Upstream and downstream (transduction)

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In molecular biology, the terms upstream and downstream can refer to the temporal and mechanistic order of cellular and molecular events.[1] For example, in signal transduction, the second messenger acts downstream to – that is to say, temporally after – activation of cell membrane receptors. The other way around, activation of cell membrane receptors occurs upstream of – that is to say, prior to – the production of second messengers.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Harvey Lodish (2008). Molecular Cell Biology. W. H. Freeman. pp. 286–. ISBN 978-0-7167-7601-7.