Upper Amazon Arawakan

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Upper Amazonian Arawakan
Inland Northern Maipuran
Northern Amazon
Linguistic classification: Arawakan
  • Northern
    • Upper Amazonian Arawakan
  • Western Nawiki
  • Eastern Nawiki
  • Central (Orinoco)
  • Manao
Glottolog: inla1264[1]

The Upper Amazon Maipurean languages, AKA North Amazonian or Inland Northern Maipuran, are Arawakan languages of the northern Amazon in Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, and Brazil.

Upper Amazon Arawakan is surveyed comprehensively by Henri Ramirez (2001), which includes a historical reconstruction as well.


Kaufman (1994)[edit]

Kaufman (1994) gives the following breakdown (Aikhenvald's names of branches in parentheses):

He leaves the following Upper Amazon languages unclassified:

Aikhenvald (1999)[edit]

Aikhenvald (1999) classified a couple languages Kaufman left out (Shiriana, Yabaâna), but leaves several of his Western Nawiki languages and branches unclassified. Several languages—Maipure, Resígaro, Cawishana, Mandahuaca, and Guarequena—are moved. She treats the Yucuna, Karu (Baniwa), and Bare groups as single languages.

Unclassified (†): Wainumá, Mariaté, Anauyá, Amarizana, Jumana (Yumana), Pasé, Kariaí (Cariyai), Waraikú (Araikú), Wiriná. Cabre (Cavare) was found in the area of the Western Nawiki languages, but only a few words are known. The "Ponares language" listed in Ethnologue may have been Piapoco or Achagua.


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Inland Northern Maipuran". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  • Ramirez, Henri. 2001. Línguas Arawak da Amazônia Setentrional. Manaus: EDUA. 745pp.