Upper Sorbian language

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Upper Sorbian
hornjoserbšćina
Pronunciation [ˈhɔrnjɔˌsɛrpʃt͡ʃina]
Native to Germany
Region Saxony, Brandenburg
Ethnicity Sorbs
Native speakers
13,000  (2007)[1]
Latin (Sorbian alphabet)
Official status
Official language in
Regional language in Brandenburg and Saxony. Lost support after the reunification of Germany, with many Sorbian schools closing.[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-2 hsb
ISO 639-3 hsb
Glottolog uppe1395[2]
Linguasphere 53-AAA-bb < 53-AAA-b < 53-AAA-b...-d (varieties: 53-AAA-bba to 53-AAA-bbf)

Upper Sorbian (hornjoserbšćina, German: Obersorbisch) is a minority language spoken by Sorbs in Germany in the historical province of Upper Lusatia (Hornja Łužica in Sorbian), which is today part of Saxony. It is grouped in the West Slavic language branch, together with Lower Sorbian, Czech, Polish, Slovak and Kashubian.

History[edit]

The history of the Upper Sorbian language in Germany began with the Slavic migrations during the 6th century AD. Beginning in the 12th century, there was a massive influx of rural Germanic settlers from Flanders, Saxony, Thuringia and Franconia. The succeeding devastation of the country by military actions began the slow decrease of the Upper Sorbian language. In addition, in the Saxony region, the Sorbian language was legally subordinated to the German language. Language prohibitions were later added: In 1293, the Sorbian language was forbidden in Berne castle before the courts; in 1327 it was forbidden in Zwickau and Leipzig, and from 1424 on it was forbidden in Meissen. Further, there was the condition in many guilds of the cities of the area to accept only members of German-language origin.

However, the central areas of the Milzener and Lusitzer, in the area of the today's Lausitz, were relatively unaffected by the new German language settlements and legal restrictions. The language therefore flourished there. By the 17th century, the number of Upper Sorbian speakers in that area grew to over 300,000. The oldest evidence of written Upper Sorbian is the Burger Eydt Wendisch monument, which was discovered in the city of Bautzen and dated to the year 1532.

The Upper Sorbian language in Germany[edit]

A bilingual sign in Germany; the lower part is in Upper Sorbian

There are estimated to be 40,000 speakers of Upper Sorbian, of whom almost all live in Saxony.

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

The vowel inventory of Upper Sorbian is exactly the same as that of Lower Sorbian.[3] It is also very similar to the vowel inventory of Slovene.

Vowel phonemes[3][4]
Front Central Back
Close i u
Close-mid e o
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a
  • /i/ is mid-centralized to [ɪ] after hard consonants.[5]
  • /e, o/ are diphthongized to [i̯ɛ, u̯ɔ] in slow speech.[3][6]
  • The /e–ɛ/ and /o–ɔ/ distinctions are weakened or lost in unstressed syllables.[7]

Consonants[edit]

Consonant phonemes[3][8]
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Palatal Velar/
Glottal
hard soft hard soft soft hard
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ
Affricate voiceless t͡s (t͡sʲ) t͡ʃ
voiced (d͡z) d͡ʒ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ x
voiced (v) z ʒ ɦ
Trill r
Approximant β ɥ l j
  • /v, d͡z, t͡sʲ, zʲ/ are very rare.[9][10][11]
  • /β/ is a somewhat velarized bilabial approximant [β̞ˠ],[12] whereas /ɥ/ (the soft counterpart of /β/) is a strongly palatalized bilabial approximant [ɥ].[13]
  • /r, rʲ/ are either alveolar [r, rʲ] or uvular [ʀ, ʀʲ].[14][15] According to Stone (2002), the alveolar realization is archaic.[15]
  • In most dialects, /t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, ʃ, ʒ/ are palato-alveolar. This is unlike Lower Sorbian, where these consonants are retroflex [t͡ʂ, ʂ, ʐ] (Lower Sorbian /t͡ʂ/ does not have a voiced counterpart).[16][17] Retroflex realizations of /ʃ, ʒ/ also occur in Upper Sorbian dialects spoken in some villages north of Hoyerswerda.[18][19]
  • An aspirated [kʰ] is a morpheme-initial allophone of /x/ in some cases, as well as a possible word-initial allophone of /k/.[20]

Sample[edit]

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Upper Sorbian:

Wšitcy čłowjekojo su wot naroda swobodni a su jenacy po dostojnosći a prawach. Woni su z rozumom a swědomjom wobdarjeni a maja mjezsobu w duchu bratrowstwa wobchadźeć.

(All people are born free and equal in their dignity and rights. They are given reason and conscience and they shall create their relationships to one another according to the spirit of brotherhood.)[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Upper Sorbian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Upper Sorbian". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ a b c d Stone (2002), p. 600.
  4. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 20.
  5. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984:34). The author states that [ɪ] is less front and somewhat lower than [i], but unlike Russian [ɨ], it is front, not central.
  6. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 32–33.
  7. ^ Stone (2002), pp. 601 and 606–607.
  8. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 46.
  9. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 36 and 38.
  10. ^ Stone (2002), pp. 603–604.
  11. ^ Zygis (2003), p. 191.
  12. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984:36–37). On page 36, the author states that it is less velar than Polish /w/. The weakness of the velarization is confirmed by the corresponding image on page 37.
  13. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 36, 41 and 46.
  14. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 40.
  15. ^ a b Stone (2002), p. 602.
  16. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 40–41.
  17. ^ Zygis (2003), pp. 180–181 and 190–191.
  18. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 41.
  19. ^ Zygis (2003), p. 180.
  20. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 26–27 and 42–43.
  21. ^ Omniglot

Bibliography[edit]

  • Šewc-Schuster, Hinc (1984), Gramatika hornjo-serbskeje rěče, Budyšin: Ludowe nakładnistwo Domowina 
  • Stone, Gerald (2002), "Sorbian (Upper and Lower)", in Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville G., The Slavonic Languages, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 593–685, ISBN 9780415280785 
  • Zygis, Marzena (2003), "Phonetic and Phonological Aspects of Slavic Sibilant Fricatives" (PDF), ZAS Papers in Linguistics 3: 175–213 

External links[edit]

Dictionaries[edit]

German-Sorbian[edit]

Sorbian-German[edit]