Unmanned aerial vehicle
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (or uncrewed aerial vehicle, commonly known as a drone) is an aircraft without a human pilot on board. UAVs are a component of an unmanned aircraft system (UAS); which include a UAV, a ground-based controller, and a system of communications between the two. The flight of UAVs may operate with various degrees of autonomy: either under remote control by a human operator or autonomously by onboard computers referred to as an autopilot.
Compared to crewed aircraft, UAVs were originally used for missions too "dull, dirty or dangerous" for humans. While drones originated mostly in military applications, their use is rapidly finding many more applications including aerial photography, product deliveries, agriculture, policing and surveillance, infrastructure inspections, science, smuggling, and drone racing.
Multiple terms are used for unmanned aerial vehicles, generally referring to the same concept.
The term drone, more widely used by the public, was coined in reference to the early remotely-flown target aircraft used for practice firing of a battleship's guns, and the term was first used with the 1920s Fairey Queen and 1930's de Havilland Queen Bee target aircraft. These two were followed in service by the similarly named Airspeed Queen Wasp and Miles Queen Martinet, before ultimate replacement by the GAF Jindivik.
The term unmanned aircraft system (UAS) was adopted by the United States Department of Defense (DoD) and the United States Federal Aviation Administration in 2005 according to their Unmanned Aircraft System Roadmap 2005–2030. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the British Civil Aviation Authority adopted this term, also used in the European Union's Single-European-Sky (SES) Air-Traffic-Management (ATM) Research (SESAR Joint Undertaking) roadmap for 2020. This term emphasizes the importance of elements other than the aircraft. It includes elements such as ground control stations, data links and other support equipment. A similar term is an unmanned-aircraft vehicle system (UAVS), remotely piloted aerial vehicle (RPAV), remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS). Many similar terms are in use.
A UAV is defined as a "powered, aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator, uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely, can be expendable or recoverable, and can carry a lethal or nonlethal payload". Therefore, missiles are not considered UAVs because the vehicle itself is a weapon that is not reused, though it is also uncrewed and in some cases remotely guided. That being said, UAV is a term that is commonly applied to military use cases.
The terms autonomous drone and UAV are often wrongfully used interchangeably. This could stem from the fact that many UAVs are automated, i.e. they carry out automated missions but still rely on human operators. However, an autonomous drone is a "UAV that can operate without any human intervention". In other words, autonomous drones take off, carry out missions, and land completely autonomously. Thus, an autonomous drone is a type of UAV but a UAV is not necessarily an autonomous drone.
As autonomous drones are not piloted by humans, a ground control system, or communications management software, plays a major role in their operations, and thus they are also considered part of a UAS. In addition to the software, autonomous drones also employ a host of advanced technologies that allow them to carry out their missions without human intervention, such as cloud computing, computer vision, artificial intelligence, machine learning, deep learning, and thermal sensors.
In recent years, autonomous drones have begun to transform various commercial industries as they can fly beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) while maximizing production, reducing costs and risks, ensuring site safety, security and regulatory compliance, and protecting the human workforce in times of a pandemic. They can also be used for consumer-related missions like package delivery, as demonstrated by Amazon Prime Air, and critical deliveries of health supplies.
A Drone-in-a-Box (DIB) is an autonomous drone that deploys to carry out a pre-programmed list of missions from and returns to a self-contained landing box that also functions as the drone's charging base.
Under new regulations which came into effect 1 June 2019, the term RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft System) has been adopted by the Canadian Government to mean "a set of configurable elements consisting of a remotely piloted aircraft, its control station, the command and control links and any other system elements required during flight operation".
The relation of UAVs to remote controlled model aircraft is unclear. UAVs may or may not include model aircraft. Some jurisdictions base their definition on size or weight; however, the US Federal Aviation Administration defines any uncrewed flying craft as a UAV regardless of size. For recreational uses, a drone (as opposed to a UAV) is a model aircraft that has first-person video, autonomous capabilities, or both.
The earliest recorded use of an unmanned aerial vehicle for warfighting occurred in July 1849, serving as a balloon carrier (the precursor to the aircraft carrier) in the first offensive use of air power in naval aviation. Austrian forces besieging Venice attempted to launch some 200 incendiary balloons at the besieged city. The balloons were launched mainly from land; however, some were also launched from the Austrian ship SMS Vulcano. At least one bomb fell in the city; however, due to the wind changing after launch, most of the balloons missed their target, and some drifted back over Austrian lines and the launching ship Vulcano.
UAV innovations started in the early 1900s and originally focused on providing practice targets for training military personnel. UAV development continued during World War I, when the Dayton-Wright Airplane Company invented a pilotless aerial torpedo that would explode at a preset time.
The earliest attempt at a powered UAV was A. M. Low's "Aerial Target" in 1916.. Low confirmed that Geoffrey de Havilland’s monoplane was the one that flew under control on 21st March 1917 using his radio system. Nikola Tesla described a fleet of uncrewed aerial combat vehicles in 1915. Advances followed during and after World War I, including the British Hewitt-Sperry Automatic Airplane (1917) and the RAE Larynx (1927). These developments also inspired the construction of the Kettering Bug by Charles Kettering from Dayton, Ohio. Initially meant as an uncrewed plane that would carry an explosive payload to a predetermined target. The first scaled remote piloted vehicle was developed by film star and model-airplane enthusiast Reginald Denny in 1935. More emerged during World War II – used both to train antiaircraft gunners and to fly attack missions. Nazi Germany produced and used various UAV aircraft during the war, like the Argus As 292 and the V-1 flying bomb with a Jet engine. After World War II the development continued in vehicles such as the American JB-4 (using television/radio-command guidance), the Australian GAF Jindivik and Teledyne Ryan Firebee I of 1951, while companies like Beechcraft offered their Model 1001 for the U.S. Navy in 1955. Nevertheless, they were little more than remote-controlled airplanes until the Vietnam War.
In 1959, the U.S. Air Force, concerned about losing pilots over hostile territory, began planning for the use of uncrewed aircraft. Planning intensified after the Soviet Union shot down a U-2 in 1960. Within days, a highly classified UAV program started under the code name of "Red Wagon". The August 1964 clash in the Tonkin Gulf between naval units of the U.S. and North Vietnamese Navy initiated America's highly classified UAVs (Ryan Model 147, Ryan AQM-91 Firefly, Lockheed D-21) into their first combat missions of the Vietnam War. When the Chinese government showed photographs of downed U.S. UAVs via Wide World Photos, the official U.S. response was "no comment".
During the War of Attrition (1967–1970) the first tactical UAVs installed with reconnaissance cameras were first tested by the Israeli intelligence, successfully bringing photos from across the Suez canal. This was the first time that tactical UAVs that could be launched and landed on any short runway (unlike the heavier jet-based UAVs) were developed and tested in battle.
In the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Israel used UAVs as decoys to spur opposing forces into wasting expensive anti-aircraft missiles. After the 1973 Yom Kippur war, a few key people from the team that developed this early UAV joined a small startup company that aimed to develop UAVs into a commercial product, eventually purchased by Tadiran and leading to the development of the first Israeli UAV.[pages needed]
In 1973, the U.S. military officially confirmed that they had been using UAVs in Southeast Asia (Vietnam). Over 5,000 U.S. airmen had been killed and over 1,000 more were missing or captured. The USAF 100th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing flew about 3,435 UAV missions during the war at a cost of about 554 UAVs lost to all causes. In the words of USAF General George S. Brown, Commander, Air Force Systems Command, in 1972, "The only reason we need (UAVs) is that we don't want to needlessly expend the man in the cockpit." Later that year, General John C. Meyer, Commander in Chief, Strategic Air Command, stated, "we let the drone do the high-risk flying ... the loss rate is high, but we are willing to risk more of them ...they save lives!"
During the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Soviet-supplied surface-to-air missile batteries in Egypt and Syria caused heavy damage to Israeli fighter jets. As a result, Israel developed the first UAV with real-time surveillance. The images and radar decoys provided by these UAVs helped Israel to completely neutralize the Syrian air defenses at the start of the 1982 Lebanon War, resulting in no pilots downed. The first time UAVs were used as proof-of-concept of super-agility post-stall controlled flight in combat-flight simulations involved tailless, stealth technology-based, three-dimensional thrust vectoring flight control, jet-steering UAVs in Israel in 1987.
With the maturing and miniaturization of applicable technologies in the 1980s and 1990s, interest in UAVs grew within the higher echelons of the U.S. military. In the 1990s, the U.S. DoD gave a contract to AAI Corporation along with Israeli company Malat. The U.S. Navy bought the AAI Pioneer UAV that AAI and Malat developed jointly. Many of these UAVs saw service in the 1991 Gulf War. UAVs demonstrated the possibility of cheaper, more capable fighting machines, deployable without risk to aircrews. Initial generations primarily involved surveillance aircraft, but some carried armaments, such as the General Atomics MQ-1 Predator, that launched AGM-114 Hellfire air-to-ground missiles.
In 2013 at least 50 countries used UAVs. China, Iran, Israel, Pakistan, and others designed and built their own varieties.
UAVs typically fall into one of six functional categories (although multi-role airframe platforms are becoming more prevalent):
- Target and decoy – providing ground and aerial gunnery a target that simulates an enemy aircraft or missile
- Reconnaissance – providing battlefield intelligence
- Combat – providing attack capability for high-risk missions (see: Unmanned combat aerial vehicle(UCAV) and Loitering munition aka suicide drone)
- Logistics – delivering cargo
- Research and development – improve UAV technologies
- Civil and commercial UAVs – agriculture, aerial photography, data collection
The U.S. Military UAV tier system is used by military planners to designate the various individual aircraft elements in an overall usage plan.
- Hand-held 2,000 ft (600 m) altitude, about 2 km range
- Close 5,000 ft (1,500 m) altitude, up to 10 km range
- NATO type 10,000 ft (3,000 m) altitude, up to 50 km range
- Tactical 18,000 ft (5,500 m) altitude, about 160 km range
- MALE (medium altitude, long endurance) up to 30,000 ft (9,000 m) and range over 200 km
- HALE (high altitude, long endurance) over 30,000 ft (9,100 m) and indefinite range
- Hypersonic high-speed, supersonic (Mach 1–5) or hypersonic (Mach 5+) 50,000 ft (15,200 m) or suborbital altitude, range over 200 km
- Orbital low earth orbit (Mach 25+)
- CIS Lunar Earth-Moon transfer
- Computer Assisted Carrier Guidance System (CACGS) for UAVs
- Hobbyist UAVs – which can be further divided into
- Ready-to-fly (RTF)/Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS)
- Bind-and-fly (BNF) – require minimum knowledge to fly the platform
- Almost-ready-to-fly (ARF)/Do-it-yourself (DIY) – require significant knowledge to get in the air
- Bare frame – requires significant knowledge and your own parts to get it in the air
- Midsize military and commercial UAVs
- Large military-specific UAVs
- Stealth combat UAVs
- Crewed aircraft transformed into uncrewed (and Optionally Piloted UAVS or OPVs)
Classifications according to aircraft weight are quite simpler:
- Micro air vehicle (MAV) – the smallest UAVs that can weigh less than 1g
- Miniature UAV (also called SUAS) – approximately less than 25 kg
- Heavier UAVs
This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Crewed and uncrewed aircraft of the same type generally have recognizably similar physical components. The main exceptions are the cockpit and environmental control system or life support systems. Some UAVs carry payloads (such as a camera) that weigh considerably less than an adult human, and as a result can be considerably smaller. Though they carry heavy payloads, weaponized military UAVs are lighter than their crewed counterparts with comparable armaments.
Small civilian UAVs have no life-critical systems, and can thus be built out of lighter but less sturdy materials and shapes, and can use less robustly tested electronic control systems. For small UAVs, the quadcopter design has become popular, though this layout is rarely used for crewed aircraft. Miniaturization means that less-powerful propulsion technologies can be used that are not feasible for crewed aircraft, such as small electric motors and batteries.
Control systems for UAVs are often different than crewed craft. For remote human control, a camera and video link almost always replace the cockpit windows; radio-transmitted digital commands replace physical cockpit controls. Autopilot software is used on both crewed and uncrewed aircraft, with varying feature sets.
The primary difference for planes is the absence of the cockpit area and its windows. Tailless quadcopters are a common form factor for rotary wing UAVs while tailed mono- and bi-copters are common for crewed platforms.
Power supply and platform
Small UAVs mostly use lithium-polymer batteries (Li-Po), while larger vehicles often rely on conventional airplane engines or a hydrogen fuel cell. Scale or size of aircraft is not the defining or limiting characteristic of energy supply for a UAV. The energy density of modern Li-Po batteries is far less than gasoline or hydrogen. The record of travel for a UAV (built from balsa wood and mylar skin) across the North Atlantic Ocean is held by a gasoline model airplane or UAV. Manard Hill in "in 2003 when one of his creations flew 1,882 miles across the Atlantic Ocean on less than a gallon of fuel" holds this record. See: Electric power is used as less work is required for a flight and electric motors are quieter. Also, properly designed, the thrust to weight ratio for an electric or gasoline motor driving a propeller can hover or climb vertically. Botmite airplane is an example of an electric UAV which can climb vertically.
UAV computing capability followed the advances of computing technology, beginning with analog controls and evolving into microcontrollers, then system-on-a-chip (SOC) and single-board computers (SBC).
System hardware for small UAVs is often called the flight controller (FC), flight controller board (FCB) or autopilot.
Position and movement sensors give information about the aircraft state. Exteroceptive sensors deal with external information like distance measurements, while exproprioceptive ones correlate internal and external states.
Non-cooperative sensors are able to detect targets autonomously so they are used for separation assurance and collision avoidance.
Degrees of freedom (DOF) refers to both the amount and quality of sensors on board: 6 DOF implies 3-axis gyroscopes and accelerometers (a typical inertial measurement unit – IMU), 9 DOF refers to an IMU plus a compass, 10 DOF adds a barometer and 11 DOF usually adds a GPS receiver.
UAV actuators include digital electronic speed controllers (which control the RPM of the motors) linked to motors/engines and propellers, servomotors (for planes and helicopters mostly), weapons, payload actuators, LEDs and speakers.
UAV software called the flight stack or autopilot. The purpose of the flight stack is to obtain data from sensors, control motors to ensure UAV stability, and facilitate ground control and mission planning communication.
UAVs are real-time systems that require rapid response to changing sensor data. As a result, UAVs rely on single-board computers for their computational needs. Examples of such single-board computers include Raspberry Pis, Beagleboards, etc. shielded with NavIO, PXFMini, etc. or designed from scratch such as NuttX, preemptive-RT Linux, Xenomai, Orocos-Robot Operating System or DDS-ROS 2.0.
|Firmware||Time-critical||From machine code to processor execution, memory access||ArduCopter-v1, px4|
|Middleware||Time-critical||Flight control, navigation, radio management||Cleanflight, ArduPilot|
|Operating system||Computer-intensive||Optic flow, obstacle avoidance, SLAM, decision-making||ROS, Nuttx, Linux distributions, Microsoft IOT|
Civil-use open-source stacks include:
- DroneCode (forked from ArduCopter)
Due to the open-source nature of UAV software, they can be customized to fit specific applications. For example, researchers from the Technical University of Košice have replaced the default control algorithm of the PX4 autopilot. This flexibility and collaborative effort has lead to a large number of different open-source stacks, some of which are forked from others, such as CleanFlight, which is forked from BaseFlight and from which three other stacks are forked from.
UAVs employ open-loop, closed-loop or hybrid control architectures.
- Open loop – This type provides a positive control signal (faster, slower, left, right, up, down) without incorporating feedback from sensor data.
- Closed loop – This type incorporates sensor feedback to adjust behavior (reduce speed to reflect tailwind, move to altitude 300 feet). The PID controller is common. Sometimes, feedforward is employed, transferring the need to close the loop further.
UAVs can be programmed to perform aggressive maneuvers or landing/perching on inclined surfaces, and then to climb toward better communication spots. Some UAVs can control flight with varying flight modelisation, such as VTOL designs.
UAVs can also implement perching on a flat vertical surface.
Most UAVs use a radio for remote control and exchange of video and other data. Early UAVs had only narrowband uplink. Downlinks came later. These bi-directional narrowband radio links carried command and control (C&C) and telemetry data about the status of aircraft systems to the remote operator. For very long range flights, military UAVs also use satellite receivers as part of satellite navigation systems. In cases when video transmission was required, the UAVs will implement a separate analog video radio link.
In the most modern UAV applications, video transmission is required. So instead of having 2 separate links for C&C, telemetry and video traffic, a broadband link is used to carry all types of data on a single radio link. These broadband links can leverage quality of service techniques to optimize the C&C traffic for low latency. Usually these broadband links carry TCP/IP traffic that can be routed over the Internet.
The radio signal from the operator side can be issued from either:
- Ground control – a human operating a radio transmitter/receiver, a smartphone, a tablet, a computer, or the original meaning of a military ground control station (GCS). Recently control from wearable devices, human movement recognition, human brain waves was also demonstrated.
- Remote network system, such as satellite duplex data links for some military powers. Downstream digital video over mobile networks has also entered consumer markets, while direct UAV control uplink over the cellular mesh and LTE have been demonstrated and are in trials.
- Another aircraft, serving as a relay or mobile control station – military manned-unmanned teaming (MUM-T).
- A protocol MAVLink is increasingly becoming popular to carry command and control data between the ground control and the vehicle
As mobile networks have increased in performance and reliability over the years, drones have begun to use mobile networks for communication. Mobile networks can be used for drone tracking, remote piloting, over the air updates, and cloud computing.
Modern networking standards have explicitly considered drones and therefore include optimizations. The 5G standard has mandated reduced user plane latency to 1ms while using ultra-reliable and low-latency communications.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
ICAO classifies uncrewed aircraft as either remotely piloted aircraft or fully autonomous. Actual UAVs may offer intermediate degrees of autonomy. E.g., a vehicle that is remotely piloted in most contexts may have an autonomous return-to-base operation.
Basic autonomy comes from proprioceptive sensors. Advanced autonomy calls for situational awareness, knowledge about the environment surrounding the aircraft from exterioceptive sensors: sensor fusion integrates information from multiple sensors.
One way to achieve autonomous control employs multiple control-loop layers, as in hierarchical control systems. As of 2016 the low-layer loops (i.e. for flight control) tick as fast as 32,000 times per second, while higher-level loops may cycle once per second. The principle is to decompose the aircraft's behavior into manageable "chunks", or states, with known transitions. Hierarchical control system types range from simple scripts to finite state machines, behavior trees and hierarchical task planners. The most common control mechanism used in these layers is the PID controller which can be used to achieve hover for a quadcopter by using data from the IMU to calculate precise inputs for the electronic speed controllers and motors.
Examples of mid-layer algorithms:
- Path planning: determining an optimal path for vehicle to follow while meeting mission objectives and constraints, such as obstacles or fuel requirements
- Trajectory generation (motion planning): determining control maneuvers to take in order to follow a given path or to go from one location to another
- Trajectory regulation: constraining a vehicle within some tolerance to a trajectory
UAV manufacturers often build in specific autonomous operations, such as:
- Self-level: attitude stabilization on the pitch and roll axes.
- Altitude hold: The aircraft maintains its altitude using barometric pressure and/or GPS data.
- Hover/position hold: Keep level pitch and roll, stable yaw heading and altitude while maintaining position using GNSS or inertal sensors.
- Headless mode: Pitch control relative to the position of the pilot rather than relative to the vehicle's axes.
- Care-free: automatic roll and yaw control while moving horizontally
- Take-off and landing (using a variety of aircraft or ground-based sensors and systems; see also:Autoland)
- Failsafe: automatic landing or return-to-home upon loss of control signal
- Return-to-home: Fly back to the point of takeoff (often gaining altitude first to avoid possible intervening obstructions such as trees or buildings).
- Follow-me: Maintain relative position to a moving pilot or other object using GNSS, image recognition or homing beacon.
- GPS waypoint navigation: Using GNSS to navigate to an intermediate location on a travel path.
- Orbit around an object: Similar to Follow-me but continuously circle a target.
- Pre-programmed aerobatics (such as rolls and loops)
Full autonomy is available for specific tasks, such as airborne refueling or ground-based battery switching; but higher-level tasks call for greater computing, sensing and actuating capabilities. One approach to quantifying autonomous capabilities is based on OODA terminology, as suggested by a 2002 US Air Force Research Laboratory, and used in the table below:
|Perception/Situational awareness||Analysis/Coordination||Decision making||Capability|
|10||Fully Autonomous||Cognizant of all within battlespace||Coordinates as necessary||Capable of total independence||Requires little guidance to do job|
|9||Battlespace Swarm Cognizance||Battlespace inference – Intent of self and others (allied and foes).
Complex/Intense environment – on-board tracking
|Strategic group goals assigned
Enemy strategy inferred
|Distributed tactical group planning
Individual determination of tactical goal
Individual task planning/execution
Choose tactical targets
|Group accomplishment of strategic goal with no supervisory assistance|
|8||Battlespace Cognizance||Proximity inference – Intent of self and others (allied and foes)
Reduces dependence upon off-board data
|Strategic group goals assigned
Enemy tactics inferred
|Coordinated tactical group planning
Individual task planning/execution
Choose target of opportunity
|Group accomplishment of strategic goal with minimal supervisory assistance
(example: go SCUD hunting)
|7||Battlespace Knowledge||Short track awareness – History and predictive battlespace
Data in limited range, timeframe and numbers
Limited inference supplemented by off-board data
|Tactical group goals assigned
Enemy trajectory estimated
|Individual task planning/execution to meet goals||Group accomplishment of tactical goals with minimal supervisory assistance|
|Ranged awareness – on-board sensing for long range,
supplemented by off-board data
|Tactical group goals assigned
Enemy trajectory sensed/estimated
|Coordinated trajectory planning and execution to meet goals – group optimization||Group accomplishment of tactical goals with minimal supervisory assistance
Possible: close air space separation (+/-100yds) for AAR, formation in non-threat conditions
|Sensed awareness – Local sensors to detect others,
Fused with off-board data
|Tactical group plan assigned
RT Health Diagnosis Ability to compensate for most failures and flight conditions;
Ability to predict onset of failures (e.g. Prognostic Health Mgmt)
Group diagnosis and resource management
|On-board trajectory replanning – optimizes for current and predictive conditions
|Self accomplishment of tactical plan as externally assigned
Medium vehicle airspace separation (hundreds of yds)
|Deliberate awareness – allies communicate data||Tactical group plan assigned
Assigned Rules of Engagement
RT Health Diagnosis; Ability to compensate for most failures and flight conditions – inner loop changes reflected in outer loop performance
|On-board trajectory replanning – event driven
Self resource management
|Self accomplishment of tactical plan as externally assigned
Medium vehicle airspace separation (hundreds of yds)
|3||Robust Response to Real Time Faults/Events||Health/status history & models||Tactical group plan assigned
RT Health Diagnosis (What is the extent of the problems?)
Ability to compensate for most failures and flight conditions (i.e. adaptative inner loop control)
|Evaluate status vs required mission capabilities
Abort/RTB is insufficient
|Self accomplishment of tactical plan as externally assigned|
|2||Changeable mission||Health/status sensors||RT Health diagnosis (Do I have problems?)
Off-board replan (as required)
|Execute preprogrammed or uploaded plans
in response to mission and health conditions
|Self accomplishment of tactical plan as externally assigned|
|Preloaded mission data
Flight Control and Navigation Sensing
|Pre/Post flight BIT
|Preprogrammed mission and abort plans||Wide airspace separation requirements (miles)|
|Flight Control (attitude, rates) sensing
Remote pilot commands
|N/A||Control by remote pilot|
Medium levels of autonomy, such as reactive autonomy and high levels using cognitive autonomy, have already been achieved to some extent and are very active research fields.
Reactive autonomy, such as collective flight, real-time collision avoidance, wall following and corridor centring, relies on telecommunication and situational awareness provided by range sensors: optic flow, lidars (light radars), radars, sonars.
Most range sensors analyze electromagnetic radiation, reflected off the environment and coming to the sensor. The cameras (for visual flow) act as simple receivers. Lidars, radars and sonars (with sound mechanical waves) emit and receive waves, measuring the round-trip transit time. UAV cameras do not require emitting power, reducing total consumption.
Radars and sonars are mostly used for military applications.
Reactive autonomy has in some forms already reached consumer markets: it may be widely available in less than a decade.
Simultaneous localization and mapping
SLAM combines odometry and external data to represent the world and the position of the UAV in it in three dimensions. High-altitude outdoor navigation does not require large vertical fields-of-view and can rely on GPS coordinates (which makes it simple mapping rather than SLAM).
Two related research fields are photogrammetry and LIDAR, especially in low-altitude and indoor 3D environments.
- Indoor photogrammetric and stereophotogrammetric SLAM has been demonstrated with quadcopters.
- Lidar platforms with heavy, costly and gimbaled traditional laser platforms are proven. Research attempts to address production cost, 2D to 3D expansion, power-to-range ratio, weight and dimensions. LED range-finding applications are commercialized for low-distance sensing capabilities. Research investigates hybridization between light emission and computing power: phased array spatial light modulators, and frequency-modulated-continuous-wave (FMCW) MEMS-tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs).
Robot swarming refers to networks of agents able to dynamically reconfigure as elements leave or enter the network. They provide greater flexibility than multi-agent cooperation. Swarming may open the path to data fusion. Some bio-inspired flight swarms use steering behaviors and flocking.[clarification needed]
Future military potential
In the military sector, American Predators and Reapers are made for counterterrorism operations and in war zones in which the enemy lacks sufficient firepower to shoot them down. They are not designed to withstand antiaircraft defenses or air-to-air combat. In September 2013, the chief of the US Air Combat Command stated that current UAVs were "useless in a contested environment" unless crewed aircraft were there to protect them. A 2012 Congressional Research Service (CRS) report speculated that in the future, UAVs may be able to perform tasks beyond intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and strikes; the CRS report listed air-to-air combat ("a more difficult future task") as possible future undertakings. The Department of Defense's Unmanned Systems Integrated Roadmap FY2013-2038 foresees a more important place for UAVs in combat. Issues include extended capabilities, human-UAV interaction, managing increased information flux, increased autonomy and developing UAV-specific munitions. DARPA's project of systems of systems, or General Atomics work may augur future warfare scenarios, the latter disclosing Avenger swarms equipped with High Energy Liquid Laser Area Defense System (HELLADS).
As of 2020, seventeen countries have armed UAVs, and more than 100 countries use UAVs in a military capacity. The global military UAV market is dominated by companies based in the United States and Israel. By sale numbers, The US held over 60% military-market share in 2017. Four of top five military UAV manufactures are American including General Atomics, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman and Boeing, followed by the Chinese company CASC. Israel companies mainly focus on small surveillance UAV system and by quantity of drones, Israel exported 60.7% (2014) of UAV on the market while the United States export 23.9% (2014); top importers of military UAV are The United Kingdom (33.9%) and India (13.2%). United States alone operated over 9,000 military UAVs in 2014. General Atomics is the dominant manufacturer with the Global Hawk and Predator/Mariner systems product-line.
The civilian drone market is dominated by Chinese companies. Chinese drone manufacturer DJI alone had 74% of civilian-market share in 2018, with no other company accounting for more than 5%, and with $11 billion forecast global sales in 2020. Following increased scrutiny of its activities, the US Interior Department grounded its fleet of DJI drones in 2020, while the Justice Department prohibited the use of federal funds for the purchase of DJI and other foreign made UAVs. DJI is followed by Chinese company Yuneec, US company 3D Robotics and French company Parrot with a significant gap in market share. As of March 2018, more than one million UAVs (878,000 hobbyist and 122,000 commercial) were registered with the U.S. FAA. 2018 NPD point to consumers increasingly purchasing drones with more advanced features with 33 percent growth in both the $500+ and $1000+ market segments.
The civilian UAV market is relatively new compared to the military one. Companies are emerging in both developed and developing nations at the same time. Many early stage startups have received support and funding from investors as is the case in the United States and by government agencies as is the case in India. Some universities offer research and training programs or degrees. Private entities also provide online and in-person training programs for both recreational and commercial UAV use.
Consumer drones are also widely used by military organizations worldwide because of the cost-effective nature of consumer product. In 2018, Israeli military started to use DJI Mavic and Matrice series of UAV for light reconnaissance mission since the civilian drones are easier to use and have higher reliability. DJI drones is also the most widely used commercial unmanned aerial system that the US Army has employed. DJI surveillance drones have also been used by Chinese police in Xinjiang since 2017.
The global UAV market will reach US$21.47 billion, with the Indian market touching the US$885.7 million mark, by 2021.
Lighted drones are beginning to be used in nighttime displays for artistic and advertising purposes.
The AIA reports large cargo and passengers drones should be certified and introduced over the next 20 years. Sensor-carrying large drones are expected from 2018; short-haul, low altitude freighters outside cities from 2025; long-haul cargo flights by the mid-2030s and then passenger flights by 2040.Spending should rise from a few hundred million dollars on research and development in 2018 to $4 billion by 2028 and $30 billion by 2036.
As global demand for food production grows exponentially, resources are depleted, farmland is reduced, and agricultural labor is increasingly in short supply, there is an urgent need for more convenient and smarter agricultural solutions than traditional methods, and the agricultural drone and robotics industry is expected to make progress. Agricultural drones have been used in areas such as Africa to help build sustainable agriculture.
Animal imitation – ethology
The Nano Hummingbird is commercially available, while sub-1g microUAVs inspired by flies, albeit using a power tether, can "land" on vertical surfaces.
Other projects include uncrewed "beetles" and other insects.
Research is exploring miniature optic-flow sensors, called ocellis, mimicking the compound insect eyes formed from multiple facets, which can transmit data to neuromorphic chips able to treat optic flow as well as light intensity discrepancies.
UAV endurance is not constrained by the physiological capabilities of a human pilot.
Because of their small size, low weight, low vibration and high power to weight ratio, Wankel rotary engines are used in many large UAVs. Their engine rotors cannot seize; the engine is not susceptible to shock-cooling during descent and it does not require an enriched fuel mixture for cooling at high power. These attributes reduce fuel usage, increasing range or payload.
Proper drone cooling is essential for long-term drone endurance. Overheating and subsequent engine failure is the most common cause of drone failure.
Solar-electric UAVs, a concept originally championed by the AstroFlight Sunrise in 1974, have achieved flight times of several weeks.
Solar-powered atmospheric satellites ("atmosats") designed for operating at altitudes exceeding 20 km (12 miles, or 60,000 feet) for as long as five years could potentially perform duties more economically and with more versatility than low earth orbit satellites. Likely applications include weather monitoring, disaster recovery, earth imaging and communications.
Electric UAVs powered by microwave power transmission or laser power beaming are other potential endurance solutions.
Another application for a high endurance UAV would be to "stare" at a battlefield for a long interval (ARGUS-IS, Gorgon Stare, Integrated Sensor Is Structure) to record events that could then be played backwards to track battlefield activities.
|Boeing Condor||58:11||1989||The aircraft is currently in the Hiller Aviation Museum.|
|General Atomics GNAT||40:00||1992|||
|TAM-5||38:52||11 August 2003||Smallest UAV to cross the Atlantic|
|QinetiQ Zephyr Solar Electric||54:00||September 2007|||
|RQ-4 Global Hawk||33:06||22 March 2008||Set an endurance record for a full-scale, operational uncrewed aircraft.|
|QinetiQ Zephyr Solar Electric||82:37||28–31 July 2008|||
|QinetiQ Zephyr Solar Electric||336:22||9–23 July 2010|||
Individual reliability covers robustness of flight controllers, to ensure safety without excessive redundancy to minimize cost and weight. Besides, dynamic assessment of flight envelope allows damage-resilient UAVs, using non-linear analysis with ad hoc designed loops or neural networks. UAV software liability is bending toward the design and certifications of crewed avionics software.
Swarm resilience involves maintaining operational capabilities and reconfiguring tasks given unit failures.
There are numerous civilian, commercial, military, and aerospace applications for UAVs. These include:
- Recreation, Disaster relief, archeology, conservation of biodiversity and habitat, law enforcement, crime, and terrorism,
- Aerial surveillance, filmmaking, journalism, scientific research, surveying, cargo transport, mining, manufacturing, Forestry, solar farming, thermal energy, ports and agriculture
- Reconnaissance, attack, demining, and target practice
The export of UAVs or technology capable of carrying a 500 kg payload at least 300 km is restricted in many countries by the Missile Technology Control Regime.
Safety and security
UAVs can threaten airspace security in numerous ways, including unintentional collisions or other interference with other aircraft, deliberate attacks or by distracting pilots or flight controllers. The first incident of a drone-airplane collision occurred in mid-October 2017 in Quebec City, Canada. The first recorded instance of a drone collision with a hot air balloon occurred on 10 August 2018 in Driggs, Idaho, United States; although there was no significant damage to the balloon nor any injuries to its 3 occupants, the balloon pilot reported the incident to the NTSB, stating that "I hope this incident helps create a conversation of respect for nature, the airspace, and rules and regulations". In recent events UAVs flying into or near airports shutting them down for long periods of time.
UAVs could be loaded with dangerous payloads, and crashed into vulnerable targets. Payloads could include explosives, chemical, radiologial or biological hazards. UAVs with generally non-lethal payloads could possibly be hacked and put to malicious purposes. Anti-UAV systems are being developed by states to counter this threat. This is, however, proving difficult. As Dr J. Rogers stated in an interview to A&T "There is a big debate out there at the moment about what the best way is to counter these small UAVs, whether they are used by hobbyists causing a bit of a nuisance or in a more sinister manner by a terrorist actor".
By 2017, drones were being used to drop contraband into prisons. Drones caused significant disruption at Gatwick Airport during December 2018, needing the deployment of the British Army. 
Counter unmanned air system
The malicious use of UAVs has led to the development of counter unmanned air system (C-UAS) technologies such as the Aaronia AARTOS which have been installed on major international airports. Anti-aircraft missile systems, such as the Iron Dome are also being enhanced with C-UAS technologies.
The interest in UAVs cyber security has been raised greatly after the Predator UAV video stream hijacking incident in 2009, where Islamic militants used cheap, off-the-shelf equipment to stream video feeds from a UAV. Another risk is the possibility of hijacking or jamming a UAV in flight. Several security researchers have made public some vulnerabilities in commercial UAVs, in some cases even providing full source code or tools to reproduce their attacks. At a workshop on UAVs and privacy in October 2016, researchers from the Federal Trade Commission showed they were able to hack into three different consumer quadcopters and noted that UAV manufacturers can make their UAVs more secure by the basic security measures of encrypting the Wi-Fi signal and adding password protection.
In the United States, flying close to a wildfire is punishable by a maximum $25,000 fine. Nonetheless, in 2014 and 2015, firefighting air support in California was hindered on several occasions, including at the Lake Fire and the North Fire. In response, California legislators introduced a bill that would allow firefighters to disable UAVs which invaded restricted airspace. The FAA later required registration of most UAVs.
Ethical concerns and UAV-related accidents have driven nations to regulate the use of UAVs.
In 2017, the National Civil Aviation Agency (ANAC) regulated the operation of drones through the Brazilian Special Civil Aviation Regulation No. 94/2017 (RBAC-E No. 94/2017). ANAC's regulation complements the drone operating rules established by the Airspace Control Department (DECEA) and the National Telecommunications Agency (ANATEL).
In 2016, Transport Canada proposed the implementation of new regulations that would require all UAVs over 250 grams to be registered and insured and that operators would be required to be a minimum age and pass an exam in order to get a license. Revised regulations are in effect as of June 2019.
The ENAC (Ente Nazionale per l'Aviazione Civile), that is, the Italian Civil Aviation Authority for technical regulation, certification, supervision and control in the field of civil aviation, issued on 31 May 2016 a very detailed regulation for all UAV, determining which types of vehicles can be used, where, for which purposes, and who can control them. The regulation deals with the usage of UAV for either commercial and recreational use. The last version was published on 22 December 2016.
In 2015, Civil Aviation Bureau in Japan announced that "UA/Drone" (refers to any airplane, rotorcraft, glider or airship which cannot accommodate any person on board and can be remotely or automatically piloted) should (A) not fly near or above airports, (B) not fly over 150 meter above ground/water surface, (C) not fly over urban area and suburb (so only rural area is allowed.) UA/drone should be operated manually and at Visual Line of Sight (VLOS) and so on. UA/drone should not fly near any important buildings or facilities of the country including nuclear facilities. UA/drone must follow the Japan Radio Act exactly.
In April 2014, the South African Civil Aviation Authority announced that it would clamp down on the illegal flying of UAVs in South African airspace. "Hobby drones" with a weight of less than 7 kg at altitudes up to 500m with restricted visual line-of-sight below the height of the highest obstacle within 300m of the UAV are allowed. No license is required for such vehicles.
United Arab Emirates
In order to fly a drone in Dubai, citizens have to obtain a no objection certificate from Dubai Civil Aviation Authority (DCAA). This certificate can be obtained online.
As of December 2018, UAVs of 20 kilograms (44 lb) or less must fly within the operator's eyesight. In built up areas, UAVs must be 150 feet (46 m) away from people and cannot be flown over large crowds or built up areas.
In July 2018, it became illegal to fly a UAV over 400 feet (120 m) and to fly within 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) of aircraft, airports and airfields.
As of 30 November 2019, anyone flying a drone between 250 grams and 20 kilograms in weight is required to register with the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA). Pilots require a Flyer ID, and those in control of the drone require an Operator ID. Regulations apply to both hobbyist and professional users.
The new FAA UAV registration process includes requirements for:
- Eligible owners must register their UAVs prior to flight. Non-commercial flights are no longer subject to registration.
- If the owner is less than 13 years old, a parent or other responsible person must do the FAA registration.
- UAVs must be marked with the FAA-issued registration number.
- The registration fee is $5. The registration is good for 3 years and can be renewed for an additional 3 years at the $5 rate.
- A single registration applies to all UAVs owned by an individual. Failure to register can result in civil penalties of up to $27,500 and criminal penalties of up to $250,000 and/or imprisonment for up to three years.
On 19 May 2017, in the case Taylor v. Huerta, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit held that the FAA's 2015 drone registration rules were in violation of the 2012 FAA Modernization and Reform Act. Under the court's holding, although commercial drone operators are required to register, recreational operators are not. On 25 May 2017, one week after the Taylor decision, Senator Dianne Feinstein introduced S. 1272, the Drone Federalism Act of 2017, in Congress.
On 21 June 2016, the Federal Aviation Administration announced regulations for commercial operation of small UAS craft (sUAS), those between 0.55 and 55 pounds (about 250 gm to 25 kg) including payload. The rules, which exclude hobbyists, require the presence at all operations of a licensed Remote Pilot in Command. Certification of this position, available to any citizen at least 16 years of age, is obtained solely by passing a written test and then submitting an application. For those holding a sport pilot license or higher, and with a current flight review, a rule-specific exam can be taken at no charge online at the faasafety.gov website. Other applicants must take a more comprehensive examination at an aeronautical testing center. All licensees are required to take a review course every two years. At this time no ratings for heavier UAS are available.
Commercial operation is restricted to daylight, line-of-sight, under 100 mph, under 400 feet, and Class G airspace only, and may not fly over people or be operated from a moving vehicle. Some organizations have obtained a waiver or Certificate of Authorization that allows them to exceed these rules. On 20 September 2018, State Farm Insurance, in partnership with the Virginia Tech Mid-Atlantic Aviation Partnership and FAA Integration Pilot Program, became the first in the United States to fly a UAV 'Beyond-Visual-Line-Of-Sight' (BVLOS) and over people under an FAA Part 107 Waiver. The flight was made at the Virginia Tech Kentland Farms outside the Blacksburg campus with an SenseFly eBee vehicle, Pilot-In-Command was Christian Kang, a State Farm Weather Catastrophe Claims Services employee (Part 107 & 61 pilot). Additionally, CNN's waiver for UAVs modified for injury prevention to fly over people, while other waivers allow night flying with special lighting, or non-line-of-sight operations for agriculture or railroad track inspection.
Previous to this announcement, any commercial use required a full pilot's license and an FAA waiver, of which hundreds had been granted.
The use of UAVs for law-enforcement purposes is regulated at a state level.
In Oregon, law enforcement is allowed to operate non-weaponized drones without a warrant if there is enough reason to believe that the current environment poses imminent danger to which the drone can acquire information or assist individuals. Otherwise, a warrant, with a maximum period of 30 days of interaction, must be acquired.
- Delivery drone
- Drone in a Box
- International Aerial Robotics Competition
- List of films featuring drones
- Micro air vehicle
- Micromechanical Flying Insect
- Miniature UAV
- Radio-controlled aircraft
- Satellite Sentinel Project
- Tactical Control System
- UAV ground control station
- Unmanned underwater vehicle
- Brett Velicovich
- Human bycatch
- "DeltaQuad Pro #VIEW VTOL Fixed wing surveillance UAV". Vertical Technologies.
- "Uncrewed Aircraft Systems (UAS)". Retrieved 15 May 2019.
- Sharma, Abhishek; Basnayaka, Chathuranga M.Wijerathna; Jayakody, Dushantha Nalin K. (May 2020). "Communication and networking technologies for UAVs: A survey". Journal of Network and Computer Applications. 168: 102739. arXiv:2009.02280. doi:10.1016/j.jnca.2020.102739. S2CID 221507920.
- "ICAO's circular 328 AN/190 : Unmanned Aircraft Systems" (PDF). ICAO. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Tice, Brian P. (Spring 1991). "Unmanned Aerial Vehicles – The Force Multiplier of the 1990s". Airpower Journal. Archived from the original on 24 July 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
When used, UAVs should generally perform missions characterized by the three Ds: dull, dirty, and dangerous.
- Koparan, Cengiz; Koc, A. Bulent; Privette, Charles V.; Sawyer, Calvin B. (March 2020). "Adaptive Water Sampling Device for Aerial Robots". Drones. 4 (1): 5. doi:10.3390/drones4010005.
- Koparan, Cengiz; Koc, Ali Bulent; Privette, Charles V.; Sawyer, Calvin B.; Sharp, Julia L. (May 2018). "Evaluation of a UAV-Assisted Autonomous Water Sampling". Water. 10 (5): 655. doi:10.3390/w10050655.
- Koparan, Cengiz; Koc, Ali Bulent; Privette, Charles V.; Sawyer, Calvin B. (March 2018). "In Situ Water Quality Measurements Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) System". Water. 10 (3): 264. doi:10.3390/w10030264.
- Koparan, Cengiz; Koc, Ali Bulent; Privette, Charles V.; Sawyer, Calvin B. (March 2019). "Autonomous In Situ Measurements of Noncontaminant Water Quality Indicators and Sample Collection with a UAV". Water. 11 (3): 604. doi:10.3390/w11030604.
- "Drones smuggling porn, drugs to inmates around the world". 17 April 2017.
- Note; the term "drone" refers to the male bee that serves only to fertilize the queen bee, hence the use of the name in reference to the DH Queen Bee aerial target.
- "Unmanned Aircraft Systems Roadmap" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2008.
- "European ATM Master Plan 2015 | SESAR". www.sesarju.eu. Archived from the original on 6 February 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- "State government gears up for autonomous RPAS mapping". 23 January 2017.
- "unmanned aerial vehicle". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Guilmartin, John F. "unmanned aerial vehicle". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
- Avitan, Ariel (3 January 2019). "The Differences Between UAV, UAS, and Autonomous Drones". Percepto. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
- "Drones and Artificial Intelligence". Drone Industry Insights. 28 August 2018. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
- "How Autonomous Drone Flights Will Go Beyond Line of Sight". Nanalyze. 31 December 2019.
- McNabb, Miriam (28 February 2020). "Drones Get the Lights Back on Faster for Florida Communities". DRONELIFE.
- Peck, Abe (19 March 2020). "Coronavirus Spurs Percepto's Drone-in-a-Box Surveillance Solution". Inside Unmanned Systems.
- "Canadian Aviation Regulations". Government of Canada - Justice Laws Website. 1 June 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- "What is the difference between a drone and an RC plane or helicopter?". Drones Etc. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
- The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social, and Military History: A Political, Social, and Military History, ABC-CLIO, 12 May 2008, by Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts, pages 1054–55 ISBN
- The Future of Drone Use: Opportunities and Threats from Ethical and Legal Perspectives, Asser Press – Springer, chapter by Alan McKenna, page 355
- Kaplan, Philip (2013). Naval Aviation in the Second World War. Pen and Sword. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-4738-2997-8.
- Hallion, Richard P. (2003). Taking Flight: Inventing the Aerial Age, from Antiquity through the First World War. Oxford University Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-19-028959-1.
- Naval Aviation in the First World War: Its Impact and Influence, R. D. Layman, page 56
- Renner, Stephen L. (2016). Broken Wings: The Hungarian Air Force, 1918–45. Indiana University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-253-02339-1.
- Murphy, Justin D. (2005). Military Aircraft, Origins to 1918: An Illustrated History of Their Impact. ABC-CLIO. pp. 9–10. ISBN 978-1-85109-488-2.
- Haydon, F. Stansbury (2000). Military Ballooning During the Early Civil War. JHU Press. pp. 18–20. ISBN 978-0-8018-6442-1.
- "Mikesh, Robert C. "Japan's World War II balloon bomb attacks on North America." (1973)" (PDF).
- Says, Robert Kanyike (21 May 2012). "History of U.S. Drones".
- Taylor, John W. R.. Jane's Pocket Book of Remotely Piloted Vehicles.
- Professor A. M. Low FLIGHT, 3 October, 1952 page 436 “The First Guided Missile”
- Dempsey, Martin E. (9 April 2010). "Eyes of the Army—U.S. Army Roadmap for Unmanned Aircraft Systems 2010–2035" (PDF). U.S. Army. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
- Wagner 1982, p. xi.
- Wagner 1982, p. xi, xii.
- Wagner 1982, p. xii.
- Wagner 1982, p. 79.
- Wagner 1982, p. 78, 79.
Dunstan, Simon (2013). Israeli Fortifications of the October War 1973. Osprey Publishing. p. 16. ISBN 9781782004318. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
The War of Attrition was also notable for the first use of UAVs, or unmanned aerial vehicles, carrying reconnaissance cameras in combat.
Saxena, V. K. (2013). The Amazing Growth and Journey of UAV's and Ballastic Missile Defence Capabilities: Where the Technology is Leading to?. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. p. 6. ISBN 9789382573807. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
During the Yom Kippur War the Israelis used Teledyne Ryan 124 R RPVs along with the home-grown Scout and Mastif UAVs for reconnaissance, surveillance and as decoys to draw fire from Arab SAMs. This resulted in Arab forces expending costly and scarce missiles on inappropriate targets [...].
- Blum, Howard (2003). The eve of destruction: the untold story of the Yom Kippur War. HarperCollins. ISBN 9780060013998.
- Wagner 1982, p. 202.
- Wagner 1982, p. 200, 212.
- Wagner 1982, p. 208.
- "A Brief History of UAVs". Howstuffworks.com. 22 July 2008. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Russia Buys A Bunch of Israeli UAVs". Strategypage.com. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Azoulai, Yuval (24 October 2011). "Unmanned combat vehicles shaping future warfare". Globes. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Levinson, Charles (13 January 2010). "Israeli Robots Remake Battlefield". The Wall Street Journal. p. A10. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
- Gal-Or, Benjamin (1990). Vectored Propulsion, Supermaneuverability & Robot Aircraft. Springer Verlag. ISBN 978-3-540-97161-0.
- Z. Goraj; A. Frydrychewicz; R. Świtkiewicz; B. Hernik; J. Gadomski; T. Goetzendorf-Grabowski; M. Figat; St Suchodolski; W. Chajec. report (PDF). Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Technical Sciences, Volume 52. Number 3, 2004. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
- Community Research and Development Information Service. Civil uav application and economic effectiveness of potential configuration solutions. published by the Publications Office of the European Union. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
- Ackerman, Spencer; Shachtman, Noah (9 January 2012). "Almost 1 in 3 U.S. Warplanes Is a Robot". WIRED. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Singer, Peter W. "A Revolution Once More: Unmanned Systems and the Middle East" Archived 6 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine, The Brookings Institution, November 2009.
- Radsan, AJ; Murphy (2011). "Measure Twice, Shoot Once: Higher Care for Cia-Targeted Killing". Univ. Ill. Law Rev.:1201–1241.
- Sayler, Kelley (June 2015). "A world of proliferated drones : a technology primer" (PDF). Center for a New American Security. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2016.
- Dronewallah (23 February 2015). "Knowledge Base: What are RTF, BNF and ARF drone kits?". rcDroneArena. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- "Drone flies as both biplane and helicopter using one propeller". Engadget.
- "Model airplane history-maker Maynard Hill dies at the age of 85". Washington Post.
- "botmite.com". botmite.com.
- Floreano, Dario; Wood, Robert J. (27 May 2015). "Science, technology and the future of small autonomous drones". Nature. 521 (7553): 460–466. Bibcode:2015Natur.521..460F. doi:10.1038/nature14542. PMID 26017445. S2CID 4463263.
- Fasano, Giancarmine; Accardo, Domenico; Tirri, Anna Elena; Moccia, Antonio; De Lellis, Ettore (1 October 2015). "Radar/electro-optical data fusion for non-cooperative UAS sense and avoid". Aerospace Science and Technology. 46: 436–450. doi:10.1016/j.ast.2015.08.010.
- "Arduino Playground – WhatIsDegreesOfFreedom6DOF9DOF10DOF11DOF". playground.arduino.cc. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- Carlson, Daniel F.; Rysgaard, Søren (1 January 2018). "Adapting open-source drone autopilots for real-time iceberg observations". MethodsX. 5: 1059–1072. doi:10.1016/j.mex.2018.09.003. ISSN 2215-0161. PMC 6139390. PMID 30225206.
- Lesko, J.; Schreiner, M.; Megyesi, D.; Kovacs, Levente (November 2019). "Pixhawk PX-4 Autopilot in Control of a Small Unmanned Airplane". 2019 Modern Safety Technologies in Transportation (MOSATT). Kosice, Slovakia: IEEE: 90–93. doi:10.1109/MOSATT48908.2019.8944101. ISBN 978-1-7281-5083-3. S2CID 209695691.
- Bristeau, Callou, Vissière, Petit (2011). "The Navigation and Control technology inside the AR.Drone micro UAV" (PDF). IFAC World Congress.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Teaching tiny drones how to fly themselves". Ars Technica. 27 November 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- "Biomimetics and Dextrous Manipulation Lab – MultiModalRobots". bdml.stanford.edu. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
- D'Andrea, Raffaello. "The astounding athletic power of quadcopters". www.ted.com. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- Yanguo, Song; Huanjin, Wang (1 June 2009). "Design of Flight Control System for a Small Unmanned Tilt Rotor Aircraft". Chinese Journal of Aeronautics. 22 (3): 250–256. doi:10.1016/S1000-9361(08)60095-3.
- "The device, designed for landing UAV helicopter type on a flat vertical surface". patents.google.com.
- "Researchers Pilot a Drone Using an Apple Watch". NBC News. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- "Watch This Man Control a Flying Drone With His Brain". www.yahoo.com. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Barnard, Joseph (2007). "Small UAV Command, Control and Communication Issues" (PDF). Barnard Microsystems.
- "The Cheap Drone Camera That Transmits to Your Phone". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- "Cellular enables safer drone deployments". Qualcomm. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- "Identifying Critical Manned-Unmanned Teaming Skills for Unmanned Aircraft System Operators" (PDF). U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. September 2012.
- , "4G Drone Link", issued 2015-11-03
- Sharma, Navuday; Magarini, Maurizio; Jayakody, Dushantha Nalin K.; Sharma, Vishal; Li, Jun (August 2018). "On-Demand Ultra-Dense Cloud Drone Networks: Opportunities, Challenges and Benefits". IEEE Communications Magazine. 56 (8): 85–91. doi:10.1109/MCOM.2018.1701001. ISSN 1558-1896. S2CID 52019723.
- "Minimum requirements related to technical performance for IMT-2020 radio interface(s)". www.itu.int. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
- Drones, Percepto (3 January 2019). "The Differences Between UAV, UAS, and Autonomous Drones". Percepto.
- Roberge, V.; Tarbouchi, M.; Labonte, G. (1 February 2013). "Comparison of Parallel Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization for Real-Time UAV Path Planning". IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics. 9 (1): 132–141. doi:10.1109/TII.2012.2198665. ISSN 1551-3203. S2CID 8418538.
- Tisdale, J.; Kim, ZuWhan; Hedrick, J.K. (1 June 2009). "Autonomous UAV path planning and estimation". IEEE Robotics Automation Magazine. 16 (2): 35–42. doi:10.1109/MRA.2009.932529. ISSN 1070-9932. S2CID 9696725.
- Cekmez, Ozsiginan, Aydin And Sahingoz (2014). "UAV Path Planning with Parallel Genetic Algorithms on CUDA Architecture" (PDF). World congress on engineering.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Davenport, Christian (23 April 2015). "Watch a step in Navy history: an autonomous drone gets refueled mid-air". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Clough, Bruce (August 2002). "Metrics, Schmetrics! How The Heck Do You Determine A UAV's Autonomy Anyway?" (PDF). US Air Force Research Laboratory.
- Serres, Julien R.; Masson, Guillaume P.; Ruffier, Franck; Franceschini, Nicolas (2008). "A bee in the corridor: centering and wall-following". Naturwissenschaften. 95 (12): 1181–1187. Bibcode:2008NW.....95.1181S. doi:10.1007/s00114-008-0440-6. PMID 18813898. S2CID 226081.
- Roca, Martínez-Sánchez, Lagüela, and Arias (2016). "Novel Aerial 3D Mapping System Based on UAV Platforms and 2D Laser Scanners". Journal of Sensors. 2016: 1–8. doi:10.1155/2016/4158370.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "ETH Zurich: Drones with a Sense of Direction". Ascending Technologies GmbH. 10 November 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Timothy B. Lee (1 January 2018). "Why experts believe cheaper, better lidar is right around the corner" – via Ars Technica.
- Shaojie Shen (16 November 2010), Autonomous Aerial Navigation in Confined Indoor Environments, retrieved 3 February 2016
- "SWEEPER Demonstrates Wide-Angle Optical Phased Array Technology". www.darpa.mil. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- "LIDAR: LIDAR nears ubiquity as miniature systems proliferate". www.laserfocusworld.com. 13 October 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Quack, Ferrara, Gambini, Han, Keraly, Qiao, Rao, Sandborn, Zhu, Chuang, Yablonovitch, Boser, Chang-Hasnain, C. Wu (2015). "Development of an FMCW LADAR Source Chip using MEMS-Electronic-Photonic Heterogeneous Integration". University of California, Berkeley.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "DARPA's Plan to Overwhelm Enemies With Swarming Drones – Drone 360". Drone 360. 6 April 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- NewWorldofWeapons (17 January 2014), US Air force STEALTH UAV armed with LASER GUN named General Atomics Avenger, retrieved 3 February 2016
- Young (December 2012). "Unified Multi-domain Decision Making: Cognitive Radio and Autonomous Vehicle Convergence". Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. hdl:10919/19295. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- Horowitz, Michael C. (2020). "Do Emerging Military Technologies Matter for International Politics?". Annual Review of Political Science. 23: 385–400. doi:10.1146/annurev-polisci-050718-032725.
- "Market for Military Drones will Surge". 27 October 2016.
- Arnett, George (16 March 2015). "The numbers behind the worldwide trade in UAVs". The Guardian.
- Bateman, Joshua (1 September 2017). "China drone maker DJI: Alone atop the unmanned skies". News Ledge.
- Friedman, Lisa; McCabe, David (29 January 2020). "Interior Dept. Grounds Its Drones Over Chinese Spying Fears". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
- Miller, Maggie (8 October 2020). "DOJ bans use of grant funds for certain foreign-made drones". TheHill. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
- "DJI MARKET SHARE: HERE'S EXACTLY HOW RAPIDLY IT HAS GROWN IN JUST A FEW YEARS". Emberify Blog. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
- "Consumer Drones By the Numbers in 2018 and Beyond | News Ledge". News Ledge. 4 April 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
- "Skylark Drones set to raise its first round of funding to boost expansion". 14 September 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
- Peterson, Andrea (19 August 2013). "States are competing to be the Silicon Valley of drones". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- "Drone Training Courses – The Complete List". Drone Business Marketer. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "IDF buying mass-market DJI drones". Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 11 December 2017.
- The U.S. Military Shouldn’t Use Commercial Drones – slate. August 2017
- "DJI Won the Drone Wars, and Now It's Paying the Price". Bloomberg.com. 26 March 2020. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
- "大疆创新与新疆自治区公安厅结为警用无人机战略合作伙伴". YouUAV.com. 24 December 2017.
- Flying High – pwc. November 2018
- Graham Warwick (26 February 2018). "AIA: Large Passenger/Cargo UAS Market To Reach $30 Billion By 2036". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
- "Global Agriculture Drones and Robots Market Analysis & Forecast, 2018-2028 - ResearchAndMarkets.com". finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- "Africa Farming Problems Aided With Drone Technology". Drone Addicts. 12 March 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- Faust, Daniel R. (2015). Police Drones (1 ed.). New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. ISBN 9781508145028. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
- Chirarattananon, Pakpong; Ma, Kevin Y; Wood, J (22 May 2014), "Adaptive control of a millimeter-scale flapping-wing robot" (PDF), Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 9 (2): 025004, Bibcode:2014BiBi....9b5004C, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.650.3728, doi:10.1088/1748-3182/9/2/025004, PMID 24855052, archived from the original (PDF) on 16 April 2016
- Sarah Knapton (29 March 2016). "Giant remote-controlled beetles and 'biobot' insects could replace drones". The Telegraph.
- Inc., Pelonis Technologies. "The Importance of Proper Cooling and Airflow for Optimal Drone Performance". Retrieved 22 June 2018.
- "yeair! The quadcopter of the future. From 1399 €". Kickstarter. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- "Flying on Hydrogen: Georgia Tech Researchers Use Fuel Cells to Power Unmanned Aerial Vehicle | Georgia Tech Research Institute". www.gtri.gatech.edu. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- "Hydrogen-powered Hycopter quadcopter could fly for 4 hours at a time". www.gizmag.com. 20 May 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- Gibbs, Yvonne (31 March 2015). "NASA Armstrong Fact Sheet: Beamed Laser Power for UAVs". NASA. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
- /;Vertical Challenge: "Monsters of the sky"/;. Archived 11 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "General Atomics Gnat". Designation-systems.net. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "UAV Notes". Archived 30 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "Trans atlantic Model". Tam.plannet21.com. Archived from the original on 22 May 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "QinetiQ's Zephyr UAV exceeds official world record for longest duration unmanned flight". QinetiQ. 10 September 2007. Archived from the original on 23 April 2011.
- "New Scientist Technology Blog: Solar plane en route to everlasting flight – New Scientist". Newscientist.com. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Northrop Grumman's Global Hawk Unmanned Aircraft Sets 33-Hour Flight Endurance Record". Spacewar.com. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
- "QinetiQ's Zephyr UAV flies for three and a half days to set unofficial world record for longest duration unmanned flight". QinetiQ. 24 August 2008. Archived from the original on 24 May 2011.
- "QinetiQ files for three world records for its Zephyr Solar powered UAV". QinetiQ. 24 August 2010. Archived from the original on 24 September 2010.
- Boniol (December 2014). "Towards Modular and Certified Avionics for UAV" (PDF). Aerospacelab Journal.
- D. Boskovic and Knoebel (2009). "A Comparison Study of Several Adaptive Control Strategies for Resilient Flight Control" (PDF). AIAA Guidance, Navigation andControl Conference. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 February 2016.
- Atkins. "Certifiable Autonomous Flight Management for Unmanned Aircraft Systems". University of Michigan.
- Pradhan, Otte, Dubey, Gokhale and Karsai (2013). "Key Considerations for a Resilient and Autonomous Deployment and Configuration Infrastructure for Cyber-Physical Systems" (PDF). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Vanderbilt University, Nashville.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Franke, Ulrike Esther ["The global diffusion of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or 'drones'"], in Mike Aaronson (ed) Precision Strike Warfare and International Intervention, Routledge 2015.
- Dent, Steve (16 October 2017). "Drone hits a commercial plane for the first time in Canada". Engadget. Archived from the original on 16 October 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
- Tellman, Julie (28 September 2018). "First-ever recorded drone-hot air balloon collision prompts safety conversation". Teton Valley News. Boise, Idaho, United States: Boise Post-Register. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- "Drones need to be encouraged, and people protected". The Economist. 26 January 2019. ProQuest 2171135630. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
- "Anti-drone technology to be test flown on UK base amid terror fears". 6 March 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
- "Prisons Work To Keep Out Drug-Smuggling Drones". NPR.org.
- Halon, Eytan (21 December 2018). "Israeli anti-drone technology brings an end to Gatwick Airport chaos – International news – Jerusalem Post". jpost.com. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
- Matthew Weaver, Damien Gayle , Patrick Greenfield and Frances Perraudin (20 December 2018). "Military called in to help with Gatwick drone crisis". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 December 2018.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Heathrow picks C-UAS to combat drone disruption". Retrieved 13 March 2019.
- "Muscat International Airport to install USD10 million Aaronia counter-UAS system". Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- Mike Mount; Elaine Quijano. "Iraqi insurgents hacked Predator drone feeds, U.S. official indicates". CNN.com. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
- Walters, Sander (29 October 2016). "How Can Drones Be Hacked? The updated list of vulnerable drones & attack tools". Medium. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
- Glaser, April (4 January 2017). "The U.S. government showed just how easy it is to hack drones made by Parrot, DBPower and Cheerson". Recode. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
- "In The Heat of the Moment, Drones Are Getting in the Way of Firefighters". NPR.org.
- Michael Martinez; Paul Vercammen; Ben Brumfield. "Drones visit California wildfire, angering firefighters". CNN.
- Medina, Jennifer (19 July 2015). "Chasing Video With Drones, Hobbyists Imperil California Firefighting Efforts" – via NYTimes.com.
- Rocha, Veronica (21 July 2015). "Attack on the drones: Legislation could allow California firefighters to take them down" – via LA Times.
- "Drones That Launch Flaming Balls Are Being Tested To Help Fight Wildfires". NPR.org.
- "Rigorous rules proposed for recreational drone flyers, documents show – Ottawa – CBC News". Cbc.ca. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
- Government of Canada, Public Works and Government Services Canada (9 January 2019). "Canada Gazette – Regulations Amending the Canadian Aviation Regulations (Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems): SOR/2019-11". www.gazette.gc.ca.
- Ó Fátharta, Conall (18 December 2015). "1kg drones must be registered under new laws". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- McGreevy, Ronan (17 December 2015). "No more flying your drone over military bases from Monday". The Irish Times. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Regolamento Mezzi Aerei a Pilotaggio Remoto". Italian Civil Aviation Authority. 22 December 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
- "Civil Aviation Bureau：Japan's safety rules on Unmanned Aircraft (UA)/Drone – MLIT Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism". www.mlit.go.jp. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
- "3.5 RPAS (Drones)" (in Spanish).
- "Watch out, drones: This bald eagle can take you down". CBSN. 24 May 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
- "Drone-hunting eagles can snatch devices out of the sky". CBSN. 8 February 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
- "CAA to hit illegal drone flyers with hefty fines". News24. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
- "New Regulations a Win for Hobby Drone Pilots". Safedrone. 1 July 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
- "RPAS Registration in the Emirate of Dubai". Dubai Civil Aviation Authority. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
- "Dronecode 30/07/2018" (PDF). dronesafe.uk. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
- TTL, Nature (5 November 2019). "New UK Drone Registration Laws Coming Into Effect". Nature TTL. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
- FAA drone rules
- Williams, Thomas E. (17 December 2015). "That Drone in Your Holiday Stocking Must Now Be Registered With FAA". Neal, Gerber & Eisenberg LLP. Retrieved 17 December 2015. Cite journal requires
- Taylor v. Huerta – See:FAA-2015-7396; published on 16 December 2015 – https://jrupprechtlaw.com/drone-registration-lawsuit
- Ritt, Steven L. (15 December 2015). "Drones: Recreational/Hobby Owners Web-based Registration Process". The National Law Review. Michael Best & Friedrich LLP. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Smith, Brian D; Schenendorf, Jack L; Kiehl, Stephen (16 December 2015). "Looking Forward After the FAA's Drone Registration Regulation". Covington & Burling LLP. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Williams, Thomas E. (17 December 2015). "That Drone in Your Holiday Stocking Must Now Be Registered With FAA". The National Law Review. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Taylor v. Huerta, no. 15-1495 (D.C. Cir. 19 May 2017)
- "Unmanned Aircraft System Operations in UK Airspace – Guidance" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2017.
- Glaser, April (19 May 2017). "Americans no longer have to register non-commercial drones with the FAA". Recode. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
- S. 1272, A bill to preserve State, local, and tribal authorities and private property rights with respect to unmanned aircraft systems, and for other purposes.
- "Fact Sheet – Small Unmanned Aircraft Regulations (Part 107)". www.faa.gov.
- "Fly for Work/Business". Archived from the original on 4 September 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
- "Certificates of Waiver or Authorization (COA)". www.faa.gov.
- State Farm NewsRoom. "State Farm Granted Florence Response FAA Drone-Use Waiver". State Farm Insurance.
- Alan Levin. "Thousands sign up for FAA's drone pilot test". Bloomberg News.
- McKnight, Veronica (Spring 2015). "Drone technology and the Fourth Amendment: aerial surveillance precedent and Kyllo do not account for current technology and privacy concerns". California Western Law Review. 51: 263.
- Wagner, William (1982), Lightning Bugs and other Reconnaissance Drones; The can-do story of Ryan's unmanned spy planes, Armed Forces Journal International : Aero Publishers, ISBN 978-0-8168-6654-0
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Unmanned aerial vehicles.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Drones|
- Garcia-Bernardo, Sheridan Dodds, F. Johnson (2016). "Quantitative patterns in drone wars" (PDF). Science direct. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2016.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Hill, J., & Rogers, A. (2014). The rise of the drones: From The Great War to Gaza. Vancouver Island University Arts & Humanities Colloquium Series.
- Rogers, A., & Hill, J. (2014). Unmanned: Drone warfare and global security. Between the Lines. ISBN 9781771131544
- How Intelligent Drones Are Shaping the Future of Warfare, Rolling Stone Magazine