|Latin: Collegii Upsaliensis|
|Motto||Vincit omnia veritas|
Motto in English
|Truth Conquers All|
|Type||Private Liberal Arts College|
|Affiliation||Augustana Synod, (Lutheran)|
|Location||East Orange, New Jersey, United States
Upsala College (UC) was a private college affiliated with the Swedish-American Augustana Synod (later the Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church) and located in East Orange in Essex County, New Jersey in the United States. Originally founded in 1893 in Brooklyn, in New York City, Upsala later moved to Kenilworth, New Jersey, and finally to East Orange in 1924. In the 1970s, Upsala considered moving to Wantage Township in rural Sussex County (where it opened a satellite campus) as East Orange's crime problem and social conditions deteriorated. However, college administration and trustees chose to remain committed to East Orange. Declining enrollment and financial difficulties forced the school to close in 1995.
Early history (1893–1924)
Upsala College was founded at the 1893 annual meeting of the Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Augustana Synod in North America, known as the Augustana Synod—a conservative Lutheran church body with roots in the amongst the Swedish immigrant community.[a] The Augustana Synod placed an emphasis on mission, ecumenism, and social service. Meeting at Augustana College in Rock Island, Illinois, the polity decided to open the college in Brooklyn, New York, in October 1893.:p.122 The Synod chose a young minister, the Rev. Lars Herman Beck (1859–1935), as the college's first president. Beck, himself a Swedish immigrant to the United States, had received his Ph.D. from Yale University in the previous year and turned down a teaching position at Yale to assume the post at Upsala.
The name Upsala was chosen to honor both the historic Uppsala University in Sweden and the Meeting of Uppsala.[b]:p.122–123 That 1593 meeting—exactly 300 years before the founding of Upsala College—firmly established Lutheran Orthodoxy in Sweden after the attempts by King John III to reintroduce Roman Catholic liturgy.
On 3 October 1893, Upsala College opened in the Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Bethlehem Church in Brooklyn. The first day, Beck began instruction with 16 students.:p.10 By the end of the year, Upsala had 75 students. Early instruction had been in Swedish as the student body largely consisted of Scandinavian immigrants. In 1897, the college moved to Kenilworth, New Jersey (formerly "New Orange, New Jersey") when the "New Orange Industrial Association" offered the young school fourteen acres of land. Upsala erected its first building on the Kenilworth campus in 1899.:p.122–123 The college granted its first Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degrees in 1905 to four students.:p.123–124 By 1910, Upsala offered Bachelor of Arts in modern and classical languages, and Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degrees in Mathematics and Sciences, while offering a three-year college preparatory program, instruction in music for preparing "teachers of music, organist and choir leaders, and in general to afford its students a musical education", instruction in commerce and business to "train young men and women for a business career" and in stenography for students seeking "to fill positiosn as stenographers and private secretaries.":p.124 While the college was identified by its connexion with the Swedish Lutheran community, Upsala was the first college in New Jersey to admit women, and it student body welcomed students from many other nationalities and religions. In 1908, the student body consisted of "79 Swedes, 2 Finns, 1 Jew, 1 'American', 1 Chinese, 1 Korean, and 1 Persian":p.55
East Orange campus (1924–1995)
The college moved to East Orange in 1924 after purchasing a 45-acre site in the city in the previous year.
The school maintained high academic standards for many years, gaining a reputation as an excellent small college, with a vibrant campus life. After the passage of Title IX, Audrey Donnelly became the school's Women's Tennis Coach.
In 1989, Upsala hosted the National Forensics Association national collegiate speech championship, which featured over 1,100 competitors over five days of competition.
However, the surrounding community's crime rate increased, and student enrollment declined throughout the late 1970s and 1980s.
Wirths Campus in Wantage (1978–1992)
During the tenure of Upsala's sixth president, Rodney O. Felder, Upsala sought to expand and acquired a 245 acres (99 ha) tract of land in rural Wantage Township in Sussex County in northwestern New Jersey for the construction of a second campus which was called the "Wirths Campus." In 1978, the land a large family farm had been donated by Wallace "Wally" Wirths (1921–2002), a former Westinghouse Corporation executive, author, local newspaper columnist and radio commentator.
Citing the deteriorating social and economic situation in East Orange, the college's trustees had considered moving to Sussex County as East Orange's crime problem and social conditions deteriorated in the 1970s and 1980s. Upsala did not erect any academic buildings on the property, and in these formative years held classes in already existing barns and agricultural outbuildings. A few graduates studied at the campus from 1981 to 1992 when classes ceased and the trustees chose to remain committed to East Orange. But when the school closed down in 1995 and the school's assets were dissolved, the Wirths family bought back their farm in Wantage from the college for $75,000.
Decline and aftermath
Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, Upsala suffered from severe financial problems and a declining enrollment. Academic performance suffered with the admission of under-qualified students, and financial problems were exacerbated by lower-income students unable to pay tuition. The demographics of East Orange had changed in the aftermath of the Newark riots in the 1960s, and Upsala began to cater to minority students—a move thought to have upset the older Caucasian alumni and donors. East Orange's tax base and socio-economic conditions continued to deteriorate with an increase in crime statistics which made the college an unattractive setting for prospective students. By the early 1990s, the student body had decreased from approximately 1,500 to 435 when the school closed in 1995. The Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools announced that as a result of the decline in academic standards and the school's ongoing financial problems, it would not be renewing Upsala College's accreditation. On 1 May 1995, the college's board of trustees voted to close the school when its accreditation expired on 31 May 1995. The school closed with approximately US$12,500,000 in debt. The school's ninth and last president, Paul V. DeLomba, a partner and project manager with the financial services and accountancy firm Price Waterhouse, was hired by the board of trustees to close the college and dissolve its assets.
After its closing in 1995, the college's East Orange campus was sold to the city for the use of the East Orange School District to build a new high school on half of the site constituting the college's East Campus. Several of the college buildings (including Beck Hall, Puder Hall, Viking Memorial Hall (gymnasium) and College Center) were incorporated into the new public secondary school, East Orange Campus High School. During this time, the west campus deteriorated and became blighted and its buildings were looted, vandalized and one building lost to arson. This section of campus was slated for residential redevelopment by the city government, and demolished in 2006. The demolition of the West Campus was featured in the "Coal Miner" episode in season 2 of the Discovery Channel television program Dirty Jobs that aired on 8 August 2006.
Upsala College in popular culture
- The characters Seymour "Swede" Levov and his wife Dawn Levov in Philip Roth's Pulitzer Prize-winning 1997 novel American Pastoral, are graduates of Upsala. The character of Levov is based on Seymour "Swede" Masin (1920–2005), a popular Jewish athlete from Newark, New Jersey. However, Masin did not attend Upsala—he attended Panzer College, a teachers' college that later merged with Montclair State University.
- The 2001 film Riding in Cars with Boys directed by Penny Marshall and starring Drew Barrymore was filmed on the campus. It was based on an autobiography of the same name by Beverly Donofrio.
- List of colleges and universities in New Jersey
- List of Lutheran colleges and universities in the United States
Notes and references
- The Augustana Synod, which was known by several names over the years (as Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church, Augustana Lutheran Synod, Scandinavian Evangelical Lutheran Augustana Synod in North America and Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Augustana Synod in North America) was merged into the Lutheran Church in America in 1962, which merged in 1987 with the two other national Lutheran bodies (The American Lutheran Church and Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches) to in 1988 form the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA).
- Upsala is an historical variant spelling of Uppsala. The modern spelling featuring two p's replaced this historical spelling in the early of the twentieth century.
- Arden, G. Everett. Half a Million Swedes from Bonderud, Omar and Lutz, Charles. America's Lutherans (series). (Columbus Ohio: Wartburg Press, 1958).
- Johnston, Lawrence Albert. The Augustana Synod : a brief review of its history, 1860-1910. (Rock Island, Illinois: Augustana Book Concern, 1910).
- "Series I Presidential Papers" in the "Upsala College records, 1893-1995" held in the collection of the Swenson Swedish Immigration Research Center, Augustana College (Rock Island, Illinois). Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- "N.F." "Upsala, The Diet of" (article) in Jacobs, Henry Eyster Jacobs, and Haas, John Augustus William (Rev.). The Lutheran Cyclopedia. (New York: Charles Scribner Sons, 1899), 528-529.
- Calman, Alvin R. Upsala College: The Early Years (New York: Vantage Press, 1983).
- Augustana College (Rock Island, Illinois) Swenson Center Archives: Wirths Campus in Sussex County records - Series XIV, Boxes 1-6, folders 1-55. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- Strunksy, Steve. "IN BRIEF; Dream of a College Tinged With Sadness", The New York Times, August 2, 1998. (Retrieved July 10, 2012).
- Rothstein, Mervyn. "IN BRIEF: Against Odds, Revival For Troubled College", The New York Times, September 21, 1992. (Retrieved July 10, 2012).
- "IN BRIEF: The Doors Are Closed At Upsala College", The New York Times, June 4, 1995. (Retrieved July 10, 2012).
- Allen, David Grayson and McDermott, Kathleen. Accounting for Success: A History of Price Waterhouse in America, 1890-1990. (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press, 1993), 268.
- Walker, Steven. "East Orange fire officials blame arson for loss of old Upsala College building" in The Star-Ledger (31 March 1998).
- Dilworth, Kevin. "Upsala campus headed for new heights" (6 February 2000), "2 get nod to put housing on old Upsala campus" (31 October 2003), "College campus preps for new career Developers close on deal for 20-acres destined for housing mix" (18 March 2005), and "Hallowed halls reduced to rubble in East Orange" (31 March 2006) in The Star-Ledger.
- "Dirty Jobs" (television programme), Episode #220 "Coal Miner" (2006).
- Roth, Philip. American Pastoral (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997), passim.
- Friend, Tad. "The Talk of the Town - Ink" in The New Yorker (26 May 1997), 29; Lichtenstein, Gene. "A Writer's Journey (A Literary Essay and, in Part, a Memoir)." in Jewish Social Studies (Spring–Summer 1997), 3(3):156–176.
- Upsala College Alumni Page
- Jim Coleman's website on Upsala College
- Bill Taebel's website on Upsala College
- Upsala photographs on Flickr.com
- I nya Uppsala. Bref från Carl Sundbeck (Swedish, "In New Uppsala. Letter from Carl Sundbeck"), article in the Swedish periodical Hvar 8 Dag, 3:36 (1902).
- City of East Orange - Press Release: Groundbreaking Ceremonies for Woodlands at Upsala
- Website of former Upsala College radio station