Unsimulated sex is the presentation in a film of sex scenes where the actors engage in an actual sex act, and are not just miming or simulating the actions. At one time in the United States such scenes were restricted by law and self-imposed industry standards such as the Motion Picture Production Code. Films showing explicit sexual activity were confined to privately distributed underground films, such as stag films or "porn loops". Beginning in the late 1960s, most notably with Blue Movie by Andy Warhol, mainstream cinemas began pushing boundaries in terms of what was presented on screen. Although the vast majority of sexual situations depicted in mainstream cinema are simulated (in early pornography, the main actors engaged in simulated sex, with inserts placed in the film), on rare occasions actors engage in real sex. The difference between these films and pornography is that, while such scenes might be considered erotic, the intent of these films is not solely pornographic.
Notable examples include two of the eight Bedside-films and the six Zodiac-films from the 1970s, all of which were produced in Denmark and had many pornographic sex scenes, but were nevertheless considered mainstream films (they all had mainstream casts and crews, and premiered in mainstream cinemas). The last of these films, Agent 69 Jensen i Skyttens tegn, was made in 1978. From the end of the 1970s until the late 1990s it was rare to see hardcore scenes in mainstream cinema, but this changed with the success of Lars von Trier's The Idiots (1998), which heralded a wave of art-house films with explicit content, such as Romance (1999), Baise-moi (2000), Intimacy (2001), Vincent Gallo's The Brown Bunny (2003), and Michael Winterbottom's 9 Songs (2004). Some simulated sex scenes are sufficiently realistic that critics mistakenly believe that they are real, such as the cunnilingus scene in the 2006 film Red Road.
Films with unsimulated sexual activity
The following mainstream films have scenes with verified real sexual activity, meaning actors or actresses are filmed engaging in actual coitus or performing related sexual acts such as fellatio and cunnilingus. This list does not include documentaries about pornography, which may contain unsimulated sexual activity. For example, Inside Deep Throat contains approximately 30 seconds of unsimulated fellatio.
|Un Chant d'Amour (English title: A Song of Love)||1950||A short film directed by Jean Genet that features brief scenes of male masturbation, homosexual groping and a plot entirely focused on voyeurism.||French|
|Gift||1966||One of the first Danish mainstream films with explicit and unsimulated sex scenes.||Danish|
|Dom kallar oss mods (English title: They Call Us Misfits)||1967||Swedish documentary film, the first of a trilogy.||Swedish|
|Blue Movie||1969||A 1969 film by Andy Warhol – the first film depicting explicit sex to receive wide theatrical distribution in the United States – a seminal film in the Golden Age of Porn and, according to Warhol, a major influence in the making of Last Tango in Paris, an internationally controversial erotic drama film, starring Marlon Brando, and released a few years after Blue Movie was made.||English|
|Hotel by the Hour||1970||A 1970 West German film, directed by Rolf Olsen contains some unsimulated sexual activity.||German|
|El Topo||1970||This cult film by Alejandro Jodorowsky contains unsimulated sex in the rape scene, according to his own book about the film.||Spanish|
|Stille dage i Clichy (English title: Quiet Days in Clichy)||1970||Film, directed by Jens Jørgen Thorsen, is based on the long-banned novel by Henry Miller and contains a graphic insert of hardcore sex early on.||Danish, English|
|Cry Uncle!||1971||This film by John G. Avildsen shows unsimulated fellatio.||English|
|Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song||1971||Director Melvin Van Peebles contracted gonorrhea when filming one of the sex scenes in this film. He successfully applied for worker's compensation from the DGA because he "got hurt on the job". He used the money to purchase more film.||English|
|Pink Flamingos||1972||This film by John Waters was banned in Australia in 1997. The Board unanimously noted a scene which included "close up real depictions of actual fellatio....which unambiguously contravene R classification guidelines.".||English|
|I Jomfruens tegn||1973||First film in the Danish Zodiac-series of mainstream-comedies with hardcore scenes.||Danish|
|Thriller - en grym film (English title: Thriller – A Cruel Picture)||1973||The original Swedish cut of this film, directed by Bo Arne Vibenius, contains explicit hardcore inserts.||Swedish|
|A Scream in the Streets||1973||Film by Carl Monson and several other directors contains a few seconds of actual penetration.||English|
|I Tyrens tegn||1974||Second film in the Danish Zodiac-series of mainstream-comedies with hardcore scenes.||Danish|
|Sweet Movie||1974||This film by Dušan Makavejev contain some unsimulated sex acts.||English, French, Polish, Spanish, Italian|
|I Tvillingernes tegn||1975||Third film in the Danish Zodiac-series of mainstream-comedies with hardcore scenes.||Danish|
|Der må være en sengekant||1975||Sixth film in the Danish Bedside-series of erotic mainstream-comedies, and one of the two to have hardcore scenes.||Danish|
|The Image||1975||This film by Radley Metzger, based upon the novel L'Image by Catherine Robbe-Grillet, features many unsimulated sex scenes including S&M, fellatio and lesbian cunnilingus.||English, French|
|Sømænd på sengekanten||1976||Eighth and final film in the Danish Bedside-series of erotic mainstream-comedies, and one of the two to have hardcore scenes, including extensive clips from the short Color Climax #1283: Mail Order Sex (1973), watched on 8mm by the ship's crew.||Danish|
|I Løvens tegn||1976||Fourth film in the Danish Zodiac-series of mainstream-comedies with hardcore scenes.||Danish|
|愛のコリーダ (English title: In the Realm of the Senses)||1976||Based on a true story of a Japanese prostitute, features fellatio and other non-simulated sexual acts.||Japanese|
|Through the Looking Glass||1976||This film by Jonas Middleton with many experimental and avant-garde elements features hardcore sex scenes, including fellatio.||English|
|L'Ange et la Femme||1977||This film by Gilles Carle contains some explicitly unsimulated sexual activity between its stars.||French, English|
|Agent 69 Jensen i Skorpionens tegn||1977||Fifth film in the Danish Zodiac-series of mainstream-comedies with hardcore scenes.||Danish|
|La svastica nel ventre (English title: Nazi Love Camp 27).||1977||This film by Mario Caiano features actual penetration.||Italian|
|Agent 69 Jensen i Skyttens tegn||1978||Sixth and final film in the Danish Zodiac-series of mainstream-comedies with hardcore scenes.||Danish|
|The ABC of Love and Sex: Australia Style||1978||Australian documentary that shows actual sex scenes.||English|
|Caligula||1979||Uncut version of this film includes several authentic sex scenes, including penetration, fellatio and ejaculation during the six minutes worth of inserts shot by the film's producer, Bob Guccione. The sex shot by Tinto Brass in the rest of the movie, although very explicit, was simulated.||English|
|Immagini di un convento (English title: Images in a Convent)||1979||This film by Joe D'Amato contains many explicit sex scenes including a brutal and unsimulated rape scene.||Italian|
|Cruising||1980||Director William Friedkin spliced in single frames of gay anal intercourse during at least one scene. Partially obscured sex acts, including fellatio and fisting.||English|
|Taxi zum Klo (English title: Taxi to the Toilet)||1980||A film directed by Frank Ripploh features hardcore gay sex scenes.||German, English, French|
|Spetters||1980||This film directed by Paul Verhoeven features explicit hardcore sex scenes, including oral sex.||Dutch|
|Les Fruits de la passion (English title: Fruits of Passion)||1981||This film by Shūji Terayama contains many explicit sex scenes, including unsimulated fellatio.||Cantonese, Japanese, English, French|
|Caligola: La storia mai raccontata (English title: The Emperor Caligula: The Untold Story, or Caligula 2 - The Untold Story)||1982||The uncut European version of this film, directed by Joe D'Amato, features penetration, ejaculation and fellato in an orgy scene.||Italian|
|Scandale||1982||This film by George Mihalka contains both softcore and hardcore sex scenes.||French|
|L'alcova (English title: The Alcove)||1985||Film by Joe D'Amato contains a few real sex scenes.||Italian|
|James Joyce's Women||1985||This film, directed by Michael Pearce, is based on James Joyce's Ulysses and shows about twenty minutes of real, on camera masturbation by Fionnula Flanagan, the main actress.||English|
|Il Diavolo in Corpo (English title: Devil in the Flesh)||1986||Features a short scene of fellatio, during which the man tells the woman about Lenin's return to St. Petersburg in 1917.||Italian|
|Hotel St. Pauli||1988||This film by Svend Wam shows unsimulated oral sex.||Norwegian, Swedish|
|Paganini (Also known as Kinski Paganini)||1989||Klaus Kinski's directorial debut, it shows many graphic sex scenes, including actual female masturbation.||Italian|
|トパーズ (Also known as: Tokyo Decadence and Topāzu)||1992||This film by Ryu Murakami about prostitution in Japan contains sexually explicit and graphic scenes, including explicit use of a vibrator and strap-on, as well as a urination scene. However, "Murakami didn't make this film to tickle people's libidos; he wanted to bring out the potential ugliness that can come through sex."||Japanese, English|
|The Soft Kill||1994||The DVD version of this film, directed by Eli Cohen, features penetration.||English|
|A Single Girl||1995||This film by Benoît Jacquot contains a hardcore scene in hotel room, involving an actress Catherine Guittoneau.||French|
|La Vie de Jésus (English title: The Life of Jesus)||1997||"In Life of Jesus, Dumont included extreme close-ups of penetration to emphasize the animal nature of the sex act."||French|
|Idioterne (English title: The Idiots)||1998||This film by Lars von Trier features penetration and group sex.||Danish|
|Fiona||1998||This film directed by Amos Kollek features a brief oral sex scene.||English|
|Seul contre tous (English title: I Stand Alone)||1998||The film is Gaspar Noé's first feature-length production and features several actual sex scenes.||French|
|Jezus is een Palestijn (English title: Jesus is a Palestinian)||1999||Director Lodewijk Crijns: "From the beginning I swore that there would be a visual penetration in my film. [...] Eventually that scene made it into the film and also in a way which I think is very surprising."||Dutch|
|Romance||1999||Directed by Catherine Breillat, features male and female masturbation, fellatio, penetration, ejaculation, and sadomasochistic bondage.||French|
|Pola X||1999||"Pola X gained infamy world wide for its unsimulated sex acts between Guillaume Depardieu (Pierre) and Yekaterina Golubeva (Isabelle). Although body stand ins were used for the most explicit parts."||French|
|La donna lupo (English title: The Man-Eater)||1999||Film by Aurelio Grimaldi contains a scene of actual fellatio.||Italian|
|Guardami||1999||Based on the life of Italian porn actress Moana Pozzi, this film directed by Davide Ferrario shows real oral sex.||Italian|
|Vampire Strangler||1999||A film by William Hellfire shows real fellatio by an actress Erin Brown.||English|
|Giulia (English title: Julia)||1999||This film by Roy Stuart shows scenes of fellatio, cunnilingus and intercourse performed by actress Anna Bielska.||French|
|Humanité||1999||A film by Bruno Dumont contains sex and nudity, including three hardcore scenes.||French, English|
|Baise-moi||2000||Several actual sex scenes, including penetration and fellatio.||French|
|Scrapbook||2000||This film by Eric Stanze includes non-penetrative sex acts and an actor urinating on an actress.||English|
|Scarlet Diva||2000||A semi-autobiographical film about Italian actress and director Asia Argento's life as an actress, it contains many non-simulated sex scenes according to herself.||English, Italian, French|
|Le Pornographe (English title: The Pornographer)||2001||This film by Bertrand Bonello shows many hardcore sex scenes, including penetration.||French|
|Lucía y el sexo (English title: Sex and Lucia)||2001||This film by Julio Medem contains several real sex scenes, including penetration and fellatio from the porn movie made by one of the film's characters as well as manual stimulation of an erect penis and cunnilingus performed by and on another film's character.||Spanish, English|
|Hundstage (English title: Dog Days)||2001||The first fictional feature film by director Ulrich Seidl contains a hardcore orgy scene.||German|
|The Center of the World||2001||A film by Wayne Wang contains "the graphic sex of Triple-X videos".||English|
|Irréversible (English title: Irresistible)||2002||This film by Gaspar Noé shows unsimulated oral sex.||French|
|La novia de Lázaro (English title: Lazaro’s Girlfriend)||2002||This film by Fernando Merinero features about a minute-long scene of explicit fellatio.||Spanish|
|Le loup de la côte Ouest (English title: The Wolf of the West Coast)||2002||A Hugo Santiago film with recognizable stars James Faulkner and Anna Mouglalis features unsimulated sex scenes.||French, English|
|Sud sanaeha (English title: Blissfully Yours)||2002||This film, directed by Apichatpong Weerasethakul, contains a scene of explicit fellatio.||Thai|
|Choses secrètes (English title: Secret Things)||2002||A Jean-Claude Brisseau film about female sexuality that shows many explicit sex scenes, including public masturbation by a female character and a hardcore orgy scene. The first film of a trilogy.||French|
|The Brown Bunny||2003||This film by Vincent Gallo features a scene of fellatio.||English|
|Fallo! (English title: Do It! or Private)||2003||Film directed by Tinto Brass contains real fellatio.||Italian, French, English, Spanish|
|Rossa Venezia||2003||This film by Andreas Bethmann features many hardcore sex scenes, mostly lesbian.||German|
|The Principles of Lust||2003||Film by Penny Woolcock shows an orgy scene with several unsimulated sex acts, including oral sex.||English|
|Bodysong||2003||A 2003 documentary about human life and the human condition, directed by Simon Pummell, features several hardcore sex scenes, including vaginal penetration, fellatio and cunnilingus.||English|
|Anatomie de l'enfer (English title: Anatomy of Hell)||2004||By director Catherine Breillat, it features "actual sex, high-level sex scenes and high-level themes" according to the Australian Classification Review Board.||French|
|9 Songs||2004||Several non-simulated sex scenes, including penetration, fellatio, cunnilingus and ejaculation.||English|
|Story of the Eye||2004||Based on the novel Story of the Eye by Georges Bataille, this film, directed by Andrew Repasky McElhinney contains many hardcore sex scenes.||English|
|Kärlekens språk 2000||2004||A Swedish sex educational film directed by Anders Lennberg shows many unsimulated sex scenes.||Swedish|
|All About Anna||2005||A film directed by Jessica Nilsson, featuring intercourse performed both by Eileen Daly and Gry Bay and male actors, fellatio with ejaculation performed by Eileen Daly on Mark Stevens, cunnilingus performed by Ovidie on Gry Bay.||Danish|
|8mm 2||2005||A film directed by J. S. Cardone, featuring various erotic scenes that include complete nudity, group sex, female masturbation, oral stimulation, authentic pornography frames, and lesbian cunnilingus.||English|
|Kissing on the Mouth||2005||Film by Joe Swanberg contains a real scene of masturbation with ejaculation.||English|
|天邊一朵雲 (English title: The Wayward Cloud)||2005||This film directed by Tsai Ming-liang features fellatio and penetration.||Mandarin|
|Princesas||2005||This film by Fernando León de Aranoa contains a scene of explicit fellatio.||Spanish|
|Lie with Me||2005||A film by Clement Virgo, based on the novel of the same title, contains "medium-to-hardcore sex".||English, Spanish|
|Shortbus||2006||Several actors perform real sexual acts including explicit masturbation, autofellatio, coitus, and heterosexual and homosexual fellatio.||English|
|Taxidermia||2006||This film, directed by György Pálfi features actual penetration.||Hungarian, English, Russian|
|Les Anges Exterminateurs||2006||The second Jean-Claude Brisseau film that explores female sexuality. It shows unsimulated female masturbation.||French|
|Auftauchen (Also known as Amour fou)||2006||Felicitas Korn's feature film debut shows several authentic sex scenes.||German|
|It Is Fine! Everything Is Fine.||2007||This film directed by David Brothers and Crispin Glover contains actual penetration.||English|
|L'histoire de Richard O. (English title: The Story of Richard O.)||2007||This film by Damien Odoul shows numerous real sex scenes.||French, Finnish|
|Import/Export||2007||The second fictional feature film by Ulrich Seidl contains several authentic sex scenes, including female masturbation and anal fingering. The authenticity of the fellatio scene is debatable.||German, Slovak, Russian, English|
|El Búfalo de la noche (English title: The Night Buffalo)||2007||This film by Jorge Hernandez Aldana contains an explicit fellatio scene.||Spanish|
|Serbis (English title: Service)||2008||Directed by Brillante Mendoza, it shows explicit fellatio.||Filipino, Tagalog|
|Tropical Manila||2008||This film, directed by Sang-woo Lee, contain several explicit sex acts, including real fellatio.||Filipino, Korean|
|À l'aventure||2008||The third film by Jean-Claude Brisseau about female sexuality contains many explicit sex scenes, including authentic female masturbation and orgasm.||French|
|Amateur Porn Star Killer 2||2008||This film by Shane Ryan includes explicit scenes of penetration and oral sex. The second film of a trilogy.||English|
|Antichrist||2009||This film by Lars von Trier features a scene of penetrative vaginal intercourse, and also includes graphically violent sexual imagery. Body doubles were used to make the film.||English|
|Enter the Void||2009||This film, directed by Gaspar Noé contains some unsimulated sexual activity.||English, Japanese|
|The Band||2009||This film directed by Anna Brownfield features numerous sequences of unsimulated sex.||English|
|Dogtooth||2009||A film by Giorgos Lanthimos. "The brief real sex is used to establish the unusual and dysfunctional lifestyle that results from the isolation orchestrated by the dictatorial father, including incest."||Greek|
|Now & Later||2009||The film contains an unsimulated oral scene and a simulated sex scene.||English|
|Bedways||2010||This film by Rolf Peter Kahl shows real sex scenes, including a three-minute-long scene of masturbation.||German|
|The Bunny Game||2010||This film directed by Adam Rehmeier contains an explicit scene of fellatio.||English|
|Killer Bitch||2010||Controversial in many aspects, this film by Liam Galvin contains real sex scenes according to executive producer John Fleming.||English|
|Año bisiesto (English title: Leap Year)||2010||Film by Michael Rowe features unsimulated sex scenes.||Spanish|
|Gandu||2010||An Indian film, directed by Qaushiq Mukherjee, that contains actual sex scenes.||Bengali|
|LelleBelle||2010||This film by Mischa Kamp contain the images of unsimulated penetration.||Dutch|
|Q (English title: Desire)||2011||A 2011 French film, directed by Laurent Bouhnik, which features several graphic unsimulated depictions of sex.||French|
|Hotel Desire||2011||This short film directed by Sergej Moya contains an unsimulated sex scene between the actors Saralisa Volm and Clemens Schick.||German|
|愛很爛 (English title: Love Actually... Sucks!)||2011||A Hong Kong film, directed by Scud, features fellatio.||Mandarin, Cantonese, English|
|Caged||2011||A 2011 Dutch film directed by Stephan Brenninkmeijer, it contains several explicit hardcore sex scenes.||Dutch|
|Léa||2011||This film, directed by Bruno Rolland, contains an unsimulated scene of cunniligus.||French|
|Starlet||2012||This film by Sean S. Baker contains a scene of penetration.||English|
|Joven y alocada (English title: Young and Wild)||2012||A Chilean film, directed by Marially Rivas, features many explicit sex scenes, including several real sex inserts.||Spanish|
|Pornopung||2013||A 2013 Norwegian film, directed by Johan Kaos, that features a scene of explicit fellatio.||Norwegian|
|Stranger by the Lake||2013||Directed by Alain Guiraudie, Stranger by the Lake contains scenes of unsimulated sex that were shot using body doubles.||French|
|Wetlands||2013||Film by David Wnendt contains a real scene of masturbation and ejaculation by several men on twenty pizzas. The hired porn stars were used for shooting the scene.||German|
|Pasolini||2014||A film by Abel Ferrara, about the final day in the life of Pier Paolo Pasolini, shows several actual sex scenes, including fellatio.||English, Italian, French|
|Love||2015||This film by Gaspar Noé features scenes of unsimulated sexual activity and is notable as being a 3-D release.||English|
Pornography films re-edited for mainstream release
Prior to the advent of home video, a number of hardcore pornography films were released to mainstream cinemas. In most cases, scenes of penetration were either cut out or replaced with alternate shots. One exception to this was Deep Throat, which was released uncensored.
Examples of this type of hybrid release include Alice in Wonderland (1976), shot as X-rated, but first released as an R-rated version — afterwards, the uncut version was released; Café Flesh (1982) — the R-rated version of this science fiction porn film was released to mainstream cinemas; Stocks and Blondes (1984), originally available as Wanda Whips Wall Street; and Droid (1988), originally released as Cabaret Sin in 1987.
- Dirks, Tim. "History of Sex in Cinema: The Greatest and Most Influential Sexual Films and Scenes". Filmsite.org. American Movie Classic Company. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
- Corliss, Richard (29 March 2005). "That Old Feeling: When Porno Was Chic". TIME. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
- Hohendal, Kristin (1 July 2001). "Film Goes All the Way (In the Name of Art)". New York Times. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
- Gerrard, Nicci (3 October 1999). "Coming soon to a cinema near you". The Observer (London). Retrieved 4 December 2009.
Catherine Breillat's controversial French film, Romance, has just been given an 18 certificate by the British Board of Film Classification. It will be granted the respectability of mainstream cinemas round the country. It has been passed because it is 'philosophical', not pornographic. It is about sexual relationships, not an aid to sexual gratification.
- Jensen, Michael (November 2006). "LEGITIMIZING ILLEGITIMACY: IDENTITY SPACES AND MARKETS FOR ILLEGITIMATE PRODUCTS" (PDF). Organizations & Markets Workshop (Chicago Booth).
- "Explicit Euro-sex test for British censors". The Guardian (London). 22 February 1999. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
- Wilmington, Michael (27 August 2001). "Graphic Sex Scenes on Film Causing Little Fuss--for Now". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
- Dalton, Stephen (7 October 2006). "Sealed with a Glasgow kiss". The Times (London). Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- A Film Review by James Berardinelli.
- "EARLY GAY CINEMA: JEAN GENET’S ‘UN CHANT D’AMOUR’".
- Ebbe Villadsen: Danish Erotic Film Classics (2005).
- Robertson, Patrick (1991). The Guinness Book of Movie Facts & Feats (4th ed.). Guinness. p. 62. ISBN 0-85112-908-0.
- Canby, Vincent (July 22, 1969). "Movie Review - Blue Movie (1968) Screen: Andy Warhol's 'Blue Movie'". New York Times. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- Canby, Vincent (August 10, 1969). "Warhol's Red Hot and 'Blue' Movie. D1. Print. (behind paywall)". New York Times. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- Comenas, Gary (2005). "Blue Movie (1968)". WarholStars.org. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- Comenas, Gary (1969). "July 21, 1969: Andy Warhol's Blue Movie Opens". WarholStars.org. Retrieved January 20, 2016.
- Haggerty, George E. (2015). A Companion to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Studies. John Wiley & Sons. p. 339. Retrieved January 20, 2016.
- Jodorowsky, Alexandro (1971). El Topo: A Book of the Film (1ST ed.). Douglas Links. ISBN 9780825634017.
- Adam Tyner. Quiet Days in Clichy (Blu-ray). dvdtalk.com. 25 January 2011.
- Andrew Hershberger. Cry Uncle!. efilmcritic.com. 02/25/01.
- 1997: Why PINK FLAMINGOS was banned. Censorship in Australia.
- Kurly Tlapoyawa. Thriller: A Cruel Picture. alibi.com.
- Carroll Jenkins. Thriller: They Call Her One Eye (Vengeance Edition). 10,000 Bullets. 11 June 2014
- Stuart Willis. A Scream In The Streets. Sex Gore Mutants.
- Brendan Babish. Sweet Movie. DVDVerdict. 2 July 2007.
- Atanasov, Dr. Svet (11 June 2011). "The Image Blu-ray Review". www.blu-ray.com. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- Maass, Dave (28 February 2008). "Real Sex in Unreal Films: Penetrating movies that aren't pornos". Film.com. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
- Kehr, Dave (24 April 2009). "Nagisa Oshima's Realm of Restraint and Precision". New York Times. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
- Through the Looking Glass. Beardy Freak [42ndStreetFreak]
- Tom Newth. The Imaginary Documentaries of Montreal Filmmakers Frank Vitale, Allan Moyle, and Stephen Lack. popOptiq. February 20, 2015
- Nazi Love Camp 27. 19 April 2009
- J.R. McNamaraLodewij. The ABC's of Love and Sex: Australia Style. Digital Retribution. 31 August 2012.
- Caligula: A Film Review by David Carter.
- Stuart Galbraith IV. Reviews: Images in a Convent. Media Blasters. 14 June 2005
- Peter Bradshaw. Taxi zum Klo – review. The Guardian. 21 April 2011
- TIFF’s Flesh + Blood: The Films of Paul Verhoeven Review: Spetters (1980). OLLIE ENGLAND. FEBRUARY 12, 2014
- Moskowitz, Gene (27 May 1981). "Les Fruits de la Passion". Variety.
- Caligula 2 - The Untold Story (1982). 4 August 2010. (German)
- Ralph Elawani. Scandale. Canuxploitation.
- The Alcove (1985). Severin Films
- James Joyce's Women (1985). Movie House Commentary.
- Canby, Vincent (29 May 1987). "Devil in the Flesh (1986)". New York Times. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
- Hume, Christopher (13 August 1986). "Sex act offends censor festival film ordered cut". Toronto Star. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
- Hotel St. Pauli.
- David Arrate. Kinski Paganini (Mya Communication). 10.000 Bullets. 24 November 2011.
- James Berardinelli. Tokyo Decadence. ReelViews. 8/6/93.
- Greg Wroblewski. The Soft Kill. Movie House Commentary.
- Erickson, Steve (29 November 2000). "Mysteries of Love". Minneapolis City Pages. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
- Lister, David (17 May 1998). "Actors had real sex for Cannes movie". The Independent (London). Retrieved 28 November 2009.
- Naughty Netflix: Fiona. 17 November 2009
- Seul contre tous (1998). The World's Greatest Critic.
- Lodewijk Crijns. Spirituele extase door middel van piercing. De Filmkrant. February 1999 (Dutch)
- Adair, Gilbert (28 September 1999). "Welcome to planet porn". Independent (London). Retrieved 29 November 2009.
- Simpson, Clare (25 February 2015). "10 Mainstream Films With Unsimulated Sex Acts - Pola X". WhatCulture.com. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
- Ebert, Roger (6 October 2000). "Film Review - Pola X". RogerEbert.com. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
- "Pola X". Cannes Film Festival. 1999. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
- Derek Elley. Review: ‘Maneater’. Variety. OCTOBER 11, 1999
- Vampire Strangler. Movie House Commentary
- Julia (1999). European Movie Reviews. 4 July 2011.
- L'Humanite. efilmcritic.com.
- Tim Adams (26 November 2006). "Everybody's doing it...". The Guardian (London: Guardian News and Media Limited).
- Ray Casta. Scrapbook. SeveredCinema.com, retrieved 09-05-2015.
- Head Cheeze. Scarlet Diva. Horror View.
- Scott Weinberg. The Pornographer. 14 June 2005
- Sex and Lucia - Comparison: R-rated/Unrated version..
- Film of the Month: Dog Days..
- Mark Halverson. The Center of the World. Sacramento News & Review. 05.31.01.
- "Irresistible". Retrieved 28 August 2013.
- Eddie Cockrell. Review: ‘Lazaro’s Girlfriend’. Variety. AUGUST 26, 2002
- Wolf of the West Coast. Women in Prison Films. 13 February 2013
- Ben Sillis. Blissfully Yours. EyeForFilm.co.uk. 6 July 2006.
- Charles Taylor. "Secret Things". Salon.com. 20 February.
- Gilbey, Ryan (16 February 2008). "Chloë's world". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 27 May 2010.
- Mark R. Hasan. BR: Private / Fallo! / Do It! (2003). KQEK
- Zev Toledano. Andreas Bethmann. The Worldwide Celluloid Massacre
- David Stanners. The Principles Of Lust. EyeForFilm.co.uk. 11 March 2004
- Deborah Young. Review: ‘Bodysong’. Variety. 18 February 2003.
- Maddox, Garry (8 July 2004). "Censors refuse to ban film depicting real sex". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
- Dave Kehr. Exploring the Temptation to Look (and to Look Away). New York Times. 22 September 2004
- FILM KÄRLEKENS SPRÅK 2000. kinomusorka.ru
- "History of Sex in Cinema: The Greatest and Most Influential Sexual Films and Scenes (Illustrated) 2005, Part 1". line feed character in
|title=at position 26 (help)
- "8mm 2 Comparison: Rated and Unrated (Movie-Censorship.com)".
- Don R. Lewis. Kissing on the Mouth. 14 September 2006
- Nathan Lee. Watermelon-Eating Contest!. The Village Voice. 13 February 2007
- Sarah Cronin. Tsai Ming-Liang. Electric Sheep Magazine. 1 November 2007
- Keith Phipps. Princesas. The Onion A.V. Club. 23 August 2006
- Leslie Felperin. Review: ‘Lie with Me’. Variety. OCTOBER 12, 2005.
- Brian D. Johnson (2 June 2006). "Sook-Yin Lee shocker in Cannes | Macleans.ca - Culture - Lifestyle". Macleans.ca. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
- Taxidermia. DREAD CENTRAL. 5 April 2010
- A.O.Scott. A Cerebral Skin Flick. New York Times. 7 March 2007
- Joachim Kurz. Auftauchen. kino-zeit.de. 11.09.2008 (German)
- Peter Sciretta. Sundance: It is Fine! EVERYTHING IS FINE. Movie Review. slashfilm.com. 25 January 2007
- Alexandra Pascalidou. The Story of Richard O. Stockholm Film Festival
- Marco Duran. Import/Export. DVD Verdict. 4 February 2010
- El Bufalo De La Noche (2007, Mex.) (aka The Night Buffalo)..
- Jay Weissberg. Review: ‘Service’. Variety.com. 18 May 2008
- Tropical Manila SD-2008. International Film Festival Rotterdam.
- À l'Aventure. DVD Times. 8 July 2009.
- Gary Tooze. À l'Aventure. DVDBeaver.
- Jay S. Jacobs. Amateur Porn Star Killer 2. PopEntertainment.com. 6 June 2008
- "RT Interview: Lars von Trier on Antichrist". 22 July 2009. Retrieved 21 July 2010.
- Enter The Void. albertafilmratings.ca. 03/23/2011.
- Tyler Foster. The Band. 16 February 2010
- DOGTOOTH-insight. The British Board of Film Classification.
-  Philadelphia City Paper. May 19 2011.
- Bedways – Movie Review. APRIL 4, 2011
- The Bunny Game: An Ecstatic Vision Quest of Torture, Death, and Rebirth. 6 February 2011
- How to make the world’s worst movie: take one Scots producer and add some sex, death and Mr Katie Price. herald scotland. 2 May 2010
- Caterina Benincasa. Late review - London Film Fest 2010 Day 5 - LEAP YEAR / ANO BISIESTO. Bina007 Movies. 26 November 2010
- Mike S. Ryan. GANDU. Hammer to nail. 30 January 2011
- Monica Meijer. LELLEBELLE. Cinemagazine. 21 january 2011 (Dutch)
- amazon.co.uk - Product Description.
- Libiot, Eric (9 September 2011). "Q: Un film sur le désir et l'amour, mais raté." (in French). L'Express. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- "Über die Sex-Szenen in Hotel Desire". TIKonline.de.
- Raymond Ko. Love Actually... Sucks! – Scud’s latest film censored. 25 Jul 2011.
- Recensie: Caged (Stephan Brenninkmeijer, 2011). De Nachtvlinders. 3 September 2011 (Dutch)
- Léa. FilmBizarro.com.
- Don Simpson. Starlet | Review. Smells Like Screen Spirit. 12 March 2012
- Young and Wild. DVD Verdict. 26 July 2013
- Stig-Lennart Sørensen. Filmanmeldelse: «Pornopung». Videomagasinet. (Norwegian)
- Osenlund, R. Kurt (24 January 2014). "Interview: Alain Guiraudie". Slant Magazine. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Jada Yuan. Wetlands Is Sundance’s Crassest, Most Outrageous Movie. January 23, 2014
- Caterina Benincasa. PASOLINI - LFF14 - Day Three. Bina007 Movie Reviews. 10 October 2014.
- Giovanni Marchini Camia. Love. Cannes 2015 Review. 21 May 2015
- Alice in Wonderland (1976/I).
- Peary, Danny (1988). Cult Movies 3. New York: Simon & Schuster Inc. pp. 52–56. ISBN 0-671-64810-1.
- What Blockbuster Didn't Bust Blockbuster's inconsistent ratings policy -- The video rental store cracks down on X and NC-17 rated films, but ignores racier unrated fare like Wild Orchid, Ty Burr, Entertainment Weekly, 29 March 1991.
- Villadsen, Ebbe (2005): Danish Erotic Film Classics.
- Williams, Linda Ruth (2005): The Erotic Thriller in Contemporary Cinema. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34713-0.