Up-and-down procedure

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Up-and-down procedure (or method) is an alternative to the LD50 acute toxicity test.[1][2]

It requires fewer animals to achieve similar accuracy as the LD50 test.[3] However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has begun to approve non-animal alternatives.[4][5]


  1. ^ Lipnick, RL; Cotruvo, JA; Hill, RN; Bruce, RD; Stitzel, KA; Walker, AP; Chu, I; Goddard, M; et al. (1995). "Comparison of the up-and-down, conventional LD50, and fixed-dose acute toxicity procedures". Food and chemical toxicology. 33 (3): 223–31. PMID 7896233. doi:10.1016/0278-6915(94)00136-C. 
  2. ^ Lichtman, A (1998). "The up-and-down method substantially reduces the number of animals required to determine antinociceptive ED50 values". Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods. 40 (2): 81–5. PMID 10100496. doi:10.1016/S1056-8719(98)00041-0. 
  3. ^ Acute Oral Toxicity (AOT) Up-And-Down-Procedure
  4. ^ "Allergan Receives FDA Approval for First-of-Its-Kind, Fully in vitro, Cell-Based Assay for BOTOX® and BOTOX® Cosmetic (onabotulinumtoxinA)". Source: Allergan, Inc. News Provided by Acquire Media. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-26. 
  5. ^ "In U.S., Few Alternatives To Testing On Animals". Washington Post. 12 April 2008. Retrieved 2011-06-26.