University of the Third Age
The U3A is an international movement whose aims are the education and stimulation of mainly retired members of the community—those in their third 'age' of life.
There is no universally accepted model for the U3A. Its original conception in France as an extramural university activity was significantly modified in the United Kingdom where it was recognized that most people of retirement age have something to contribute and the emphasis has been on sharing, without formal educational links.
Many English-speaking countries have followed this geragogic model, whereas continental European countries have mostly followed the French model. For historical reasons, lifelong learning institute is the term used in the United States for organizations that are similar to U3A groups.
A British U3A website reports this about "The Third Age" membership eligibility: "The 'third age' is defined by a time in your life (not necessarily chronological) where you have the opportunity to undertake learning for its own sake. There is no minimum age, but a focus on people who are no longer in full-time employment or raising a family."
U3A started in France at the Faculty of Social Sciences in Toulouse in 1973. It was started by Prof. Pierre Vellas. In France, each University of the Third Age University group is mostly associated with a local university. This academic model is used in many other countries, in particular in continental Europe. The university affiliation generates various opportunities such as highly qualified teaching personnel, a variety of subject choices, opportunity for students and faculty to conduct research based on the professional, cultural or historical experiences of the elderly, etc. U3As do not issue diplomas but rather certificates and teach in many fields according to the interests of the groups of older students (usually 55+) such as computer skills, languages, entrepreneurship, hereditary law, religion, politics, etc. Sometimes U3As provide groups with vocational training and formal continuous education opportunities.
In the 1990s the concept was broadened in France to the notion of the University of All Ages (UTA - université tous âges) or University of Free Time (UTL - université du temps libre). The UFUTA changed its name to Union Française des Universités de Tous Ages (retaining the acronym). Some French university departments have adopted the title of Université du Temps Libre.
AIUTA (Association Internationale des Universités du Troisième Âge) (https://aiu3a.org/) is the global international organization and network of Universities of the Third Age, including such institutions from most continental European countries, Central and East Europe, China, Russia, Latin America, etc., including Mauritius and other destinations. The President of AIUTA is prof. François Vellas from the University of Toulouse, son of Pierre Vellas, the founder of the first U3A.
By the early 1980s, the concept reached the United Kingdom, where its nature was radically changed to be more a self-help organization under the influence of its founders, Peter Laslett, Michael Young and Eric Midwinter.
Each U3A is formally structured as an independent self-financing and self-managing charity with links to the Third Age Trust, a national coordinating body. Each individual U3A comprises a number of activity groups which may cover a wide range of different topics - e.g. arts, languages, physical activity, discussion, and games. Most U3A's are centred on a particular town or region and their activity groups meet in a hired hall or small groups meet in a member's house. There is some provision for members to take part in activities over the internet. There is general agreement that not only physical but intellectual activity enrich and prolong life in the later years. Although primarily for the retired, many U3As open their membership to any people not in full-time employment, thus becoming more inclusive and widening the age range of the membership.
In 2009 the Virtual University of the Third Age (vU3A) was launched with the intention of offering the same friendship, support and learning enjoyed by off-line groups. vU3A is affiliated to the Third Age Trust in the UK. vU3A is open to anyone, in particular those who, by circumstances of isolation, health problems or other restrictions, cannot get to a U3A group.
Central, Southern and Eastern Europe
Some Central (and Eastern) European countries were introduced to the U3A quite early: Poland, Czech Republic (formerly part of Czechoslovakia) and Slovenia. The Slovenian University of the Third Age was started by two university professors in 1984 and has developed into a network of 40 universities over the entire country.The Italian University of the Third Age is called Università delle Tre Età (UNITRE) with several locations in the country. "UNITRE Milano", the university of the third age in Milan, provides courses as well as educational content such as on line courses and peer reviewed journal articles.
There is an online University of the Third Age in Russia at http://u3a.niuitmo.ru/.
Australia's first U3A began in Melbourne in 1984 and as of 2013, has grown to 250 U3As with approximately 85,000 members. These are based in metropolitan, regional and rural areas, and follow the British self-help model of teaching and learning over a wide range of subject areas, dependent upon the membership's own expertise, knowledge and skills.
U3As in New South Wales, Victoria, the Australian Capital territory, South Australia, Queensland and Western Australia have formed state networks to support the U3As in their state or territory with a range of resources. Each Network has its own website from which local U3As can be located. For example, see http://www.nsw.u3anet.org.au which also has links to other state networks.
In 1998, U3A Online was started to provide cognitively challenging virtual courses for isolated older people from any country. Since then the initiative has been widened to include any person who regards themselves as being in their third age. More than 35 courses, all written and taught by volunteer experts from various countries, are available. In 2009, U3A Online published a paper entitled "Educational initiatives for the elderly". The paper contains contributions from a number of U3A leaders from around the world outlining the status of U3A and U3A-like organizations in different countries. That paper, and other peer-reviewed research studies based on the Successful Aging model, are freely available from http://www.u3aonline.org.au.
The Third Age Network (TAN) is very active in Canada, however currently only within the province of Ontario. With head office at the G. Raymond Chang School of Continuing Education at Ryerson University in Toronto, the network started in 2007 and has grown to 21 groups in 2018. Simon Fraser University was the first university in North America to create a series of specially designed courses for seniors at the post-secondary level. Its mandate was to provide educational programs for older adults that were responsive to their unique psychological and physiological characteristics.
The Third Age Mission: “To foster Third Age Learning and share issues and solutions to common organizational challenges. We do this by promoting the establishment of organizations that provide opportunities for older adults to learn in a friendly, social setting and by supporting adult learning organizations in this process by sharing strategies and techniques to accomplish this goal.”
TAN runs a newsletter and hosts organization-wide symposiums and forums. It also provides support to local groups with things like information on speakers, networking with colleagues, data on member operations, including honoraria paid to speakers, board make up, rental costs, affordable group insurance, a regular newsletter, conferences and workshop, guidance for creating a website, internal and external communication.
In the United States, organizations similar to U3A are called lifelong learning institutes.
Typical courses include Art, Classical Studies, Conversation, Computers, Crafts, Debate, Drama, Film/Cinema Studies, History, Languages, Literature, Music, Sciences, Social Sciences, and Philosophy.
There are also many less educationally focused activities, such as Games (including bridge tuition and duplicate bridge playing groups), Health, Fitness & Leisure (including countryside walks), Theatre/Concert Clubs, Travel Clubs, and Dance in all its forms.
Some study groups work to a formal syllabus, but others draw on current affairs or specific interests of group members. Some groups are designed to cross disciplinary boundaries, for example, combining Society, Technology and Science in a fashion not practical in more formal academic environments.
U3A groups are well positioned to conduct serious research into local history and genealogy. For example, a group in Eyemouth collected and exhibited many photographs of life and work in the district over the years. Some groups aim to bridge the generation gap in the field of information technology, opening up an exciting new world to many who might have been oblivious of it otherwise. Internet marketing is especially important for members in more remote locations.
Many U3As publish local newsletters as do some of their special interest networks. In the UK the Third Age Trust, the coordinating body in the UK, publishes a national magazine. Third Age Matters publishes five times per year plus an educational bulletin called Sources, for subscribing U3A members three times annually.
The U3A can also provide a valuable resource in considering many local and national issues. Membership includes many with experience and expertise in almost all walks of life and letters. Although strictly non-political, U3A members have time to reflect in a mature fashion on such topics as the operation of public services, crime and punishment, the future of energy supplies, public funding of the arts and so on, and can reply to invitations to engage in public consultations with carefully considered and argued responses.
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- U3A in the Republic of Ireland: *https://www.ageaction.ie/how-we-can-help/lifelong-learning-u3a
- U3A in the UK
- U3A in Australia:
- U3A in Belarus:
- U3A and variations in Cyprus:
- U3A in the Dominican Republic
- U3A in Iceland
- U3A in South Africa
- U3A in Scotland
- U3A in Swansea
- U3A in New Zealand
- International Network for Universities of the Third Age
- U3A in Russia: U3A in Russia
- U3A in Spain: