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Evolution of Unix and Unix-like systems, starting in 1969

A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, although not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. A Unix-like application is one that behaves like the corresponding Unix command or shell. Although there are general philosophies for Unix design, there is no technical standard defining the term, and opinions can differ about the degree to which a particular operating system or application is Unix-like.

Some well-known examples of Unix-like operating systems include Linux and BSD. These systems are often used on servers as well as on personal computers and other devices. Many popular applications, such as the Apache web server and the Bash shell, are also designed to be used on Unix-like systems.

One of the key features of Unix-like systems is their ability to support multiple users and processes simultaneously. This allows users to run multiple programs at the same time and to share resources such as memory and disk space. This is in contrast to many older operating systems, which were designed to only support a single user or process at a time. Another important feature of Unix-like systems is their modularity. This means that the operating system is made up of many small, interchangeable components that can be added or removed as needed. This makes it easy to customize the operating system to suit the needs of different users or environments.


The Open Group owns the UNIX trademark and administers the Single UNIX Specification, with the "UNIX" name being used as a certification mark. They do not approve of the construction "Unix-like", and consider it a misuse of their trademark. Their guidelines require "UNIX" to be presented in uppercase or otherwise distinguished from the surrounding text, strongly encourage using it as a branding adjective for a generic word such as "system", and discourage its use in hyphenated phrases.[1]

Other parties frequently treat "Unix" as a genericized trademark. Some add a wildcard character to the name to make an abbreviation like "Un*x"[2] or "*nix", since Unix-like systems often have Unix-like names such as AIX, A/UX, HP-UX, IRIX, Linux, Minix, Ultrix, Xenix, and XNU. These patterns do not literally match many system names, but are still generally recognized to refer to any UNIX system, descendant, or work-alike, even those with completely dissimilar names such as Darwin/macOS, illumos/Solaris or FreeBSD.

In 2007, Wayne R. Gray sued to dispute the status of UNIX as a trademark, but lost his case, and lost again on appeal, with the court upholding the trademark and its ownership.[3][4]


Simplified history of Unix-like operating systems

"Unix-like" systems started to appear in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Many proprietary versions, such as Idris (1978), UNOS (1982), Coherent (1983), and UniFlex (1985), aimed to provide businesses with the functionality available to academic users of UNIX.

When AT&T allowed relatively inexpensive commercial binary sublicensing of UNIX in 1979, a variety of proprietary systems were developed based on it, including AIX, HP-UX, IRIX, SunOS, Tru64, Ultrix, and Xenix. These largely displaced the proprietary clones. Growing incompatibility among these systems led to the creation of interoperability standards, including POSIX and the Single UNIX Specification.

Various free, low-cost, and unrestricted substitutes for UNIX emerged in the 1980s and 1990s, including 4.4BSD, Linux, and Minix. Some of these have in turn been the basis for commercial "Unix-like" systems, such as BSD/OS and macOS. Several versions of (Mac) OS X/macOS running on Intel-based Mac computers have been certified under the Single UNIX Specification.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11] The BSD variants are descendants of UNIX developed by the University of California at Berkeley, with UNIX source code from Bell Labs. However, the BSD code base has evolved since then, replacing all the AT&T code. Since the BSD variants are not certified as compliant with the Single UNIX Specification, they are referred to as "UNIX-like" rather than "UNIX".


Dennis Ritchie, one of the original creators of Unix, expressed his opinion that Unix-like systems such as Linux are de facto Unix systems.[12] Eric S. Raymond and Rob Landley have suggested that there are three kinds of Unix-like systems:[13]

Genetic UNIX[edit]

Those systems with a historical connection to the AT&T codebase. Most commercial UNIX systems fall into this category. So do the BSD systems, which are descendants of work done at the University of California, Berkeley in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Some of these systems have no original AT&T code but can still trace their ancestry to AT&T designs.

Trademark or branded UNIX[edit]

These systems‍—‌largely commercial in nature‍—‌have been determined by the Open Group to meet the Single UNIX Specification and are allowed to carry the UNIX name. Most such systems are commercial derivatives of the System V code base in one form or another, although Apple macOS 10.5 and later is a BSD variant that has been certified, and EulerOS and Inspur K-UX are Linux distributions that have been certified. A few other systems (such as IBM z/OS) earned the trademark through a POSIX compatibility layer and are not otherwise inherently Unix systems. Many ancient UNIX systems no longer meet this definition.

Functional UNIX[edit]

Broadly, any Unix-like system that behaves in a manner roughly consistent with the UNIX specification, including having a "program which manages your login and command line sessions";[14] more specifically, this can refer to systems such as Linux or Minix that behave similarly to a UNIX system but have no genetic or trademark connection to the AT&T code base. Most free/open-source implementations of the UNIX design, whether genetic UNIX or not, fall into the restricted definition of this third category due to the expense of obtaining Open Group certification, which costs thousands of dollars.[15]

Around 2001 Linux was given the opportunity to get a certification including free help from the POSIX chair Andrew Josey for the symbolic price of one dollar.[citation needed] There have been some activities to make Linux POSIX-compliant, with Josey having prepared a list of differences between the POSIX standard and the Linux Standard Base specification,[16] but in August 2005, this project was shut down because of missing interest at the LSB work group.[citation needed]

Compatibility layers[edit]

Some non-Unix-like operating systems provide a Unix-like compatibility layer, with varying degrees of Unix-like functionality.

Other means of Windows-Unix interoperability include:

  • The above Windows packages can be used with various X servers for Windows
  • Hummingbird Connectivity provides several ways for Windows machines to connect to Unix and Linux machines, from terminal emulators to X clients and servers, and others
  • The Windows Resource Kits for versions of Windows NT include a Bourne Shell, some command-line tools, and a version of Perl
  • Hamilton C shell is a version of csh written specifically for Windows.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Legal: Trademark Guidelines". The Open Group. Archived from the original on October 2, 2013. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
  2. ^ Eric S. Raymond; Guy L. Steele Jr. "UN*X". The Jargon File. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
  3. ^ Gray v. Novell, X/Open Company, The SCO Group (11th Cir. January 7, 2011), Text.
  4. ^ "More Wayne Gray. No! Again? Still?! Yes. He Wants to Reopen Discovery in the USPTO Dispute". Groklaw. April 22, 2011. Archived from the original on June 18, 2022. Retrieved September 26, 2022.
  5. ^ "Mac OS X Version 10.5 on Intel-based Macintosh computers". The Open Group. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
  6. ^ "Mac OS X Version 10.6 on Intel-based Macintosh computers". The Open Group. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
  7. ^ "Mac OS X Version 10.8 on Intel-based Macintosh computers". The Open Group. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
  8. ^ "OS X Version 10.9 on Intel-based Macintosh computers". The Open Group. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
  9. ^ "OS X version 10.10 Yosemite on Intel-based Mac computers". The Open Group. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
  10. ^ "OS X version 10.11 El Capitan on Intel-based Mac computers". The Open Group. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
  11. ^ "macOS version 10.12 Sierra on Intel-based Mac computers". The Open Group. Retrieved October 13, 2016.
  12. ^ Interview with Dennis M. Ritchie Manuel Benet, LinuxFocus, July 1999
  13. ^ The meaning of 'Unix' Eric Raymond and Rob Landley, OSI Position Paper on the SCO-vs.-IBM Complaint
  14. ^ "Introduction to UNIX – Part 1: Basic Concepts". Archived from the original on April 5, 2018. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
  15. ^ "The Open Brand Fee Schedule". The Open Group. November 6, 2003. Retrieved July 22, 2022.
  16. ^ Andrew Josey (August 20, 2005). "Conflicts between ISO/IEC 9945 (POSIX) and the Linux Standard Base". The Open Group. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
  17. ^ "What is the Windows Subsystem for Linux?". Microsoft Docs. July 18, 2023.

External links[edit]