und Wilna/Vilnius 1579–1979. Beiträge zu ihrer Geschichte und ihrer Wirkung im Grenzbereich zwischen West und Ost. Herausgegeben von Gert von Pistohlkors, Toivo U. Raun, Paul Kaegbein. Köln; Wien 1987 (Quellen und Studien zur baltischen Geschichte; 9). [Zweites Internationales Marburger Symposium zu Problemen der baltischen Sozial- und Kulturgeschichte]. [Lectures in German and English] ISBN 3-412-00886-9
- Palamets, Hillar; and Tullio Ilomets (eds.) (1982). Alma mater Tartuensis: Tartu Riiklik Ulikool: 1632–1982 (in Estonian). Tallinn: Eesti Raamat. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- von Engelhardt, Roderich (1933). Die deutsche Universität Dorpat in ihrer geistesgeschichtlichen Bedeutung (in German). Reval (Tallinn): F. Kluge.
- Semel, Hugo (ed.) (1918). Die Universität Dorpat (1802–1918): Skizzen zu ihrer Geschichte von Lehrern und ehmaligen Schülern (in German). Dorpat (Tartu): H. Laakmann.
- David H. Stam, ed. (2001). "Tartu University Library". International Dictionary of Library Histories. Fitzroy Dearborn. ISBN 1579582443.
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- University of Tartu (English)