This article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject. (October 2009)
Up-and-down procedure (or method) is an alternative to the LD acute 50 toxicity test. [1 ] [2 ]
It requires fewer animals to achieve similar accuracy as the LD
50 test. However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has begun to approve non-animal alternatives. [3 ] [4 ] [5 ]
References [ edit ]
^ Lipnick, RL; Cotruvo, JA; Hill, RN; Bruce, RD; Stitzel, KA; Walker, AP; Chu, I; Goddard, M et al. (1995). "Comparison of the up-and-down, conventional LD50, and fixed-dose acute toxicity procedures". Food and chemical toxicology 33 (3): 223–31. doi: 10.1016/0278-6915(94)00136-C. PMID 7896233.
^ Lichtman, A (1998). "The up-and-down method substantially reduces the number of animals required to determine antinociceptive ED50 values". Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods 40 (2): 81–5. doi: 10.1016/S1056-8719(98)00041-0. PMID 10100496.
^ Acute Oral Toxicity (AOT) Up-And-Down-Procedure
^ "Allergan Receives FDA Approval for First-of-Its-Kind, Fully in vitro, Cell-Based Assay for BOTOX® and BOTOX® Cosmetic (onabotulinumtoxinA)". Source: Allergan, Inc. News Provided by Acquire Media. 24 June 2011 . Retrieved . 2011-06-26
^ "In U.S., Few Alternatives To Testing On Animals". . 12 April 2008 Washington Post . Retrieved . 2011-06-26