Unmanned aerial vehicle
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard. UAVs are a component of an unmanned aircraft system (UAS); which include a UAV, a ground-based controller, and a system of communications between the two. The flight of UAVs may operate with various degrees of autonomy: either under remote control by a human operator or autonomously by onboard computers.
Compared to manned aircraft, UAVs were originally used for missions too "dull, dirty or dangerous" for humans. While they originated mostly in military applications, their use is rapidly expanding to commercial, scientific, recreational, agricultural, and other applications, such as policing, peacekeeping, and surveillance, product deliveries, aerial photography, agriculture, smuggling, and drone racing. Civilian UAVs now vastly outnumber military UAVs, with estimates of over a million sold by 2015, so they can be seen as an early commercial application of Autonomous Things, to be followed by the autonomous car and home robots.
- 1 Terminology
- 2 History
- 3 Classification
- 4 UAV components
- 5 Autonomy
- 6 Functions
- 7 Market trends
- 8 Development considerations
- 9 Applications
- 9.1 Aerospace
- 9.2 Military
- 9.3 Demining
- 9.4 Civil
- 9.4.1 Hobby and recreational use
- 9.4.2 Commercial aerial surveillance
- 9.4.3 Professional aerial surveying
- 9.4.4 Commercial and motion picture filmmaking
- 9.4.5 Journalism
- 9.4.6 Law enforcement
- 9.4.7 Search and rescue
- 9.4.8 Scientific research
- 9.4.9 Conservation
- 9.4.10 Surveying
- 9.4.11 Agriculture
- 9.4.12 Construction
- 9.4.13 Passenger transport
- 10 Existing UAVs
- 11 Events
- 12 Safety
- 13 Regulation
- 14 Popular culture
- 15 "UAE Drones for Good" award
- 16 See also
- 17 References
- 18 External links
Multiple terms are used for unmanned aerial vehicles, which generally refer to the same concept.
The term drone, more widely used by the public, was coined in reference to the resemblance of the sound, of navigation and loud-and-regular motor of old military unmanned aircraft, to the male bee. The term has encountered strong opposition from aviation professionals and government regulators.
The term unmanned aircraft system (UAS) was adopted by the United States Department of Defense (DoD) and the United States Federal Aviation Administration in 2005 according to their Unmanned Aircraft System Roadmap 2005–2030. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the British Civil Aviation Authority adopted this term, also used in the European Union's Single-European-Sky (SES) Air-Traffic-Management (ATM) Research (SESAR Joint Undertaking) roadmap for 2020. This term emphasizes the importance of elements other than the aircraft. It includes elements such as ground control stations, data links and other support equipment. A similar term is an unmanned-aircraft vehicle system (UAVS) remotely piloted aerial vehicle (RPAV), remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS). Many similar terms are in use.
A UAV is defined as a "powered, aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator, uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely, can be expendable or recoverable, and can carry a lethal or nonlethal payload". Therefore, missiles are not considered UAVs because the vehicle itself is a weapon that is not reused, though it is also unmanned and in some cases remotely guided.
The relation of UAVs to remote controlled model aircraft is unclear. UAVs may or may not include model aircraft. Some jurisdictions base their definition on size or weight, however, the US Federal Aviation Administration defines any unmanned flying craft as a UAV regardless of size. For recreational uses, a drone (as apposed to a UAV) is a model aircraft that has first person video, autonomous capabilities or both.
In 1849 Austria sent unmanned, bomb-filled balloons to attack Venice. UAV innovations started in the early 1900s and originally focused on providing practice targets for training military personnel.
The earliest attempt at a powered UAV was A. M. Low's "Aerial Target" in 1916. Nikola Tesla described a fleet of unmanned aerial combat vehicles in 1915. Advances followed during and after World War I, including the Hewitt-Sperry Automatic Airplane. The first scaled remote piloted vehicle was developed by film star and model-airplane enthusiast Reginald Denny in 1935. More emerged during World War II – used both to train antiaircraft gunners and to fly attack missions. Nazi Germany produced and used various UAV aircraft during the war. Jet engines entered service after World War II in vehicles such as the Australian GAF Jindivik, and Teledyne Ryan Firebee I of 1951, while companies like Beechcraft offered their Model 1001 for the U.S. Navy in 1955. Nevertheless, they were little more than remote-controlled airplanes until the Vietnam War.
In 1959, the U.S. Air Force, concerned about losing pilots over hostile territory, began planning for the use of unmanned aircraft. Planning intensified after the Soviet Union shot down a U-2 in 1960. Within days, a highly classified UAV program started under the code name of "Red Wagon". The August 1964 clash in the Tonkin Gulf between naval units of the U.S. and North Vietnamese Navy initiated America's highly classified UAVs (Ryan Model 147, Ryan AQM-91 Firefly, Lockheed D-21) into their first combat missions of the Vietnam War. When the Chinese government showed photographs of downed U.S. UAVs via Wide World Photos, the official U.S. response was "no comment".
In 1973 the U.S. military officially confirmed that they had been using UAVs in Southeast Asia (Vietnam). Over 5,000 U.S. airmen had been killed and over 1,000 more were missing or captured. The USAF 100th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing flew about 3,435 UAV missions during the war at a cost of about 554 UAVs lost to all causes. In the words of USAF General George S. Brown, Commander, Air Force Systems Command, in 1972, "The only reason we need (UAVs) is that we don't want to needlessly expend the man in the cockpit." Later that year, General John C. Meyer, Commander in Chief, Strategic Air Command, stated, "we let the drone do the high-risk flying ... the loss rate is high, but we are willing to risk more of them ... they save lives!"
During the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Soviet-supplied surface-to-air missile batteries in Egypt and Syria caused heavy damage to Israeli fighter jets. As a result, Israel developed the first UAV with real-time surveillance. The images and radar decoys provided by these UAVs helped Israel to completely neutralize the Syrian air defenses at the start of the 1982 Lebanon War, resulting in no pilots downed. The first time UAVs were used as proof-of-concept of super-agility post-stall controlled flight in combat-flight simulations involved tailless, stealth technology-based, three-dimensional thrust vectoring flight control, jet-steering UAVs in Israel in 1987.
With the maturing and miniaturization of applicable technologies in the 1980s and 1990s, interest in UAVs grew within the higher echelons of the U.S. military. In the 1990s, the U.S. DoD gave a contract to AAI Corporation along with Israeli company Malat. The U.S. Navy bought the AAI Pioneer UAV that AAI and Malat developed jointly. Many of these UAVs saw service in the 1991 Gulf War. UAVs demonstrated the possibility of cheaper, more capable fighting machines, deployable without risk to aircrews. Initial generations primarily involved surveillance aircraft, but some carried armaments, such as the General Atomics MQ-1 Predator, that launched AGM-114 Hellfire air-to-ground missiles.
In 2013 at least 50 countries used UAVs. China, Iran, Israel and others designed and built their own varieties.
UAVs typically fall into one of six functional categories (although multi-role airframe platforms are becoming more prevalent):
- Target and decoy – providing ground and aerial gunnery a target that simulates an enemy aircraft or missile
- Reconnaissance – providing battlefield intelligence
- Combat – providing attack capability for high-risk missions (see unmanned combat aerial vehicle)
- Logistics – delivering cargo
- Research and development – improve UAV technologies
- Civil and commercial UAVs – agriculture, aerial photography, data collection
The U.S. Military UAV tier system is used by military planners to designate the various individual aircraft elements in an overall usage plan.
- Hand-held 2,000 ft (600 m) altitude, about 2 km range
- Close 5,000 ft (1,500 m) altitude, up to 10 km range
- NATO type 10,000 ft (3,000 m) altitude, up to 50 km range
- Tactical 18,000 ft (5,500 m) altitude, about 160 km range
- MALE (medium altitude, long endurance) up to 30,000 ft (9,000 m) and range over 200 km
- High-Altitude Long Endurance (high altitude, long endurance – HALE) over 30,000 ft (9,100 m) and indefinite range
- Hypersonic high-speed, supersonic (Mach 1–5) or hypersonic (Mach 5+) 50,000 ft (15,200 m) or suborbital altitude, range over 200 km
- Orbital low earth orbit (Mach 25+)
- CIS Lunar Earth-Moon transfer
- Computer Assisted Carrier Guidance System (CACGS) for UAVs
- Hobbyist UAVs – which can be further divided into
- Ready-to-fly (RTF)/Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS)
- Bind-and-fly (BNF) – that require minimum knowledge to fly the platform
- Almost-ready-to-fly (ARF)/Do-it-yourself (DIY) – that require significant knowledge to get in the air.
- Midsize military and commercial UAVs
- Large military-specific UAVs
- Stealth combat UAVs
Classifications according to aircraft weight are quite simpler:
- Micro air vehicle (MAV) – the smallest UAVs that can weight less than 1g.
- Miniature UAV (also called SUAS) – approximately less than 25 kg.
- Heavier UAVs.
|This section needs additional or better citations for verification. (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Manned and unmanned aircraft of the same type generally have recognizably similar physical components. The main exceptions are the cockpit and environmental control system or life support systems. Some UAVs carry payloads (such as a camera) that weigh considerably less than an adult human, and as a result can be considerably smaller. Though they carry heavy payloads, weaponized military UAVs are lighter than their manned counterparts with comparable armaments.
Small civilian UAVs have no life-critical systems, and can thus be built out of lighter but less sturdy materials and shapes, and can use less robustly tested electronic control systems. For small UAVs, the quadcopter design has become popular, though this layout is rarely used for manned aircraft. Miniaturization means that less-powerful propulsion technologies can be used that are not feasible for manned aircraft, such as small electric motors and batteries.
Control systems for UAVs are often different than manned craft. For remote human control, a camera and video link almost always replace the cockpit windows; radio-transmitted digital commands replace physical cockpit controls. Autopilot software is used on both manned and unmanned aircraft, with varying feature sets.
The primary difference for planes is the absence of the cockpit area and its windows. Tailless Quadcopters are a common form factor for rotary wing UAVs while tailed mono- and bi-copters are common for manned platforms.
Power supply and platform
Small UAVs mostly use lithium-polymer batteries (Li-Po), while larger vehicles rely on conventional airplane engines.
UAV computing capability followed the advances of computing technology, beginning with analog controls and evolving into microcontrollers, then system-on-a-chip (SOC) and single-board computers (SBC).
System hardware for small UAVs is often called the Flight Controller (FC), Flight Controller Board (FCB) or Autopilot.
Position and movement sensors give information about the aircraft state. Exteroceptive sensors deal with external information like distance measurements, while exproprioceptive ones correlate internal and external states.
Non-cooperative sensors are able to detect targets autonomously so they are used for separation assurance and collision avoidance.
Degrees of freedom (DOF) refer to both the amount and quality of sensors on-board: 6 DOF implies 3-axis gyroscopes and accelerometers (a typical inertial measurement unit – IMU), 9 DOF refers to an IMU plus a compass, 10 DOF adds a barometer and 11 DOF usually adds a GPS receiver.
UAV actuators include digital electronic speed controllers (which control the RPM of the motors) linked to motors/engines and propellers, servomotors (for planes and helicopters mostly), weapons, payload actuators, LEDs and speakers.
UAV software called the flight stack or autopilot. UAVs are real-time systems that require rapid response to changing sensor data. Examples include Raspberry Pis, Beagleboards, etc. shielded with NavIO, PXFMini, etc. or designed from scratch such as Nuttx, preemptive-RT Linux, Xenomai, Orocos-Robot Operating System or DDS-ROS 2.0.
|Firmware||Time-critical||From machine code to processor execution, memory access…||ArduCopter-v1.px4|
|Middleware||Time-critical||Flight control, navigation, radio management...||Cleanflight, ArduPilot|
|Operating system||Computer-intensive||Optic flow, obstacle avoidance, SLAM, decision-making...||ROS, Nuttx, Linux distributions, Microsoft IOT|
List of civil-use open-source stacks include:
- DroneCode (forked from ArduCopter)
- BaseFlight (forked from MultiWii)
- CleanFlight (forked from BaseFlight)
- BetaFlight (forked from CleanFlight)
- RaceFlight (forked from CleanFlight)
- iNav (forked from CleanFlight)
- TauLabs (forked from OpenPilot)
- dRonin (forked from OpenPilot)
- LibrePilot (forked from OpenPilot)
UAVs employ open-loop, closed-loop or hybrid control architectures.
- Open loop—This type provides a positive control signal (faster, slower, left, right, up, down) without incorporating feedback from sensor data.
- Closed loop – This type incorporates sensor feedback to adjust behavior (reduce speed to reflect tailwind, move to altitude 300 feet). The PID controller is common. Sometimes, feedforward is employed, transferring the need to close the loop further.
Flight control is one of the lower-layer system and is similar to manned aviation: plane flight dynamics, control and automation, helicopter flight dynamics and controls and multirotor flight dynamics were researched long before the rise of UAVs.
Automatic flight involves multiple levels of priority.
UAVs can be programmed to perform aggressive manœuvres or landing/perching on inclined surfaces, and then to climb toward better communication spots. Some UAVs can control flight with varying flight modelisation, such as VTOL designs.
UAVs can also implement perching on a flat vertical surface.
Most UAVs use a radio frequency front-end that connects the antenna to the analog-to-digital converter and a flight computer that controls avionics (and that may be capable of autonomous or semi-autonomous operation).
In military systems and high-end domestic applications, downlink may convey payload management status. In civilian applications, most transmissions are commands from operator to vehicle. Downstream is mainly video. Telemetry is another kind of downstream link, transmitting status about the aircraft systems to the remote operator. UAVs use also satellite "uplink" to access satellite navigation systems.
The radio signal from the operator side can be issued from either:
- Ground control – a human operating a radio transmitter/receiver, a smartphone, a tablet, a computer, or the original meaning of a military ground control station (GCS). Recently control from wearable devices, human movement recognition, human brain waves was also demonstrated.
- Remote network system, such as satellite duplex data links for some military powers. Downstream digital video over mobile networks has also entered consumer markets, while direct UAV control uplink over the celullar mesh is under researched.
- Another aircraft, serving as a relay or mobile control station – military manned-unmanned teaming (MUM-T).
|This section needs additional or better citations for verification. (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
ICAO classifies unmanned aircraft as either remotely piloted aircraft or fully autonomous. Actual UAVs may offer intermediate degrees of autonomy. E.g., a vehicle that is remotely piloted in most contexts may have an autonomous return-to-base operation.
Basic autonomy comes from proprioceptive sensors. Advanced autonomy calls for situational awareness, knowledge about the environment surrounding the aircraft from exterioceptive sensors: sensor fusion integrates information from multiple sensors.
One way to achieve autonomous control employs multiple control-loop layers, as in hierarchical control systems. As of 2016 the low-layer loops (i.e. for flight control) tick as fast as 32,000 times per second, while higher-level loops may cycle once per second. The principle is to decompose the aircraft's behavior into manageable "chunks", or states, with known transitions. Hierarchical control system types range from simple scripts to finite state machines, behavior trees and hierarchical task planners. The most common control mechanism used in these layers is the PID controller which can be used to achieve hover for a quadcopter by using data from the IMU to calculate precise inputs for the electronic speed controllers and motors.
Examples of mid-layer algorithms:
- Path planning: determining an optimal path for vehicle to follow while meeting mission objectives and constraints, such as obstacles or fuel requirements
- Trajectory generation (motion planning): determining control maneuvers to take in order to follow a given path or to go from one location to another
- Trajectory regulation: constraining a vehicle within some tolerance to a trajectory
UAV manufacturers often build in specific autonomous operations, such as:
- Self-level: The aircraft stabilizes its altitude.
- Hover: attitude stabilization on the pitch, roll and yaw axes. The latter can be achieved by sensing GNSS coordinates, called alone position hold.
- Care-free: automatic roll and yaw control while moving horizontally
- Take-off and landing
- Failsafe: automatically landing upon loss of control signal
- GPS waypoint navigation
- Orbit around an object
- Pre-programmed tricks such as rolls and loops
Full autonomy is available for specific tasks, such as airborne refueling or ground-based battery switching; but higher-level tasks call for greater computing, sensing and actuating capabilities. One approach to quantifying autonomous capabilities is based on OODA terminology, as suggested by a 2002 US Air Force Research Laboratory, and used in the table below:
|Perception/Situational awareness||Analysis/Coordination||Decision making||Capability|
|10||Fully Autonomous||Cognizant of all within battlespace||Coordinates as necessary||Capable of total independence||Requires little guidance to do job|
|9||Battlespace Swarm Cognizance||Battlespace inference – Intent of self and others (allied and foes).
Complex/Intense environment – on-board tracking
|Strategic group goals assigned
Enemy strategy inferred
|Distributed tactical group planning
Individual determination of tactical goal
Individual task planning/execution
Choose tactical targets
|Group accomplishment of strategic goal with no supervisory assistance|
|8||Battlespace Cognizance||Proximity inference – Intent of self and others (allied and foes)
Reduces dependence upon off-board data
|Strategic group goals assigned
Enemy tactics inferred
|Coordinated tactical group planning
Individual task planning/execution
Choose target of opportunity
|Group accomplishment of strategic goal with minimal supervisory assistance
(example: go SCUD hunting)
|7||Battlespace Knowledge||Short track awareness – History and predictive battlespace
Data in limited range, timeframe and numbers
Limited inference supplemented by off-board data
|Tactical group goals assigned
Enemy trajectory estimated
|Individual task planning/execution to meet goals||Group accomplishment of tactical goals with minimal supervisory assistance|
|Ranged awareness – on-board sensing for long range,
supplemented by off-board data
|Tactical group goals assigned
Enemy trajectory sensed/estimated
|Coordinated trajectory planning and execution to meet goals – group optimization||Group accomplishment of tactical goals with minimal supervisory assistance
Possible: close air space separation (+/-100yds) for AAR, formation in non-threat conditions
|Sensed awareness – Local sensors to detect others,
Fused with off-board data
|Tactical group plan assigned
RT Health Diagnosis Ability to compensate
for most failures and flight conditions;
Ability to predict onset of failures
(e.g. Prognostic Health Mgmt)
Group diagnosis and resource management
|On-board trajectory replanning – optimizes for current and predictive conditions
|Self accomplishment of tactical plan as externally assigned
Medium vehicle airspace separation (100's of yds)
|Deliberate awareness – allies communicate data||Tactical group plan assigned
Assigned Rules of Engagement
RT Health Diagnosis; Ability to compensate
for most failures and flight conditions – inner loop changes reflected in outer loop performance
|On-board trajectory replanning – event driven
Self resource management
|Self accomplishment of tactical plan as externally assigned
Medium vehicle airspace separation (100's of yds)
|3||Robust Response to Real Time Faults/Events||Health/status history & models||Tactical group plan assigned
RT Health Diagnosis (What is the extent of the problems?)
Ability to compensate for most failures and flight conditions (i.e. adaptative inner loop control)
|Evaluate status vs required mission capabilities
Abort/RTB is insufficient
|Self accomplishment of tactical plan as externally assigned|
|2||Changeable mission||Health/status sensors||RT Health diagnosis (Do I have problems?)
Off-board replan (as required)
|Execute preprogrammed or uploaded plans
in response to mission and health conditions
|Self accomplishment of tactical plan as externally assigned|
|Preloaded mission data
Flight Control and Navigation Sensing
|Pre/Post flight BIT
|Preprogrammed mission and abort plans||Wide airspace separation requirements (miles)|
|Flight Control (attitude, rates) sensing
Remote pilot commands
|N/A||Control by remote pilot|
Medium levels of autonomy, such as reactive autonomy and high levels using cognitive autonomy, have already been achieved to some extent and are very active research fields.
Reactive autonomy, such as collective flight, real-time collision avoidance, wall following and corridor centring, relies on telecommunication and situational awareness provided by range sensors: optic flow, lidars (light radars), radars, sonars.
Most range sensors analyze electromagnetic radiation, reflected off the environment and coming to the sensor. The cameras (for visual flow) act as simple receivers. Lidars, radars and sonars (with sound mechanical waves) emit and receive waves, measuring the round-trip transit time. UAV cameras do not require emitting power, reducing total consumption.
Radars and sonars are mostly used for military applications.
Reactive autonomy has in some forms already reached consumer markets: it may be widely available in less than a decade.
Simultaneous localization and mapping
SLAM combines odometry and external data to represent the world and the position of the UAV in it in three dimensions. High-altitude outdoor navigation does not require large vertical fields-of-view and can rely on GPS coordinates (which makes it simple mapping rather than SLAM).
Two related research fields are photogrammetry and LIDAR, especially in low-altitude and indoor 3D environments.
- Indoor photogrammetric and stereophotogrammetric SLAM has been demonstrated with quadcopters.
- Lidar platforms with heavy, costly and gimbaled traditional laser platforms are proven. Research attempts to address production cost, 2D to 3D expansion, power-to-range ratio, weight and dimensions. LED range-finding applications are commercialized for low-distance sensing capabilities. Research investigates hybridization between light emission and computing power: phased array spatial light modulators, and frequency-modulated-continuous-wave (FMCW) MEMS-tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs).
Robot swarming refers to networks of agents able to dynamically reconfigure as elements leave or enter the network. They provide greater flexibility than multi-agent cooperation. Swarming may open the path to data fusion. Some bio-inspired flight swarms use steering behaviors and flocking.[clarification needed]
Future military potential
In the military sector, American Predators and Reapers are made for counterterrorism operations and in war zones in which the enemy lacks sufficient firepower to shoot them down. They are not designed to withstand antiaircraft defenses or air-to-air combat. In September 2013, the chief of the US Air Combat Command stated that current UAVs were "useless in a contested environment" unless manned aircraft were there to protect them. A 2012 Congressional Research Service (CRS) report speculated that in the future, UAVs may be able to perform tasks beyond intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and strikes; the CRS report listed air-to-air combat ("a more difficult future task") as possible future undertakings. The Department of Defense's Unmanned Systems Integrated Roadmap FY2013-2038 foresees a more important place for UAVs in combat. Issues include extended capabilities, human-UAV interaction, managing increased information flux, increased autonomy and developing UAV-specific munitions. DARPA's project of systems of systems, or General Atomics work may augur future warfare scenarios, the latter disclosing Avenger swarms equipped with High Energy Liquid Laser Area Defense System (HELLADS).
The UAV global military market is dominated by pioneers United States and Israel. The US held a 60% military-market share in 2006. It operated over 9,000 UAVs in 2014. From 1985 to 2014, exported UAVs came predominantly from Israel (60.7%) and the United States (23.9%); top importers were The United Kingdom (33.9%) and India (13.2%). Northrop Grumman and General Atomics are the dominant manufacturers on the strength of the Global Hawk and Predator/Mariner systems.
The leading civil UAV companies are currently (Chinese) DJI with $500m global sales, (French) Parrot with $110m and (US) 3DRobotics with $21.6m in 2014. As of March 2017, more than 770,000 civilian UAVs were registered with the U.S. FAA, though it is estimated more than 1.1 million have been sold in the United States alone.
UAV companies are also emerging in developing nations such as India for civilian use, although it is at a very nascent stage, a few early stage startups have received support and funding.
Animal imitation – Ethology
The Nano Hummingbird is commercially available, while sub-1g microUAVs inspired by flies, albeit using a power tether, can "land" on vertical surfaces.
Other projects include unmanned "beetles" and other insects.
Research is exploring miniature optic-flow sensors, called ocellis, mimicking the compound insect eyes formed from multiple facets, which can transmit data to neuromorphic chips able to treat optic flow as well as light intensity discrepancies.
UAV endurance is not constrained by the physiological capabilities of a human pilot.
Because of their small size, low weight, low vibration and high power to weight ratio, Wankel rotary engines are used in many large UAVs. Their engine rotors cannot seize; the engine is not susceptible to shock-cooling during descent and it does not require an enriched fuel mixture for cooling at high power. These attributes reduce fuel usage, increasing range or payload.
Solar-electric UAVs, a concept originally championed by the AstroFlight Sunrise in 1974, have achieved flight times of several weeks.
Solar-powered atmospheric satellites ("atmosats") designed for operating at altitudes exceeding 20 km (12 miles, or 60,000 feet) for as long as five years could potentially perform duties more economically and with more versatility than low earth orbit satellites. Likely applications include weather monitoring, disaster recovery, earth imaging and communications.
Electric UAVs powered by microwave power transmission or laser power beaming are other potential endurance solutions.
Another application for a high endurance UAV would be to "stare" at a battlefield for a long interval (ARGUS-IS, Gorgon Stare, Integrated Sensor Is Structure) to record events that could then be played backwards to track battlefield activities.
|Boeing Condor||58 hours 11 minutes||1989||The aircraft is currently in the Hiller Aviation Museum.|
|General Atomics GNAT||40 hours||1992|||
|TAM-5||38 hours 52 minutes||11 August 2003||Smallest UAV to cross the Atlantic|
|QinetiQ Zephyr Solar Electric||54 hours||September 2007|||
|RQ-4 Global Hawk||33.1 hours||22 March 2008||Set an endurance record for a full-scale, operational unmanned aircraft.|
|QinetiQ Zephyr Solar Electric||82 hours 37 minutes||28–31 July 2008|||
|QinetiQ Zephyr Solar Electric||336 hours 22 minutes||9–23 July 2010|||
Individual reliability covers robustness of flight controllers, to ensure safety without excessive redundancy to minimize cost and weight. Besides, dynamic assessment of flight envelope allows damage-resilient UAVs, using non-linear analysis with ad-hoc designed loops or neural networks. UAV software liability is bending toward the design and certifications of manned avionics software.
Swarm resilience involves maintaining operational capabilities and reconfiguring tasks given unita failures.
||The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (January 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
||It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Use of UAVs. (Discuss) (March 2016)|
Airlines and maintenance, repair, and operations contractors use UAVs for aircraft maintenance. In June 2015 EasyJet began testing UAVs in the maintenance of their Airbus A320s and in July 2016 at the Farnborough Airshow, Airbus (manufacturer of the A320), demonstrated the use of UAVs for the visual inspection of an aircraft. However, some aircraft maintenance professionals remain wary of the technology and its ability to properly catch potential dangers.
A helicopter UAV has been proposed to accompany a future NASA Mars rover mission. Investigators believe a solar-powered craft would be able to fly for a few minutes at a time despite the thin atmosphere of the planet, and help the rover scout out interesting destinations.
As of January 2014, the U.S. military operated 7,362 RQ-11B Ravens; 145 AeroVironment RQ-12A Wasps; 1,137 AeroVironment RQ-20A Pumas; 306 RQ-16 T-Hawk small UAS; 246 Predators and MQ-1C Grey Eagles; 126 MQ-9 Reapers; 491 RQ-7 Shadows and 33 RQ-4 Global Hawk large systems.
The MQ-9 Reaper costs $12 million while an F-22 costs over $120 million.
The Tu-141 "Swift" reusable Soviet reconnaissance UAV is intended for reconnaissance to a depth of several hundred kilometers from the front line at supersonic speeds. The Tu-123 "Hawk" is a supersonic long-range reconnaissance UAV intended for conducting photographic and signals intelligence to a distance of 3200 km; it was produced beginning in 1964. The La-17P (UAV) is a reconnaissance UAV produced since 1963. In 1945 the Soviet Union began producing "doodlebug". 43 Soviet/Russian UAV models are known.
In 2013, the U.S. Navy launched a UAV from a submerged submarine, the first step to "providing mission intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance capabilities to the U.S. Navy's submarine force."
MQ-1 Predator UAVs armed with Hellfire missiles have been used by the U.S. as platforms for hitting ground targets. Armed Predators were first used in late 2001, mostly aimed at assassinating high-profile individuals (terrorist leaders, etc.) inside Afghanistan. UAVs avoid potential diplomatic embarrassment when a manned aircraft is shot down and the pilots captured.
Defense against UAVs
The US armed forces have no defense against low-level UAV attack, but the Joint Integrated Air and Missile Defense Organization is working to repurpose existing systems. Two German companies are developing 40-kW lasers to damage UAVs. Other systems still include the OpenWorks Engineering Skywall and the Battelle DroneDefender.
Targets for military training
Since 1997, the US military has used more than 80 F-4 Phantoms converted into UAVs as aerial targets for combat training of human pilots. The F-4s were supplemented in September 2013 with F-16s as more realistically maneuverable targets.
Since January 2016 British scientists are developing UAVs with advanced imaging technology to more cheaply and effectively map and speed up the clearing of minefields. The Find A Better Way charity, working since 2011 to advance technologies that will enable safer and more efficient clearance of landmines, teamed up with scientists at the University of Bristol to develop UAVs fit with hyperspectral imaging technology that can quickly identify landmines buried in the ground. John Fardoulis, project researcher from Bristol University states that "the maps [their] UAVs will generate should help deminers focus on the places where mines are most likely to be found". Their intended UAVs will be able to perform flyovers and gather images at various wavelengths which, according to Dr John Day from the University of Bristol, could indicate explosive chemicals seeping from landmines into the surrounding foliage as "chemicals in landmines leak out and are often absorbed by plants, causing abnormalities" which can be detected as "living plants have a very distinctive reflection in the near infrared spectrum, just beyond human vision, which makes it possible to tell how healthy they are".
The Dutch Mine Kafon project, led by designer Massoud Hassani is working on a UAV system that can quickly detect and clear land mines. The unmanned airborne de-mining system called Mine Kafon Drone uses a three step process to autonomously map, detect and detonate land mines. It flies above potentially dangerous areas, generating a 3D map, and uses a metal detector to pinpoint the location of mines. The UAV can then place a detonator above the mines using its robotic gripping arm, before retreating to a safe distance. The firm claims its UAV is safer, 20 times faster and up to 200 times cheaper than current technologies and might clear mines globally in 10 years. The project raised funds on the crowdfunding site Kickstarter with their goal set at €70,000 and receiving over €100,000 above it.
Civil uses include aerial crop surveys, aerial photography, search and rescue, inspection of power lines and pipelines, counting wildlife, delivering medical supplies to otherwise inaccessible regions, and detection of illegal hunting, reconnaissance operations, cooperative environment monitoring, border patrol missions, convoy protection, forest fire detection and monitoring, surveillance, coordinating humanitarian aid, plume tracking, land surveying, fire and large-accident investigation, landslide measurement, illegal landfill detection, the construction industry, smuggling, and crowd monitoring.
US government agencies use UAVs such as the RQ-9 Reaper to patrol borders, scout property and locate fugitives. One of the first authorized for domestic use was the ShadowHawk in Montgomery County, Texas SWAT and emergency management offices.
Private citizens and media organizations use UAVs for surveillance, recreation, news-gathering, or personal land assessment. In February 2012, an animal rights group used a MikroKopter hexacopter to film hunters shooting pigeons in South Carolina. The hunters then shot the UAV down. In 2014, a UAV was used to successfully locate a man with dementia, who was missing for 3 days.
Hobby and recreational use
Model aircraft (small UAS) have been flown by hobbyists since the earliest days of manned flight. In the United States, hobby and recreational use of such UAS is permitted (a) strictly for hobby or recreational use; (b) when operated in accordance with a community-based set of safety guidelines and nationwide community-based organizations; (c) when limited to not more than 55 pounds (with exceptions); (d)without interfering with and giving way to any manned aircraft; and (e) within 5 miles of an airport only after notifying air traffic control. The Academy of Model Aeronautics is a community based organization that maintains operational safety guidelines with a long proven history of effectiveness and safety.
Recreational uses of UAVs include:
- Filming and photographing recreational activity
- Drone racing, generally in the form where participants control radio-controlled UAVs equipped with cameras, while wearing head-mounted displays showing the live stream camera feed from the drones.
- Being pulled by a UAV in combination with some sports equipment, such as a snowboard ("droneboarding"), or wakeboard ("drone surfing"). However, these activities generally require rather large (and hence rather expensive) UAVs.
Commercial aerial surveillance
Aerial surveillance of large areas is possible with low-cost UAS. Surveillance applications include livestock monitoring, wildfire mapping, pipeline security, home security, road patrol and antipiracy. UAVs in commercial aerial surveillance is expanding with the advent of automated object detection.
Professional aerial surveying
Commercial and motion picture filmmaking
For commercial UAV camerawork inside the United States, industry sources state that usage relies on the de facto consent – or benign neglect – of local law enforcement. Use of UAVs for filmmaking is generally easier on large private lots or in rural and exurban areas with fewer space constraints. In localities such as Los Angeles and New York, authorities have actively interceded to shut down UAV filmmaking over safety or terrorism concerns.
In June 2014, the FAA acknowledged that it had received a petition from the Motion Picture Association of America seeking approval for the use of UAVs for aerial photography. Seven companies behind the petition argued that low-cost UAVs could be used for shots that would otherwise require a helicopter or a manned aircraft, saving money and reducing risk for pilot and crew. UAVs are already used by media in other parts of the world.
Journalists are interested in using UAVs for newsgathering. The College of Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Nebraska-Lincoln established the Drone Journalism Lab. University of Missouri created the Missouri Drone Journalism Program. The Professional Society of Drone Journalists was established in 2011. UAVs have covered disasters such as typhoons. A coalition of 11 news organizations is working with the Mid-Atlantic Aviation Partnership at Virginia Tech on how reporters could use unmanned aircraft to gather news.
UAVs have been used for domestic police work in Canada and the United States. A dozen US police forces had applied for UAV permits by March 2013. In 2013, the Seattle Police Department's plan to deploy UAVs was scrapped after protests. UAVs have been used by U.S. Customs and Border Protection since 2005. with plans to use armed UAVs. The FBI stated in 2013 that they use UAVs for "surveillance".
In 2014, it was reported that five English police forces had obtained or operated UAVs for observation. Merseyside police caught a car thief with a UAV in 2010, but the UAV was lost during a subsequent training exercise and the police stated the UAV would not be replaced due to operational limitations and the cost of staff training.
Approximately 167 police and fire departments bought unmanned aerial vehicles in the United States in 2016, double the number that were purchased in 2015.
In August 2013, the Italian defence company Selex ES provided an unarmed surveillance UAV to the Democratic Republic of Congo to monitor movements of armed groups in the region and to protect the civilian population more effectively.
Dutch train networks use tiny UAVs to look out for graffiti as an alternative to CCTV cameras.
Search and rescue
UAVs were used in search and rescue after hurricanes struck Louisiana and Texas in 2008. Predators, operating between 18,000 and 29,000 feet, performed search and rescue and damage assessment. Payloads were an optical sensor and a synthetic aperture radar. The latter can penetrate clouds, rain or fog and in daytime or nighttime conditions, all in real time. Photos taken before and after the storm are compared and a computer highlights damage areas. Micro UAVs, such as the Aeryon Scout, have been used to perform search and rescue activities on a smaller scale, such as the search for missing persons.
In 2014, a UAV helped locate an 82-year-old man who had been missing for three days. The UAV searched a 200-acre field and located the man in 20 minutes.
UAVs are especially useful in accessing areas that are too dangerous for manned aircraft. The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration began using the Aerosonde unmanned aircraft system in 2006 as a hurricane hunter. The 35-pound system can fly into a hurricane and communicate near-real-time data directly to the National Hurricane Center. Beyond the standard barometric pressure and temperature data typically culled from manned hurricane hunters, the Aerosonde system provides measurements from closer to the water's surface than before. NASA later began using the Northrop Grumman RQ-4 Global Hawk for hurricane measurements.
In 2011, Lian Pin Koh and Serge Wich conceived the idea of using UAVs for conservation-related applications, before coining the term 'Conservation Drone' in 2012.
In June 2012, World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) announced it would begin using UAVs in Nepal to aid conservation efforts following a successful trial of two aircraft in Chitwan National Park. The global wildlife organization planned to train ten personnel to use the UAVs, with operational use beginning in the fall. In August 2012, UAVs were used by members of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society in Namibia to document the annual seal cull. In December 2013, the Falcon UAV was selected by the Namibian Government and WWF to help combat rhinoceros poaching. The UAVs will operate in Etosha National Park and will use implanted RFID tags.
In 2012, the WWFund supplied two FPV Raptor 1.6 UAVs to Nepal National Parks. These UAVs were used to monitor rhinos, tigers and elephants and deter poachers. The UAVs were equipped with time-lapse cameras and could fly for 18 miles at 650 feet.
In December 2012, Kruger National Park started using a Seeker II UAV against rhino poachers. The UAV was loaned to the South African National Parks authority by its manufacturer, Denel Dynamics of South Africa.
In 2012, the Ulster Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals used a quadcopter UAV to deter badger baiters in Northern Ireland. In March 2013, the British League Against Cruel Sports announced that they had carried out trial flights with UAVs and planned to use a fixed-wing OpenRanger and an "octocopter" to gather evidence to make private prosecutions against illegal hunting of foxes and other animals. The UAVs were supplied by ShadowView. A spokesman for Privacy International said that "licensing and permission for UAVs is only on the basis of health and safety, without considering whether privacy rights are violated." CAA rules prohibit flying a UAV within 50 m of a person or vehicle.
In March 2013, UAV conservation nonprofit ShadowView, founded by former members of Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, worked with antihunting charity the League Against Cruel Sports to expose illegal fox hunting in the UK. Hunt supporters have argued that using UAVs to film hunting is an invasion of privacy.
In 2014, Will Potter proposed using UAVs to monitor conditions on factory farms. The idea is to circumvent ag-gag prohibitions by keeping the UAVs on public property, but equipping them with cameras sensitive enough to monitor distant activities. Potter raised nearly $23,000 in 2 days for this project on Kickstarter.
Oil, gas and mineral exploration and production
UAVs can be used to perform geophysical surveys, in particular geomagnetic surveys where measurements of the Earth's varying magnetic field strength are used to calculate the nature of the underlying magnetic rock structure. A knowledge of the underlying rock structure helps to predict the location of mineral deposits. Oil and gas production entails the monitoring of the integrity of oil and gas pipelines and related installations. For above-ground pipelines, this monitoring activity can be performed using digital cameras mounted on UAVs.
UAVs can help in disaster relief by providing intelligence across an affected area.
For example, two George Mason University students are aiming to design a device that uses soundwaves to extinguish fire. Their idea specifies using the technology with UAVs: Equip unmanned aerial vehicles with an extinguisher that works through soundwaves and send them into fires that are too dangerous for people to enter.
In Peru, archaeologists used UAVs to speed up survey work and protect sites from squatters, builders and miners. Small UAVs helped researchers produce three-dimensional models of Peruvian sites instead of the usual flat maps – and in days and weeks instead of months and years.
"You can go up three metres and photograph a room, 300 metres and photograph a site, or you can go up 3,000 metres and photograph the entire valley."
UAVs have replaced expensive and clumsy small planes, kites and helium balloons. UAVs costing as little as £650 have proven useful. In 2013, UAVs flew over Peruvian archaeological sites, including the colonial Andean town Machu Llacta 4,000 m (13,000 ft) above sea level. The UAVs had altitude problems in the Andes, leading to plans to make a UAV blimp.
In Jordan, UAVs were used to discover evidence of looted archaeological sites.
On 6 February 2017 it was reported that scientists from the UK and Brazil discovered hundreds of ancient earthworks similar to those at Stonehenge in the Amazon rainforest with the use of UAVs.
Initial attempts at commercial use of UAVs, such as the Tacocopter company for food delivery, were blocked by FAA regulation. A 2013 announcement that Amazon was planning deliveries using UAVs was met with skepticism.
16 July 2015, A NASA Langley fixed-wing Cirrus SR22 aircraft, flown remotely from the ground, operated by NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton and a hexacopter UAV delivered pharmaceuticals and other medical supplies to an outdoor free clinic at the Wise County Fairgrounds, Virginia. The aircraft picked up 10 pounds of pharmaceuticals and supplies from an airport in Tazewell County in southwest Virginia and delivered the medicine to the Lonesome Pine Airport in Wise County. The aircraft had a pilot on board for safety. The supplies went to a crew, which separated the supplies into 24 smaller packages to be delivered by small, unmanned UAV to the free clinic, during multiple flights over two hours. A company pilot controlled the hexacopter, which lowered the pharmaceuticals to the ground by tether. Health care workers distributed the medications to appropriate patients.
The Uvionix Nksy aerial delivery service is planning to allow local shops to deliver goods from a UAV. The company wants to deliver fast food, beer, coffee, soda, electronics, prescriptions and personal care products.
Japanese farmers have been using Yamaha's R-50 and RMAX unmanned helicopters to dust their crops since 1987. Some farming initiatives in the U.S. use UAVs for crop spraying, as they are often cheaper than a full-sized helicopter.
UAV are also now becoming an invaluable tool by farmers in other aspect of farming, such as monitoring livestock, crops and water levels. NDVI images, generated with a near-IR sensor, can provide detailed information on crop health, improving yield and reducing input cost. Sophisticated UAV have also been used to create 3D images of the landscape to plan for future expansions and upgrading.
In construction, drones can be used to survey building sites for errors or defects in installing plumbing, electricity, and HVAC systems. In China, drones may fly over a building site to monitor progress made during the day, although this is currently not allowed under United States FAA regulation. Errors in construction can be costly in terms of money and time to resolve, so detecting these errors can result in large savings. Drones may also be used in construction to measure raw materials as inputs to building construction. Aerial photographs can be used to create a 3D model of buildings. Safety concerns may also be lessened since construction sites are closed spaces, with workers that wear hard hats.
Criminal and terrorist
Some UAVs have been observed dropping contraband onto U.S. prisons. The New York City Police Department is concerned about UAV attacks with chemical weapons, firearms, or explosives; one UAV nearly collided with an NYPD helicopter. Others have voiced concerns about assassinations and attacks on nuclear power stations.
Uses already seen include:
- Surveilliance for ISIS in Iraq and Syria
- Landing radioactive material on the roof of the Japanese Prime Minister's office possibly in protest of nuclear energy policy
- Incitement of a brawl when an UAV flew a flag over a soccer stadium
- Invasion of Israeli airspace by Hezbollah
The export of UAVs or technology capable of carrying a 500 kg payload at least 300 km is restricted in many countries by the Missile Technology Control Regime.
As of 2016 China had exhibited many UAV designs, and its ability to operate them was beyond other countries.
UAVs can threaten airspace security in numerous ways, including unintentional collisions or other interference with other aircraft, deliberate attacks or by distracting pilots or flight controllers.
UAVs could be loaded with dangerous payloads, and crashed into vulnerable targets. Payloads could include explosives, chemical, radiologial or biological hazards. UAVs with generally non-lethal payloads could possibly be hacked and put to malicious purposes. Anti-UAV systems are being developed by states to counter this threat. This is, however, proving difficult. As Dr J. Rogers stated in an interview to A&T "There is a big debate out there at the moment about what the best way is to counter these small UAVs, whether they are used by hobbyists causing a bit of a nuisance or in a more sinister manner by a terrorist actor.”
The interest in UAVs cyber security has been raised greatly after the Predator UAV video stream hijacking incident in 2009, where Islamic militants used cheap, off-the-shelf equipment to stream video feeds from a UAV. Another risk is the possibility of hijacking or jamming a UAV in flight. In recent years several security researchers have made public vulnerabilities for commercial UAVs, in some cases even providing full source code or tools to reproduce their attacks. At a workshop on UAVs and privacy in October 2016, researchers from the Federal Trade Commission showed they were able to hack into three different consumer quadcopters and noted that UAV manufacturers can make their UAVs more secure by the basic security measures of encrypting the Wi-Fi signal and adding password protection.
In the United States, flying close to a wildfire is punishable by a maximum $25,000 fine. Nonetheless, in 2014 and 2015, firefighting air support in California was hindered on several occasions, including at the Lake Fire and the North Fire. In response, California legislators introduced a bill that would allow firefighters to disable UAVs which invaded restricted airspace. The FAA later required registration of most UAVs.
Ethical concerns and UAV-related accidents have driven nations to regulate the use of UAVs.
In 2016 Transport Canada proposed the implementation of new regulations that would require all UAVs over 250 grams to be registered and insured and that operators would be required to be a minimum age and pass an exam in order to get a license. These regulations are expected to be introduced in 2017.
In April 2014, the South African Civil Aviation Authority announced that it would clamp down on the illegal flying of UAVs in South African airspace. "Hobby drones" with a weight of less than 7 kg at altitudes up to 500m with restricted visual line-of-sight below the height of the highest obstacle within 300m of the UAV are allowed. No license is required for such vehicles.
The ENAC (Ente Nazionale per l'Aviazione Civile), that is, the Italian Civil Aviation Authority for technical regulation, certification, supervision and control in the field of civil aviation, issued on May 31, 2016 a very detailed regulation for all UAV, determining which types of vehicles can be used, where, for which purposes, and who can control them. The regulation deals with the usage of UAV for either commercial and recreational use. Last version was published on December 22, 2016.
From 21 December 2015 all hobby type UAV's between 250 grams and 25 kilograms needed to be registered with FAA no later than 19 February 2016.
The new FAA UAV registration process includes requirements for:
- Eligible owners must register their UAV's prior to flight.
- If the owner is less than 13 years old, a parent or other responsible person must do the FAA registration.
- UAV's must be marked with the FAA-issued registration number.
- The registration fee is $5. The registration is good for 3 years and can be renewed for an additional 3 years at the $5 rate.
- A single registration applies to all UAVs owned by an individual. Failure to register can result in civil penalties of up to $27,500 and criminal penalties of up to $250,000 and/or imprisonment for up to three years.
On May 19, 2017, in the case Taylor v. Huerta, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit held that that the FAA's 2015 drone registration rules were in violation of the 2012 FAA Modernization and Reform Act. Under the court's holding, although commercial drone operators are required to register, recreational operators are not. On May 25, 2017, one week after the Taylor decision, Senator Diane Feinstein introduced S. 1272, the Drone Federalism Act of 2017, in Congress.
On 21 June 2016 the Federal Aviation Administration announced regulations for commercial operation of small UAS craft (sUAS), those between 0.55 and 55 pounds (about 250 gm to 25 kg) including payload. The rules, which exclude hobbyists, require the presence at all operations of a licensed Remote Pilot in Command. Certification of this position, available to any citizen at least 16 years of age, is obtained solely by passing a written test and then submitting an application. For those holding a sport pilot license or higher, and with a current flight review, a rule-specific exam can be taken at no charge online at the faasafety.gov website. Other applicants must take a more comprehensive examination at an aeronautical testing center. All licensees are required to take a review course every two years. At this time no ratings for heavier UAS are available.
Commercial operation is restricted to daylight, line-of-sight, under 100 mph, under 400 feet, and Class G airspace only, and may not fly over people or be operated from a moving vehicle. Some organizations have obtained a waiver or Certificate of Authorization that allows them to exceed these rules. For example, CNN has obtained a waiver for UAVs modified for injury prevention to fly over people, and other waivers allow night flying with special lighting, or non-line-of-sight operations for agriculture or railroad track inspection.
Previous to this announcement, any commercial use required a full pilot's license and an FAA waiver, of which hundreds had been granted.
The use of UAVs for law-enforcement purposes is regulated at a state level.
|This section needs additional or better citations for verification. (September 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
- Toys (1992) depicts unwitting child soldiers in training to fly UAVs.
- A UCAV AI, called EDI, was central to the sci-fi action film Stealth (2005).
- UAVs feature in video games, such as Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon (2001–), Battlefield (2002–), Call of Duty (2003–), F.E.A.R. (2005) and inFamous (2009).
- An MQ-9 reaper controlled by a rogue supercomputer appears in the film Eagle Eye (2008).
- The hapless would-be terrorists in the film Four Lions (2010) are targeted by and attempt to shoot down an RQ-1 Predator.
- The Bourne Legacy (2012 film) features a Predator UAV pursuing the protagonists.
- An episode of the TV show Castle, first broadcast in May 2013, featured a UAV hacked by terrorists.
- The British movie Hummingbird (2013) ends with ambiguity as to whether the main protagonist is taken down by a drone or not.
- Ennui Ennui (2013), a short film by Portuguese director Gabriel Abrantes, features a self-aware baby-drone sent by Barack Obama in Afghanistan to find and kill a future local warlord.
- 24: Live Another Day, the ninth season of "24", revolves around the usage of UAVs (resembling the BAE Systems Taranis) by terrorists who have created a device to override control from a military base.
- The film Good Kill features the life of an USAF drone pilot.
- The 2008 Ridley Scott film Body of Lies prominently features CIA-operated drones used to surveil the main protagonist as he operates in Iraq, Jordan and Syria.
- The 2016 Miles A. Maxwell short story DRONE in the State Of Reason Mystery series features terrorist drones purchased at local department stores used to take down a jet in a future United States Presidential election.
- On Transformers: Prime, Soundwave's altmode is that of a Predator B drone.
- Leslie Wolfe's first novel from Alex Hoffmann series, Executive (2011) is an in depth look into drones manufacturing.
- The Ghost Pattern (2015) by Leslie Wolfe features also UAVs assisting in military operations.
- In Stargate SG-1, UAVs were often used by Stargate Command
- In an episode of Top Gear, Jeremy Clarkson used a drone in the studio to show off as his Christmas present and did a chase with a crashing car using the drone to record.
"UAE Drones for Good" award
In 2014, the United Arab Emirates announced an annual international competition and $1 million award, UAE Drones for Good, aiming to encourage useful and positive applications for UAV technology in applications such as in search and rescue, civil defence and conservation. The 2015 award was won by Swiss company for their Gimball search and rescue drone, while the 2016 edition awarded Loon Copter's sea-hybrid UAV.
- "ICAO's circular 328 AN/190 : Unmanned Aircraft Systems" (PDF). ICAO. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Tice, Brian P. (Spring 1991). "Unmanned Aerial Vehicles – The Force Multiplier of the 1990s". Airpower Journal. Archived from the original on 24 July 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
When used, UAVs should generally perform missions characterized by the three Ds: dull, dirty, and dangerous.
- Franke, Ulrike Esther (26 January 2015). "Civilian Drones: Fixing an Image Problem?". ISN Blog. International Relations and Security Network. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- Kennedy, Caroline; Rogers, James I. (2015-02-17). "Virtuous drones?". The International Journal of Human Rights. 19 (2): 211–227. ISSN 1364-2987. doi:10.1080/13642987.2014.991217.
- "Drones smuggling porn, drugs to inmates around the world". 17 April 2017.
- Corcoran, Mark (28 February 2013). "Drone wars: The definition dogfight". ABCNews.net.au.
- Unmanned Aircraft Systems Roadmap. Archived 2 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- "European ATM Master Plan 2015 | SESAR". www.sesarju.eu. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- "State government gears up for autonomous RPAS mapping". 23 January 2017.
- "unmanned aerial vehicle". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Factors to Consider". Live for Exploration. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "What is the difference between a drone and an RC plane or helicopter?". Drones Etc. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
- The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social, and Military History: A Political, Social, and Military History, ABC-CLIO, 12 May 2008, by Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts, page 1054-55 ISBN
- "Remote Piloted Aerial Vehicles: An Anthology". Centre for Telecommunications and Information Engineering, Monash University. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- Says, Robert Kanyike. "History of U.S. Drones". Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- Taylor, A. J. P. Jane's Book of Remotely Piloted Vehicles.
- Dempsey, Martin E. (9 April 2010). "Eyes of the Army—U.S. Army Roadmap for Unmanned Aircraft Systems 2010–2035" (PDF). U.S. Army. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
- Wagner 1982, p. xi.
- Wagner 1982, p. xi, xii.
- Wagner 1982, p. xii.
- Wagner 1982, p. 79.
- Wagner 1982, p. 78, 79.
- Dunstan, Simon (2013). Israeli Fortifications of the October War 1973. Osprey Publishing. p. 16. ISBN 9781782004318. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
The War of Attrition was also notable for the first use of UAVs, or unmanned aerial vehicles, carrying reconnaissance cameras in combat.
- Saxena, V. K. (2013). The Amazing Growth and Journey of UAV's and Ballastic Missile Defence Capabilities: Where the Technology is Leading to?. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. p. 6. ISBN 9789382573807. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
During the Yom Kippur War the Israelis used Teledyne Ryan 124 R RPVs along with the home-grown Scout and Mastif UAVs for reconnaissance, surveillance and as decoys to draw fire from Arab SAMs. This resulted in Arab forces expending costly and scarce missiles on inappropriate targets [...].
- Wagner 1982, p. 202.
- Wagner 1982, p. 200, 212.
- Wagner 1982, p. 208.
- "A Brief History of UAVs". Howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Russia Buys A Bunch Of Israeli UAVs". Strategypage.com. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Azoulai, Yuval (24 October 2011). "Unmanned combat vehicles shaping future warfare". Globes. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Levinson, Charles (13 January 2010). "Israeli Robots Remake Battlefield". The Wall Street Journal. p. A10. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
- Gal-Or, Benjamin (1990). Vectored Propulsion, Supermaneuverability & Robot Aircraft. Springer Verlag. ISBN 3-540-97161-0.
- Z. Goraj; A. Frydrychewicz; R. Świtkiewicz; B. Hernik; J. Gadomski; T. Goetzendorf-Grabowski; M. Figat; St Suchodolski; W. Chajec. report (PDF). Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Technical Sciences, Volume 52. Number 3, 2004. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
- Community Research and Development Information Service. Civil uav application and economic effectiveness of potential configuration solutions. published by the Publications Office of the European Union. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
- Ackerman, Spencer; Shachtman, Noah (9 January 2012). "Almost 1 In 3 U.S. Warplanes Is a Robot". WIRED. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Singer, Peter W. "A Revolution Once More: Unmanned Systems and the Middle East", The Brookings Institution, November 2009.
- Radsan, AJ; Murphy (2011). "Measure Twice, Shoot Once: Higher Care for Cia-Targeted Killing". Univ. Ill. Law Rev.:1201–1241.
- Horgen, John (March 2013) Unmanned Flight National Geographic, Retrieved 20 February 2013
- Sayler, Kelley (June 2015). "A world of proliferated drones : a technology primer" (PDF). Center for a New American Security.
- Dronewallah. "Knowledge Base: What are RTF, BNF and ARF drone kits?". rcDroneArena. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Floreano, Dario; Wood, Robert J. (27 May 2015). "Science, technology and the future of small autonomous drones". Nature. 521 (7553): 460–466. PMID 26017445. doi:10.1038/nature14542. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
- Fasano, Giancarmine; Accardo, Domenico; Tirri, Anna Elena; Moccia, Antonio; De Lellis, Ettore (1 October 2015). "Radar/electro-optical data fusion for non-cooperative UAS sense and avoid". Aerospace Science and Technology. 46: 436–450. doi:10.1016/j.ast.2015.08.010.
- "Arduino Playground – WhatIsDegreesOfFreedom6DOF9DOF10DOF11DOF". playground.arduino.cc. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- Bristeau, Callou, Vissière, Petit (2011). "The Navigation and Control technology inside the AR.Drone micro UAV" (PDF). IFAC World Congress.
- "Teaching tiny drones how to fly themselves". Ars Technica. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- "Biomimetics and Dextrous Manipulation Lab – MultiModalRobots". bdml.stanford.edu. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
- D'Andrea, Raffaello. "The astounding athletic power of quadcopters". www.ted.com. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- Yanguo, Song; Huanjin, Wang (1 June 2009). "Design of Flight Control System for a Small Unmanned Tilt Rotor Aircraft". Chinese Journal of Aeronautics. 22 (3): 250–256. doi:10.1016/S1000-9361(08)60095-3.
- "The device, designed for landing UAV helicopter type on a flat vertical surface". patents.google.com.
- "Researchers Pilot a Drone Using an Apple Watch". NBC News. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- "Watch This Man Control a Flying Drone With His Brain". www.yahoo.com. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Barnard, Joseph (2007). "Small UAV Command, Control and Communication Issues" (PDF). Barnard Microsystems.
- "The Cheap Drone Camera That Transmits to Your Phone". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Brandi, Alexander G. "UAV control over mobile networks". Technical University of Denmark. Department of Photonics Engineering, DTU. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- "Identifying Critical Manned-Unmanned Teaming Skills for Unmanned Aircraft System Operators" (PDF). U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. September 2012.
- Roberge, V.; Tarbouchi, M.; Labonte, G. (1 February 2013). "Comparison of Parallel Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization for Real-Time UAV Path Planning". IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics. 9 (1): 132–141. ISSN 1551-3203. doi:10.1109/TII.2012.2198665.
- Tisdale, J.; Kim, ZuWhan; Hedrick, J.K. (1 June 2009). "Autonomous UAV path planning and estimation". IEEE Robotics Automation Magazine. 16 (2): 35–42. ISSN 1070-9932. doi:10.1109/MRA.2009.932529.
- Cekmez, Ozsiginan, Aydin And Sahingoz (2014). "UAV Path Planning with Parallel Genetic Algorithms on CUDA Architecture" (PDF). World congress on engineering.
- Davenport, Christian (23 April 2015). "Watch a step in Navy history: an autonomous drone gets refueled mid-air". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Clough, Bruce (August 2002). "Metrics, Schmetrics! How The Heck Do You Determine A UAV's Autonomy Anyway?" (PDF). US Air Force Research Laboratory.
- Serres, Julien R.; Masson, Guillaume P.; Ruffier, Franck; Franceschini, Nicolas. "A bee in the corridor: centering and wall-following". Naturwissenschaften. 95 (12): 1181–1187. PMID 18813898. doi:10.1007/s00114-008-0440-6.
- Roca, Martínez-Sánchez, Lagüela, and Arias (2016). "Novel Aerial 3D Mapping System Based on UAV Platforms and 2D Laser Scanners". Hindawi.
- "ETH Zurich: Drones with a Sense of Direction". Ascending Technologies GmbH. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Shaojie Shen (16 November 2010), Autonomous Aerial Navigation in Confined Indoor Environments, retrieved 3 February 2016
- "SWEEPER Demonstrates Wide-Angle Optical Phased Array Technology". www.darpa.mil. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- "LIDAR: LIDAR nears ubiquity as miniature systems proliferate". www.laserfocusworld.com. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Quack, Ferrara, Gambini, Han, Keraly, Qiao, Rao, Sandborn, Zhu, Chuang, Yablonovitch, Boser, Chang-Hasnain, C. Wu (2015). "Development of an FMCW LADAR Source Chip using MEMS-Electronic-Photonic Heterogeneous Integration". University of California, Berkeley.
- "DARPA's Plan to Overwhelm Enemies With Swarming Drones – Drone 360". Drone 360. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- NewWorldofWeapons (17 January 2014), US Air force STEALTH UAV armed with LASER GUN named General Atomics Avenger, retrieved 3 February 2016
- Young (December 2012). "Unified Multi-domain Decision Making: Cognitive Radio and Autonomous Vehicle Convergence" (PDF). Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
- "The numbers behind the worldwide trade in UAVs". 16 March 2015.
- "The Consumer Drone Market: Trend Analysis". Emberify Blog. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- "Consumer Drones By the Numbers in 2017 and Beyond". News Ledge. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
- "Skylark Drones set to raise its first round of funding to boost expansion". 14 September 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
- Peterson, Andrea (19 August 2013). "States are competing to be the Silicon Valley of drones". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- "Drone Training Courses — The Complete List". Drone Business Marketer. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- Chirarattananon, Pakpong; Ma, Kevin Y; Wood, J (22 May 2014), "Adaptive control of a millimeter-scale flapping-wing robot" (PDF), Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, IOP Publishing, 9: 025004, doi:10.1088/1748-3182/9/2/025004
- Sarah Knapton (29 March 2016). "Giant remote-controlled beetles and 'biobot' insects could replace drones". The Telegraph.
- "yeair! The quadcopter of the future. From 1399 €.". Kickstarter. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- "Flying on Hydrogen: Georgia Tech Researchers Use Fuel Cells to Power Unmanned Aerial Vehicle | Georgia Tech Research Institute". www.gtri.gatech.edu. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- "Hydrogen-powered Hycopter quadcopter could fly for 4 hours at a time". www.gizmag.com. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- /;Vertical Challenge: "Monsters of the sky"/;. Archived 11 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- "General Atomics Gnat". Designation-systems.net. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "UAV Notes". Archived 30 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Trans atlantic Model". Tam.plannet21.com. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "QinetiQ's Zephyr UAV exceeds official world record for longest duration unmanned flight". QinetiQ. 10 September 2007. Archived from the original on 23 April 2011.
- "New Scientist Technology Blog: Solar plane en route to everlasting flight – New Scientist". Newscientist.com. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Northrop Grumman's Global Hawk Unmanned Aircraft Sets 33-Hour Flight Endurance Record". Spacewar.com. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
- "QinetiQ's Zephyr UAV flies for three and a half days to set unofficial world record for longest duration unmanned flight". QinetiQ. 24 August 2008. Archived from the original on 24 May 2011.
- "QinetiQ files for three world records for its Zephyr Solar powered UAV". QinetiQ. 24 August 2010. Archived from the original on 24 September 2010.
- Boniol (December 2014). "Towards Modular and Certified Avionics for UAV" (PDF). Aerospacelab Journal.
- D. Boskovic and Knoebel (2009). "A Comparison Study of Several Adaptive Control Strategies for Resilient Flight Control" (PDF). AIAA Guidance, Navigation andControl Conference.
- Atkins. "Certifiable Autonomous Flight Management for Unmanned Aircraft Systems". University of Michigan.
- Pradhan, Otte, Dubey, Gokhale and Karsai (2013). "Key Considerations for a Resilient and Autonomous Deployment and Configuration Infrastructure for Cyber-Physical Systems" (PDF). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Vanderbilt University, Nashville.
- "EasyJet tests UAV with A320 inspection". Flightglobal.com. 5 June 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
- "Airbus demonstrates aircraft inspection by drone at Farnborough". airbus. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
- echoer (12 September 2016). "Rapid Advances in MRO Technology". KapcoGlobal. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
- "NASA testing helicopter drone to accompany next Mars rover - ExtremeTech". 13 June 2016.
- "Pentagon Plans for Cuts to Drone Budgets". DoD Buzz. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Five Reasons Why Drones Are Here to Stay". Bloomberg. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- "Туполев Ту-141 Стриж". Airwar.ru. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- "Туполев Ту-123 Ястреб". Airwar.ru. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- "Лавочкин Ла-17Р". Airwar.ru. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- "Самолеты-снаряды СССР » Военное обозрение". Topwar.ru. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- "Беспилотные аппараты". Airwar.ru. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- Cenciotti, David (6 December 2013). "U.S. Navy successfully launched a surveillance drone from a submerged submarine". The Aviationist. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- Sauer, Frank; Schoernig Niklas (2012). "Killer drones: The 'silver bullet' of democratic warfare?". Security Dialogue. 43 (4): 363–380. doi:10.1177/0967010612450207. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
- "Shrapnel Points to Drone in Pakistan Attack". Fox News. 5 December 2005. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Predator Kills Important al-Qaeda Leader in Pakistan". Defense Industry Daily. 19 May 2005. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "CIA drone said to kill al-Qaida operative | US news | Security | NBC News". msnbc.com. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- FIROUZ SEDARAT (31 January 2008). "Al-Qaeda chieftain killed". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 February 2008. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- Stewart, Joshua (2 August 2014). "Modified UAVs raise concerns for infantry". www.marinecorpstimes.com. Gannett Government Media. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- Sweetman, Bill (2 April 2015). "Lasers Technology Targets Mini-UAVs". Aviation Week & Space Technology. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
- "US Air Force successfully flies unmanned F-16, says robotic planes will only be used as 'target practice'". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 26 September 2013. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013.
- Lavars, Nick. "Imaging drones to spot signs of explosive chemicals leaking from landmines". New Atlas. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
- Vincent, James. "This drone can detect and detonate land mines". The Verge. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
- Liberatore, Stacy. "Land mine-hunting drone aims to rid the world of EVERY ground explosive in under 10 years". Dailymail. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
- Myers, Joe. "This drone could help remove all landmines around the world in 10 years". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
- "Mine Kafon Drone on Kickstarter". Retrieved 20 December 2016.
- Fung, Brian (16 August 2013). "Why drone makers have declared war on the word ‘drone’". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 17 August 2013.
- Peterson, Andrea (19 August 2013). "States are competing to be the Silicon Valley of drones". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 22 August 2013.
- Abdessameud, Abdelkader andAbdelhamid Tayebi. 2013. Motion Coordination for VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Attitude Synchronisation and Formation Control. Description of printed book by Springer Science+Business Media.
- Raptopoulos, Andreas (June 2013). "No roads? There's a drone for that". TED (conference). Archived from the original on 21 November 2013. (Click "Show transcript".)
- Lallanilla, Marc (23 March 2013). "9 Totally Cool Uses for Drones". LiveScience. TechMedia Network. Viewed 4 March 2014.
- Saska, M.; Kasl, Z.; Preucil, L. Motion Planning and Control of Formations of Micro Aerial Vehicles. In Proceedings of The 19th World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control. 2014.
- Saska, M.; Vonasek, V.; Krajnik, T.; Preucil, L. Coordination and Navigation of Heterogeneous UAVs-UGVs Teams Localized by a Hawk-Eye Approach. In Proceedings of 2012 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems. 2012.
- Wall, Tyler, Monahan, Torin (2011). "Surveillance and Violence from Afar: The Politics of Drones and Liminal Security-Scapes" (pdf). Theoretical Criminology. 15 (3): 239–254. doi:10.1177/1362480610396650.
- Saska, M.; Vonasek, V.; Krajnik, T.; Preucil, L. "Coordination and Navigation of Heterogeneous MAV–UGV Formations Localized by a 'hawk-eye'-like Approach Under a Model Predictive Control Scheme". International Journal of Robotics Research. 33 (10): 1393–1412. doi:10.1177/0278364914530482.
- Saska, M.; Chudoba, J.; Preucil, L.; Thomas, J.; Loianno, G.; Tresnak, A.; Vonasek, V.; Kumar, V. Autonomous Deployment of Swarms of Micro-Aerial Vehicles in Cooperative Surveillance. In Proceedings of 2014 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS). 2014.
- Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora, Lohne, Kjersti (2014). "The Rise of the Humanitarian Drone: Giving Content to an Emerging Concept". Millennium. 43: 145–164. doi:10.1177/0305829814529470.
- Saska, M.; Langr J.; L. Preucil. Plume Tracking by a Self-stabilized Group of Micro Aerial Vehicles. In Modelling and Simulation for Autonomous Systems. 2014.
- McFarland, Matt (17 September 2014). "In Switzerland, police find a use for drones". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 20 September 2014.
- "The Eye in the Sky: How Drones are Transforming the Construction Industry – Carey London Limited". Carey London Limited. 10 May 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- "Two plead guilty in border drug smuggling by drone". 12 August 2015 – via LA Times.
- Pasztor, Andy; Emshwiller, John (21 April 2012). "Drone Use Takes Off on the Home Front". The Wall Street Journal.
- Campoy, Ana (13 December 2011). "The Law's New Eye in the Sky". The Wall Street Journal.
- Noel Sharkey & Sarah Knuckey (22 December 2011). "OWS Fights Back Against Police Surveillance by Launching "Occucopter" Citizen Drone". Occupy Wall Street. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
Tim Pool, an Occupy Wall Street protester, has acquired a Parrot AR.Drone he amusingly calls the "occucopter"
- Keneally, Meghan (20 February 2012) Hunters take aim at an animal rights group's video drone The Daily Mail, retrieved 5 February 2013
- "Drone Finds Missing Man". Drones Den.
- "FAA MODERNIZATION AND REFORM ACT OF 2012" (PDF).
- "Academy of Model Aeronautics National Model Aircraft Safety Code" (PDF). Academy of Model Aeronautics. 1 January 2014.
- Jacob Kastrenakes (3 February 2016). "Droneboarding is 2016's best new sport". The Verge. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
- Aliya Barnwell (12 February 2016). "Watch This Drone Pull A Full Grown Man And Witness The Humble Beginnings Of Droneboarding". Digital Trends. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
- Trevor Mogg (15 September 2016). "‘Drone Surfing’ Is Exactly What You Think It Is". Digital Trends. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
- Gaszczak, A; T.P. Breckon; J.W. Han (January 2011). "Robot journal article". Proc. SPIE Conference Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision XXVIII: Algorithms and Techniques. 7878 (78780B). doi:10.1117/12.876663.
- Ungerleider, Neal (31 January 2013). "See What You Can Do With Drone Filmmaking". UAV Drones. USA: fastcocreate.
- Ungerleider, Neal (15 February 2012). "Unmanned Drones Go From Afghanistan To Hollywood". UAV Drones. USA: fastcompany.com.
- Lavrinc, Damon (17 May 2012). "Forget the Helicopter: New Drone Cuts Cost of Aerial Video". Wired (website). New York: Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 6 April 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
- Dorr, Les. "Press Release – FAA to Consider Exemptions for Commercial UAS Movie and TV Production". Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
- Feltman, Rachel. "The Future of Sports Photography: Drones". The Atlantic. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "Drone Journalism Lab". dronejournalismlab.org.
- "The Missouri Drone Journalism Program". The Missouri Drone Journalism Program.
- "Professional Society of Drone Journalists (PSDJ)". Home of the Professional Society of Drone Journalists (PSDJ). 24 March 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- Kaufman, Leslie (24 December 2013). "Drones Offer Journalists a Wider View". New York Times. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- "Researchers to begin work with news organizations in an effort to advance aerial journalism". Virginia Tech News. 5 February 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- A Selvaraj (25 February 2014). "In a first, Tamil Nadu police use UAV in murder probe". Times of India. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015.
- "Gujarat Police to use UAV for security during `Run for Unity` marathon". Zee News. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- PTI (20 April 2011). "Chandigarh police get UAV". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "2012: Privacy Highlights in India". Cis-india.org. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Lundin, Leigh (3 February 2013). "Eye in the Sky". UAV Drones. Orlando: SleuthSayers.
- Lundin, Leigh (10 February 2013). "Spy in the Sky". UAV Drones. Orlando: SleuthSayers.
- Tim Phillips, "Manufacturers Market Drones Before the Law Specifies How They Can Be Used", Activist Defense, 16 February 2013.
- Amie Stepanovich. "Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Drones". Electronic Privacy Information Center. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
- Philip Bump. "The Border Patrol Wants to Arm Drones". The Wire. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Kravets, David (19 June 2013). "FBI Admits It Surveils U.S. With Drones". Wired. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
FBI Director Robert Mueller said today the bureau was surveiling the United States with drones. The revelation was during an FBI oversight hearing before the Senate Judiciary Committee and comes as the bureau, along with the National Security Agency, are on the defensive about revelations that they are obtaining metadata on Americans’ phone records and Americans’ private data from companies like Google, Facebook, Microsoft andothers. The FBI is not alone in monitoring the U.S. with drones.
- (22 October 2014) UK drones: Concern over increase in use BBC News UK, Retrieved 22 October 2014
- "Police drone crashes into River Mersey". BBC News. 31 October 2011.
- Glaser, April (2017-04-06). "Police departments are using drones to find and chase down suspects". Recode. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
- Michelle Nichols (1 August 2013). "Italian firm to provide surveillance drone for U.N. in Congo". Reuters.
-  Archived 15 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- "2008 Search and Rescue Missions". Just Aero Works, Inc. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- Craig Pearson (12 January 2012). "Police use drone helicopter in search".
- "7 ways drones could help first responders save more lives". FireRescue1. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
- McFarland, Matt (30 January 2014). "One day a drone might throw you a life preserver". The Washington Post and Fast Company. Archived from the original on 31 January 2014.
- Lara, Julio (18 March 2015). "Drones Might Save Lives in Chilean Beaches". Drones' Republic.
- "The Story of ConservationDrones.org". conservationdrones.org. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- "Ex-soldier takes on poachers with hi-tech help for wildlife". Herald Sun. (subscription required)
- "Drones to protect Nepal's endangered species from poachers". BBC News. 20 June 2012.
- Press Trust of India (21 June 2012). "Nepal to train rangers to handle drone aircraft to save rhinos". Business-standard.com. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Sea Shepherd Aerial drone to monitor seal slaughter". 31 August 2012.
- "An Eye in the Sky for Boots on the Ground". Worldwildlife.org. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Fran. "Google-funded surveillance drones keeping watch over Namibia's rhinos". Your African Safari. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- FPV RAPTOR 1.6 – KIT Archived 28 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- "New Technology to Fight Wildlife Crime" (12 September 2012). World Wildlife Fund Stories. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- Richardson, Nigel (27 July 2013) "Joining forces to save the Bengal tiger" The Telegraph, Retrieved 27 July 2013
- Sclesinger, Fay (16 March 2013) "Animal activists to use drones in fight against illegal hunting" The Times, Page 17'; subscription required
- Conway-Smith, Erin (11 January 2013) South Africa sics drones on rhino poachers Global Post, Retrieved 19 March 2013
- Franklin, Jonathan (1 January 2012) Whaling: campaigners use drones in the fight against Japanese Whalers The Guardian, Retrieved 8 April 2013
- (13 March 2012) USPCA drones join fight against badger cruelty BBC News Northern Ireland, Retrieved 19 March 2013
- Reed, Jim (29 August 2012). "The skies open up for large civilian drones". BBC News Technology. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- Atherton, Kelsey D. (26 September 2013). "Activist Drone Catches Pigeon Shooters". Popular Science. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
- Chang, David (20 November 2012). "Flying Camera From Animal Rights Group Shot Down at Pigeon Shoot". NBC 10 Philadelphia. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
- "Animal activists to use drones in fight against illegal hunting". 16 March 2013.
- "Animal welfare charity is to use DRONES to spy on people illegally hunting". Daily Mail. London. 17 March 2013.
- Zara, Christopher (12 June 2014). "Fighting Ag-Gag Laws With Drones? Journalist Eyes The Skies For Factory-Farm Investigations". International Business Times. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
- Chwaleba, Augustyn; Olejnik, Aleksander; Rapacki, Tomasz; Tuśnio, Norbert (2014). "Analysis of capability of air pollution monitoring from an unmanned aircraft". Aviation (published 3 April 2014). 18 (1): 13–19. doi:10.3846/16487788.2014.865936. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- Anderson, Chris (25 August 2013). "Archeologists use drones to protect and explore ancient Peruvian ruins". DIY Drones. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- "Our UAV". Universal Wing. 28 July 2005. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
- (14 June 2012) Chavez unveils surveillance drone BBC News Latin America & Caribbean, Retrieved 8 April 2013
- (14 June 2012) Chavez shows off first Venezuelan drone Dawn.com, Retrieved 6 April 2013
- "Smart software uses drones to plot disaster relief". Newscientist.com. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Madrigal, Alexis C. (28 April 2011) Inside the Drone Missions to Fukushima The Atlantic, Retrieved 1 April 2013
- Takateru, Doi (17 August 2011) Defense Ministry plans its version of Global Hawk aircraft The Asahi Shimbun, Retrieved 1 April 2013
- Reuters in Lima. "Peru's archaeologists turn to drones to help protect and explore ancient ruins | World news". theguardian.com. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
- "Drones: Archaeology's Newest Tool to Combat Looting". news.nationalgeographic.com. 13 April 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
- Hudson, Hal (24 September 2014). "Air-chaeological drones search for ancient treasures" (2988). New Scientist. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "Drone-assisted archeology". euronews. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
- "Hundreds of ancient earthworks resembling Stonehenge found in Amazon rainforest". The Telegraph. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- "‘Amazon Stonehenge’ discovered by scientists". Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- Fuest, Benedikt (9 December 2013). "DHL testet erstmals Paketlieferung per Drohne". Die Welt.
- Elliot, Danielle (9 December 2013). "DHL testing delivery drones". CBS News.
- Gilbert, Jason (20 August 2012). "Tacocopter Aims To Deliver Tacos Using Unmanned Drone Helicopters". The Huffington Post.
- Robillard, Kevin; Byers, Alex (2 December 2013). "Amazon drones: Obstacles to the Bezos dream". Politico. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013.
- Kerr, Simon (11 February 2014) UAE to develop fleet of drones to deliver public services, The Financial Times, World News, Retrieved 12 February 2014
- Sleiman, Mirna (10 February 2014) Aerial ID card renewal: UAE to use drones for government services Reuters, Retrieved 12 February 2014
- Alexis C. Madrigal (28 August 2014). "Inside Google's Secret Drone-Delivery Program". The Atlantic. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "NASA Assists in FAA-Approved Drone Medical Supply Delivery Research". Retrieved 17 July 2015.
- Attkisson, Anna (4 May 2016). "Uvionix Nsky wants to bring drone delivery service". Yahoo. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
- Ross, Philip E. (27 February 2014) Chris Anderson's Expanding Drone Empire IEEE Spectrum, Retrieved 8 March 2014
- (2014) Yamaha RMAX Type IG/Type II unmanned helicopter Yamaha Company website, Retrieved 8 March 2014
- "Best Farming Drones – UAV for Agriculture". Small Drone Reviews. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Drones—what are they good for?". The Economist. Retrieved 2017-06-21.
- Press, Associated (7 January 2016). "First passenger drone makes its debut at CES" – via The Guardian.
- "Drone Light Shows Powered by Intel". Intel. Retrieved 2017-02-08.
- Bryna Godar (24 January 2016). "Legislators seek $5,000 fine for flying drones over prisons". Associated Press. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- "NYPD scanning the sky for new terrorism threat". CBS News. 29 October 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- Matthew Weaver (11 January 2016). "UK should prepare for use of drones in terrorist attacks, says thinktank". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- Associated Press (22 April 2015). "Drone 'containing radiation' lands on roof of Japanese PM's office". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- Nick Ames; Sasa Ibrulj (14 October 2014). "Serbia v Albania abandoned after players and fans brawl on pitch". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- Associated Press (25 April 2013). "Netanyahu's helicopter forced to land as Israeli forces shoot down drone". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- Franke, Ulrike Esther ["The global diffusion of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or 'drones'"], in Mike Aaronson (ed) Precision Strike Warfare and International Intervention, Routledge 2015.
- Axe, David. "US Drones Trump China Theatrics" The Diplomat, 7 February 2011.
- "Anti-drone technology to be test flown on UK base amid terror fears". 2017-03-06. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
- CNN, By Mike Mount and Elaine Quijano,. "Iraqi insurgents hacked Predator drone feeds, U.S. official indicates - CNN.com". Retrieved 6 December 2016.
- Walters, Sander (29 October 2016). "How Can Drones Be Hacked? The updated list of vulnerable drones & attack tools". Medium. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
- Glaser, April (4 January 2017). "The U.S. government showed just how easy it is to hack drones made by Parrot, DBPower and Cheerson". Recode. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
- "In The Heat Of The Moment, Drones Are Getting In The Way Of Firefighters".
- CNN, Michael Martinez, Paul Vercammen and Ben Brumfield. "Drones visit California wildfire, angering firefighters".
- Medina, Jennifer (19 July 2015). "Chasing Video With Drones, Hobbyists Imperil California Firefighting Efforts" – via NYTimes.com.
- Rocha, Veronica (21 July 2015). "Attack on the drones: Legislation could allow California firefighters to take them down" – via LA Times.
- "Drones That Launch Flaming Balls Are Being Tested To Help Fight Wildfires".
- Ó Fátharta, Conall (18 December 2015). "1kg drones must be registered under new laws". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- McGreevy, Ronan (17 December 2015). "No more flying your drone over military bases from Monday". The Irish Times. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Watch out, drones: This bald eagle can take you down". CBSN. 24 May 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
- "Drone-hunting eagles can snatch devices out of the sky". CBSN. 8 February 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
- "Rigorous rules proposed for recreational drone flyers, documents show – Ottawa – CBC News". Cbc.ca. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
- "CAA to hit illegal drone flyers with hefty fines". News24. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
- "New Regulations a Win for Hobby Drone Pilots". Safedrone. 1 July 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
- "Regolamento Mezzi Aerei a Pilotaggio Remoto". Italian Civil Aviation Authority. 22 December 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
- Williams, Thomas E. (17 December 2015). "That Drone in Your Holiday Stocking Must Now Be Registered With FAA". Neal, Gerber & Eisenberg LLP. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Ritt, Steven L. (15 December 2015). "Drones: Recreational/Hobby Owners Web-based Registration Process". The National Law Review. Michael Best & Friedrich LLP. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Smith, Brian D; Schenendorf, Jack L; Kiehl, Stephen (16 December 2015). "Looking Forward After the FAA's Drone Registration Regulation". Covington & Burling LLP. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Williams, Thomas E. (17 December 2015). "That Drone in Your Holiday Stocking Must Now Be Registered With FAA". The National Law Review. Neal, Gerber & Eisenberg LLP. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Taylor v. Huerta, no. 15-1495 (D.C. Cir. May 19, 2017)
- Glaser, April (May 19, 2017). "Americans no longer have to register non-commercial drones with the FAA". Recode. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
- S. 1272, A bill to preserve State, local, and tribal authorities and private property rights with respect to unmanned aircraft systems, and for other purposes.
- "Fact Sheet – Small Unmanned Aircraft Regulations (Part 107)".
- "Fly for Work/Business". Retrieved 5 September 2016.
- "FAA: Certificate of Authorization or Waiver (COA)".
- Alan Levin. "Thousands sign up for FAA's drone pilot test". Bloomberg News.
- US Navy UAVs in Action, Neubeck, (Squadron/Signal Publications 2010)
- "Happiness is a warm TV – What to Watch on Monday: A drone strike on 'Castle' – newsobserver.com blogs". Blogs.newsobserver.com. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Foundation, Dubai Museum of the Future. "US$ 2 Million 'UAE Drones for Good Award' and 'UAE AI & Robotics Award for Good' Declare Winners". www.prnewswire.com. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Unmanned aerial vehicles.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Drones|
Research and groups
- Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems, a National Science Foundation Industry & University Cooperative Research Center
- UVS International Non Profit Organization representing manufacturers of unmanned vehicle systems (UVS), subsystems and critical components for UVS and associated equipment, as well as companies supplying services with or for UVS, research organizations and academia.
- The Remote Control Aerial Platform Association, commercial UAS operators
- Cities and Drones National League of Cities report on urban government use and regulation of UAS equipment
- Drones and Drone Data Technical Interest Group (TIG) Technology and techniques (equipment, software, workflows, survey designs) to allow individuals to enhance their capabilities with data obtained from drones and drone surveys. Chaired by Karl Osvald and James McDonald.
- Garcia-Bernardo, Sheridan Dodds, F. Johnson (2016). "Quantitative patterns in drone wars" (PDF). Science direct.
- Hill, J., & Rogers, A. (2014). The rise of the drones: From The Great War to Gaza. Vancouver Island University Arts & Humanities Colloquium Series.
- Rogers, A., & Hill, J. (2014). Unmanned: Drone warfare and global security. Between the Lines. ISBN 9781771131544
- How Intelligent Drones Are Shaping the Future of Warfare, Rolling Stone Magazine