Upper Sioux Indian Reservation
|(482 enrolled members)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Granite Falls, Minnesota|
The Upper Sioux Indian Reservation is located in Minnesota Falls Township along the Minnesota River in eastern Yellow Medicine County, Minnesota, five miles (8 km) south of Granite Falls. It was created in 1938 when 746 acres (3 km²) of land were returned to the tribe by the federal government, under the Indian Reorganization Act encouraging tribal self-government.
As of the 2000 census, the reservation recorded a resident population of 57 persons. Its land area is currently 1.984 sq mi (5.139 km², or 1,270 acres). The tribe operates the Prairie's Edge Casino Resort. Every August, the Upper Sioux community holds its Pejhutazizi Oyate traditional wacipi (pow-wow).
This reservation was originally established for the Wahpeton and Sisseton bands of the Upper Dakota. Under the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux of 1851, it was originally an area about 20 miles (30 km) wide and 70 miles (110 km) long along the Minnesota River. Following the Dakota War of 1862, the federal government punished the Dakota by drastically reducing the sizes of two reservations along the river, in an attempt to force the Dakota out of the area. Many did move westward.
In 1938 the federal government returned 746 acres (3 km²) of land to the tribe, who were mostly landless, under the Indian Reorganization Act of the President Franklin D. Roosevelt administration. It also encouraged tribes to revive their self-government.
As part of the Indian termination policy that was followed by the US government from the 1940s to the 1960s, four Native American communities (three federally recognized tribes) in Minnesota were identified for termination. A memo dated 19 January 1955 for the BIA issued from the Department of the Interior indicates additional terminations were being reviewed in proposed legislation for four Indian communities of southern Minnesota including the Lower Sioux Community in Redwood and Scott counties, the New Upper Sioux Community in Yellow Medicine County, the Prairie Island Community in Goodhue County, and about 15 individuals living on restricted tracts in Yellow Medicine County.
Discussions between the BIA and the Indians in the identified tribes began in 1953 and continued throughout 1954. Though the Prairie Island and Lower Sioux communities drafted agreements with individual land ownership, the Upper Sioux strongly opposed tribal lands being divided under fee-simple title. On 26 January 1955 Senator Edward Thye introduced a bill (S704) to provide for termination of the tribes. Residents of the area also opposed termination, as they realized state expenditures might increase to accommodate services to the new residents, and they expressed opposition to the committee reviewing the bill. The Minnesota Governor's Commission on Human Rights also opposed the legislation, indicating that it would "not adequately protect the interests of the Indians..." The bill died in committee, never reaching the Senate floor.
- Waziyatawin (Angela Wilson), Dakota author, professor, and activist from Pezihutazizi Otunwe (Yellow Medicine Village)
- Sioux Agency Township, Minnesota
- Minnesota Indian Affairs Council
- Upper Sioux Agency State Park
- Lower Sioux Indian Reservation
- Community, Upper Sioux. "History of the Upper Sioux Community". www.uppersiouxcommunity-nsn.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-05.
- "Yellow Medicine County, Minnesota", Our Story: Minnesota; Accessed 14 September 2013
- "Proposed Terminal Legislation for Indians of Southern Minnesota" (PDF). Department of the Interior. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
- >Meyer, Roy Willard (1993). "History of the Santee Sioux: United States Indian Policy on Trial". University of Nebraska Press. p. 354. ISBN 0-8032-8203-6. Retrieved 2014-12-19.
- Upper Sioux Reservation, Minnesota United States Census Bureau
- Upper Sioux--Pezihutazizi Kapi, Minnesota Indian Affairs Council
- Upper Sioux Community tribal government website