Urban area

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Greater Tokyo in Japan, the world's most populated urban area, with about 40 million inhabitants as of 2022
Greater São Paulo at night, as seen from the International Space Station
Greater Melbourne at night, as seen from the International Space Station
Warsaw metropolitan area

An urban area, built-up area or urban agglomeration is a human settlement with a high population density and an infrastructure of built environment. This is the core of a metropolitan statistical area in the United States, if it contains a population of more than 50,000.[1]

Urban areas originate through urbanization, and researchers categorize them as cities, towns, conurbations or suburbs. In urbanism, the term "urban area" contrasts to rural areas such as villages and hamlets; in urban sociology or urban anthropology it contrasts with natural environment.[citation needed]

The development of earlier predecessors of modern urban areas during the urban revolution of the 4th millennium BCE[2] led to the formation of human civilization and ultimately to modern urban planning, which along with other human activities such as exploitation of natural resources has led to a human impact on the environment.

Historical growth[edit]

In 1950, around the world, 764 million people lived in urban areas. By 2014, it was 3.9 billion. The change was driven by a combination of increased total population and increased percent of population living in urban areas.[3] In 2009, the number of people living in urban areas (3.42 billion) surpassed the number living in rural areas (3.41 billion), and since then the world has become more urban than rural.[4] This was the first time that the majority of the world's population lived in a city.[5] In 2014 there were 7.3 billion people living on the planet,[6] of which the global urban population comprised 3.9 billion. The Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs at that time predicted the urban population would occupy 68% of the world population by 2050, with 90% of that growth coming from Africa and Asia.[7]

Urbanization[edit]

Urban land area (km2), 2010[8]
Urban areas with at least one million inhabitants in 2006

Urban areas are created and further developed by the process of urbanization. They are measured for various purposes, including analyzing population density and urban sprawl. Urban areas are also mostly found in the United States, Canada, Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Japan and Australia and many other countries where the urbanization rate is over 80%.[citation needed]

Unlike an urban area, a metropolitan area includes not only the urban area, but also satellite cities plus intervening rural land that is socio-economically connected to the urban core city, typically by employment ties through commuting, with the urban core city being the primary labor market.

The concept of an "urban area" as used in economic statistics should not be confused with the concept of the "urban area" used in road safety statistics. This term was first created by Geographer Brian Manning. The last concept is also known as "built-up area in road safety". According to the definition by the Office for National Statistics, "Built-up areas are defined as land which is 'irreversibly urban in character', meaning that they are characteristic of a town or city. They include areas of built-up land with a minimum of 20 hectares (200,000 m2; 49 acres). Any areas [separated by] less than 200 metres [of non-urban space] are linked to become a single built-up area.[9]

Argentina and Japan are countries where the urbanization rate is over 90% while Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Mexico and the United States are countries where the urbanization rate is between 80% and 90%.[citation needed]

Largest urban areas[edit]

There are two measures of the degree of urbanization of a population. The first, urban population, describes the percentage of the total population living in urban areas, as defined by the country. The second measure, rate of urbanization, describes the projected average rate of change of the size of the urban population over the given period of time. According to Urbanization by sovereign state article, the world as a whole is 56.2% urbanized, with roughly one-quarter of the countries reported as greater than 80% urbanized. Data is taken from the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency World Factbook estimates from 2020.[10]

According to Demographia, these are the 200 largest urban areas in the world by population (as of 2023):[11]

Urban Area Country Population
1 Tokyo-Yokohama Japan 37,785,000
2 Jakarta Indonesia 35,386,000
3 Delhi India 31,190,000
4 Guangzhou-Foshan China 27,119,000
5 Mumbai India 25,189,000
6 Manila Philippines 24,156,000
7 Shanghai China 24,042,000
8 Seoul-Incheon South Korea 23,225,000
9 Cairo Egypt 22,679,000
10 Mexico City Mexico 21,905,000
11 Kolkata India 21,747,000
12 São Paulo Brazil 21,486,000
13 New York United States 21,396,000
14 Karachi Pakistan 20,249,000
15 Dhaka Bangladesh 19,134,000
16 Bangkok Thailand 18,884,000
17 Beijing China 18,883,000
18 Moscow Russia 17,878,000
19 Shenzhen China 17,778,000
20 Buenos Aires Argentina 15,748,000
21 Los Angeles United States 15,587,000
22 Johannesburg-Pretoria South Africa 15,551,000
23 Bangalore India 15,257,000
24 Chengdu China 15,016,000
25 Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam 14,953,000
26 Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto Japan 14,916,000
27 Lagos Nigeria 14,540,000
28 Istanbul Turkey 14,441,000
29 Lahore Pakistan 13,504,000
30 Kinshasa Democratic Republic of the Congo 13,493,000
31 Tehran Iran 13,382,000
32 Chongqing China 12,653,000
33 Rio de Janeiro Brazil 12,306,000
34 Xi'an China 12,211,000
35 Chennai India 11,570,000
36 Paris France 11,108,000
37 Zhengzhou China 11,068,000
38 Luanda Angola 10,914,000
39 London United Kingdom 10,803,000
40 Dongguan China 10,753,000
41 Lima Peru 10,556,000
42 Wuhan China 10,353,000
43 Bogota Colombia 10,252,000
44 Tianjin China 10,047,000
45 Hyderabad India 9,797,000
46 Taipei Taiwan 9,662,000
47 Hangzhou China 9,618,000
48 Nagoya Japan 9,439,000
49 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia 9,387,000
50 Chicago United States 8,954,000
51 Nanjing China 8,507,000
52 Riyadh Saudi Arabia 8,309,000
53 Shenyang-Fushun China 8,044,000
54 Ahmadabad India 8,006,000
55 Dar es Salaam Tanzania 7,965,000
56 Washington-Baltimore United States 7,853,000
57 Boston-Providence United States 7,429,000
58 Onitsha Nigeria 7,205,000
59 Bandung Indonesia 7,203,000
60 Addis Ababa Ethiopia 7,185,000
61 Khartoum Sudan 7,155,000
62 Santiago Chile 7,099,000
63 Dallas-Fort Worth United States 6,979,000
64 Nairobi Kenya 6,929,000
65 San Francisco-San Jose United States 6,844,000
66 Toronto Canada 6,837,000
67 Pune India 6,819,000
68 Madrid Spain 6,798,000
69 Essen-Düsseldorf Germany 6,769,000
70 Quanzhou China 6,743,000
71 Houston United States 6,703,000
72 Baghdad Iraq 6,624,000
73 Surat India 6,601,000
74 Amman Jordan 6,563,000
75 Surabaya Indonesia 6,556,000
76 Hong Kong China 6,468,000
77 Yangon Myanmar 6,426,000
78 Hanoi Vietnam 6,359,000
79 Qingdao China 6,291,000
80 Miami United States 6,139,000
81 Suzhou China 6,091,000
82 Singapore Singapore 5,926,000
83 Philadelphia United States 5,795,000
84 Accra Ghana 5,785,000
85 St. Petersburg Russia 5,750,000
86 Atlanta United States 5,702,000
87 Abidjan Ivory Coast 5,678,000
88 Kabul Afghanistan 5,566,000
89 Alexandria Egypt 5,552,000
90 Milan Italy 5,471,000
91 Jiddah Saudi Arabia 5,408,000
92 Ankara Turkey 5,359,000
93 Faisalabad Pakistan 5,356,000
94 Barcelona Spain 5,317,000
95 Xiamen China 5,253,000
96 Belo Horizonte Brazil 5,242,000
97 Taiyuan China 5,067,000
98 Changsha China 5,065,000
99 Hefei China 5,052,000
100 Mashhad Iran 5,045,000
101 Kunming China 4,995,000
102 Rawalpindi-Islamabad Pakistan 4,954,000
103 Dubai United Arab Emirates 4,945,000
104 Sydney Australia 4,836,000
105 Kumasi Ghana 4,794,000
106 Melbourne Australia 4,709,000
107 Kampala Uganda 4,679,000
108 Monterrey Mexico 4,674,000
109 Kano Nigeria 4,670,000
110 Lucknow India 4,661,000
111 Yaounde Cameroon 4,642,000
112 Phoenix United States 4,617,000
113 Cape Town South Africa 4,595,000
114 Ürümqi China 4,548,000
115 Wuxi China 4,524,000
116 Casablanca Morocco 4,499,000
117 Fuzhou China 4,487,000
118 Guadalajara Mexico 4,401,000
119 İzmir Turkey 4,367,251
120 Jaipur India 4,360,000
121 Kanpur India 4,350,000
122 Santo Domingo Dominican Republic 4,345,000
123 Berlin Germany 4,286,000
124 Guiyang China 4,269,000
125 Detroit United States 4,258,000
126 Nanchang China 4,240,000
127 Mogadishu Somalia 4,219,000
128 Changzhou China 4,206,000
129 Chittagong Bangladesh 4,204,000
130 Dalian China 4,177,000
131 Zhongshan China 4,113,000
132 Kuwait Kuwait 4,066,000
133 Jinan China 4,057,000
134 Medan Indonesia 4,027,000
135 Wenzhou China 4,024,000
136 Seattle United States 4,001,000
137 Tashkent Uzbekistan 3,935,000
138 Shijiazhuang China 3,871,000
139 Harbin China 3,869,000
140 Recife Brazil 3,866,000
141 Busan South Korea 3,843,000
142 Bamako Mali 3,783,000
143 Indore India 3,765,000
144 Douala Cameroon 3,751,000
145 Montreal Canada 3,750,000
146 Ibadan Nigeria 3,657,000
147 Naples Italy 3,653,000
148 Sana Yemen 3,585,000
149 Colombo Sri Lanka 3,532,000
150 Dakar Senegal 3,510,000
151 Porto Alegre Brazil 3,504,000
152 Mbuji-Mayi Democratic Republic of the Congo 3,493,000
153 Nagpur India 3,493,000
154 Algiers Algeria 3,462,000
155 Durban South Africa 3,452,000
156 Port Harcourt Nigeria 3,429,000
157 Fortaleza Brazil 3,415,000
158 Brasilia Brazil 3,406,000
159 Changchun China 3,387,000
160 Salvador Brazil 3,344,000
161 Patna India 3,331,000
162 Athens Greece 3,309,000
163 Nanning China 3,249,000
164 Kathmandu Nepal 3,247,000
165 Medellin Colombia 3,242,000
166 Rome Italy 3,239,000
167 Varanasi India 3,229,000
168 Gujranwala Pakistan 3,218,000
169 Tampa-St. Petersburg United States 3,203,000
170 Lusaka Zambia 3,202,000
171 Guayaquil Ecuador 3,183,000
172 Ouagadougou Burkina Faso 3,181,000
173 Damascus Syria 3,155,000
174 San Diego United States 3,078,000
175 Orlando United States 3,075,000
176 Kozhikode India 3,049,000
177 Brisbane-Gold Coast Australia 3,039,000
178 Rotterdam-Hague Netherlands 3,027,000
179 Tel Aviv Israel 3,006,000
180 Baku Azerbaijan 3,002,000
181 Kiyev Ukraine 3,001,000
182 Ad-Dammam Saudi Arabia 2,994,000
183 Lanzhou China 2,977,000
184 Charlotte United States 2,879,000
185 Curitiba Brazil 2,873,000
186 Cleveland United States 2,871,000
187 Brazzaville Republic of the Congo 2,860,000
188 Aleppo Syria 2,859,000
189 Thiruvananthapuram India 2,851,000
190 Lisbon Portugal 2,832,000
191 Minneapolis-St. Paul United States 2,796,000
192 Campinas Brazil 2,789,000
193 Hyderabad Pakistan 2,789,000
194 Multan Pakistan 2,783,000
195 Conakry Guinea 2,781,000
196 Quito Ecuador 2,778,000
197 Zhangjiaggang China 2,770,000
198 Guatemala City Guatemala 2,765,000
199 Lubumbashi Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,750,000
200 Agra India 2,737,000

Very highly urbanized countries[edit]

This is a partial list of countries where the urbanization rate is at least 80%:

Those with the rate at 100%:

Definitions[edit]

The UN publishes data on cities, urban areas and rural areas, but relies almost entirely on national definitions of these areas. The UN principles and recommendations state that due to different characteristics of urban and rural areas across the globe, a global definition is not possible.[12]

European countries[which?] define urbanized areas on the basis of urban-type land use, not allowing any gaps of typically more than 200 metres (220 yd), and use satellite imagery instead of census blocks to determine the boundaries of the urban area. In less-developed countries[which?], in addition to land use and density requirements, a requirement that a large majority of the population, typically 75%, is not engaged in agriculture and/or fishing is sometimes used.[citation needed]

By region[edit]

East Asia[edit]

China[edit]

Since 2000, China's cities have expanded at an average rate of 10% annually. It is estimated that China's urban population will increase by 292 million people by 2050,[3] when its cities will house a combined population of over one billion.[13] The country's urbanization rate increased from 17.4% to 46.6% between 1978 and 2009.[14] Between 150 and 200 million migrant workers work part-time in the major cities, returning home to the countryside periodically with their earnings.[15][16]

China has more cities with one million or more long-term residents than any other country, including the three global cities of Beijing, Hong Kong, and Shanghai; by 2025, the country will be home to 221 cities with over a million inhabitants.[13] The figures in the table below are from the 2008 census, and are only estimates of the urban populations within administrative city limits; a different ranking exists when considering the total municipal populations (which includes suburban and rural populations). The large "floating populations" of migrant workers make conducting censuses in urban areas difficult;[17] the figures below include only long-term residents.

Panoramic view of Pudong's skyline from the Bund in Shanghai
 
Largest cities or municipalities in China
China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2020 Urban Population and Urban Temporary Population [18][note 1][note 2]
Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.
Shanghai
Shanghai
Beijing
Beijing
1 Shanghai SH 24,281,400 11 Hong Kong HK 7,448,900 Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Shenzhen
Shenzhen
2 Beijing BJ 19,164,000 12 Zhengzhou HA 7,179,400
3 Guangzhou GD 13,858,700 13 Nanjing JS 6,823,500
4 Shenzhen GD 13,438,800 14 Xi'an SN 6,642,100
5 Tianjin TJ 11,744,400 15 Jinan SD 6,409,600
6 Chongqing CQ 11,488,000 16 Shenyang LN 5,900,000
7 Dongguan GD 9,752,500 17 Qingdao SD 5,501,400
8 Chengdu SC 8,875,600 18 Harbin HL 5,054,500
9 Wuhan HB 8,652,900 19 Hefei AH 4,750,100
10 Hangzhou ZJ 8,109,000 20 Changchun JL 4,730,900
  1. ^ Population of Hong Kong as of 2018 estimate.[19]
  2. ^ The data of Chongqing in the list is the data of "Metropolitan Developed Economic Area", which contains two parts: "City Proper" and "Metropolitan Area". The "City proper" are consist of 9 districts: Yuzhong, Dadukou, Jiangbei, Shapingba, Jiulongpo, Nan'an, Beibei, Yubei, & Banan, has the urban population of 5,646,300 as of 2018. And the "Metropolitan Area" are consist of 12 districts: Fuling, Changshou, Jiangjin, Hechuan, Yongchuan, Nanchuan, Qijiang, Dazu, Bishan, Tongliang, Tongnan, & Rongchang, has the urban population of 5,841,700.[20] Total urban population of all 26 districts of Chongqing are up to 15,076,600.

Japan[edit]

In Japan, urbanized areas are defined as contiguous areas of densely inhabited districts (DIDs) using census enumeration districts as units with a density requirement of 4,000 inhabitants per square kilometre (10,000/sq mi).

South Korea[edit]

Seoul is the largest urban area in South Korea.

South Asia[edit]

India[edit]

For the Census of India 2011, the definition of urban area is a place having a minimum population of 5,000 of density 400 persons per square kilometre (1,000/sq mi) or higher, and 75% plus of the male working population employed in non-agricultural activities. Places administered by a municipal corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee are automatically considered urban areas.[21]

The Census of India 2011 also defined the term "urban agglomeration" as an integrated urban area consisting of a core town together with its "outgrowths" (contiguous suburbs).[22]

(2011 census)[23][24]

Mumbai
Mumbai
Delhi
Delhi
Kolkata
Kolkata
Chennai
Chennai
Bangalore
Bangalore
Hyderabad
Hyderabad

Rank City Name State/Territory Population Rank City Name State/Territory Population

Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Pune
Pune
Surat
Surat
Jaipur
Jaipur
Kanpur
Kanpur
Lucknow
Lucknow

1 Mumbai Maharashtra 18,394,912 28 Ludhiana Punjab 1,618,879
2 Delhi Delhi 16,349,831 29 Nashik Maharashtra 1,562,769
3 Kolkata West Bengal 14,112,536 30 Vijayawada Andhra Pradesh 1,491,202
4 Chennai Tamil Nadu 8,696,010 31 Madurai Tamil Nadu 1,465,625
5 Bengaluru Karnataka 8,520,435 32 Varanasi Uttar Pradesh 1,435,113
6 Hyderabad Telangana 7,749,334 33 Meerut Uttar Pradesh 1,424,908
7 Ahmedabad Gujarat 6,361,084 34 Faridabad Haryana 1,414,050
8 Pune Maharashtra 5,057,709 35 Rajkot Gujarat 1,390,933
9 Surat Gujarat 4,591,246 36 Jamshedpur Jharkhand 1,339,438
10 Jaipur Rajasthan 3,073,350 37 Srinagar Jammu and Kashmir 1,273,312
11 Kanpur Uttar Pradesh 2,920,496 38 Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh 1,268,848
12 Lucknow Uttar Pradesh 2,902,920 39 Asansol West Bengal 1,243,414
13 Nagpur Maharashtra 2,497,870 40 Vasai-Virar Maharashtra 1,222,390
14 Ghaziabad Uttar Pradesh 2,375,820 41 Allahabad Uttar Pradesh 1,216,719
15 Indore Madhya Pradesh 2,170,295 42 Dhanbad Jharkhand 1,196,214
16 Coimbatore Tamil Nadu 2,151,466 43 Aurangabad Maharashtra 1,193,167
17 Kochi Kerala 2,119,724 44 Amritsar Punjab 1,183,705
18 Patna Bihar 2,049,156 45 Jodhpur Rajasthan 1,138,300
19 Kozhikode Kerala 2,030,519 46 Ranchi Jharkhand 1,126,741
20 Bhopal Madhya Pradesh 1,886,100 47 Raipur Chhattisgarh 1,123,558
21 Thrissur Kerala 1,861,269 48 Kollam Kerala 1,110,668
22 Vadodara Gujarat 1,822,221 49 Gwalior Madhya Pradesh 1,102,884
23 Agra Uttar Pradesh 1,760,285 50 Bhilai Chhattisgarh 1,064,222
24 Visakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh 1,730,320 51 Chandigarh Chandigarh 1,026,459
25 Malappuram Kerala 1,699,060 52 Tiruchirappalli Tamil Nadu 1,022,518
26 Thiruvananthapuram Kerala 1,687,406 53 Kota Rajasthan 1,001,694
27 Kannur Kerala 1,642,892 54 Mysore Karnataka 990,900


Pakistan[edit]

In Pakistan, an area is a major city and municipality if it has more than 100,000 inhabitants according to census results. Cities include adjacent cantonments. Urbanisation in Pakistan has increased since the time of independence and has several different causes. The majority of southern Pakistan's population lives along the Indus River. Karachi is its most populous city.[25] In the northern half of the country, most of the population lives in an arc formed by the cities of Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Jhelum, Sargodha, Sheikhupura, Nowshera, Mardan and Peshawar. During 1990–2008, city dwellers made up 36% of Pakistan's population, making it the most urbanised nation in South Asia. Furthermore, 50% of Pakistanis live in towns of 5,000 people or more.[26] Karachi is the most populated city in Pakistan closely followed by Lahore according to the 2017 Census.

Bangladesh[edit]

In Bangladesh, there are total 532 urban areas, which are divided into three categories. Those are City Corporation, Municipal Corporation (Pourasova) and Upazila town. Among those urban areas, Dhaka is the largest city by population and area, with a population of 19.10 million.[27] In Bangladesh, there are total 11 City Corporations and 329 Municipal Corporations and 203 Small towns, which serves as the center for Upazilas. According to 2011 population census, Bangladesh has an urban population of 28%, with a growth rate of 2.8%.[28] At this growth rate, it is estimated that the urban population of Bangladesh will reach 79 million or 42% of total population by 2035.

Southeast Asia[edit]

Philippines[edit]

In 2020, 54 percent of the Philippine population lived in urban areas.[29] With an estimated population of 16.3 million, Metro Manila is the most populous metropolitan area in the Philippines and the 11th in the world. However, the greater urban area is the 5th largest in the world with a population of 20,654,307 people (2010 estimate).[30]

Singapore[edit]

As an island city-state, about 5.6 million people live and work within 700 square kilometres (270 sq mi). With 64 islands and islets, Singapore Island makes up the largest urban area in the country. According to the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, the country has the highest urbanised population in Southeast Asia, with 100 percent of its population living in an urban area.[31] The Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) is responsible for the urban land-use planning, which designates land use and urban density of the country.[32] The country is divided into 5 regions for planning purposes by the URA, even though as a city state Singapore is defined as a single continuous urban area. It is further subdivided into 55 urban planning areas, which acts as the boundaries of planned towns within the country.[33]

Vietnam[edit]

In Vietnam, there are six types of urban areas:

Thailand[edit]

Bangkok is the largest urban area in Thailand.

Europe[edit]

Finland[edit]

A street sign in Vimpeli indicating the beginning of an urban area in Finland

As in other Nordic countries, an urban area (taajama in Finnish) in Finland must have a building at least every 200 m (660 ft) and at least 200 people. To be considered a town or a city (kaupunki) for statistical purposes, an urban area must have at least 15,000 people. This is not to be confused with the city / town designation used by municipalities.[34][35]

France[edit]

In France, an urban area (Fr: aire d'attraction d'une ville) is a zone encompassing an area of built-up growth (called an "urban unit" (unité urbaine)[36] – close in definition to the North American urban area) and its commuter belt (couronne). Americans would find the INSEE definition of the urban area[37] to be similar to their metropolitan area.

The largest cities in France, in terms of urban area population (2017), are Paris (12,628,266), Lyon (2,323,221), Marseille (1,760,653), Toulouse (1,360,829), Bordeaux (1,247,977), Lille (1,191,117), Nice (1,006,201), Nantes (972,828), Strasbourg (790,087) and Rennes (733,320).[38]

Panorama of Paris as seen from the Eiffel Tower as full 360-degree view (river flowing from north-east to south-west, right to left)

Germany[edit]

Germany has a number of large cities. The largest conurbation is the Rhine-Ruhr region (11 million in 2008), including Düsseldorf (the capital of North Rhine-Westphalia), Cologne, Bonn, Dortmund, Essen, Duisburg, and Bochum.[39]

 
Largest urban agglomerations in Germany
Rank Name State Pop. Rank Name State Pop.
Rhine-Ruhr
Rhine-Ruhr
Berlin
Berlin
1 Rhine-Ruhr North Rhine-Westphalia 11,199,073 11 Chemnitz Saxony 867,051 Rhine-Main
Rhine-Main
Stuttgart
Stuttgart
2 Berlin Berlin 4,661,925 12 Hanover Lower Saxony 807,181
3 Rhine-Main Hesse 3,200,201 13 Dresden Saxony 799,317
4 Stuttgart Baden-Württemberg 3,044,428 14 Saar Saarland 762,791
5 Munich Bavaria 2,415,964 15 Bremen Bremen 668,074
6 Hamburg Hamburg 2,399,250 16 Aachen North Rhine-Westphalia 663,371
7 Rhine-Neckar Baden-Württemberg 1,426,056 17 Karlsruhe Baden-Württemberg 612,031
8 Nuremberg Bavaria 1,247,309 18 Augsburg Bavaria 554,118
9 Leipzig Saxony 1,068,429 19 Freiburg im Breisgau Baden-Württemberg 339,767
10 Bielefeld North Rhine-Westphalia 941,933 20 Kassel Hesse 335,358

Netherlands[edit]

The Netherlands is the 30th-most densely populated country in the world, with 404.6 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,048/sq mi)—or 497 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,287/sq mi) if only the land area is counted. The Randstad is the country's largest conurbation located in the west of the country and contains the four largest cities: Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, and Utrecht. The Randstad has a population of 7 million inhabitants and is the 6th largest metropolitan area in Europe.

Norway[edit]

Norway defines urban areas ("tettsteder") similarly to the other Nordic countries. Unlike in Denmark and Sweden, the distance between each building has to be of less than 50 m, although exceptions are made due to parks, industrial areas, rivers, and similar. Groups of houses less than 400 m from the main body of an urban area are included in the urban area.[40]

Poland[edit]

In Poland, official "urban" population figures simply refer to those localities which have the status of towns (miasta). The "rural" population is that of all areas outside the boundaries of these towns. This distinction may give a misleading impression in some cases, since some localities with only village status may have acquired larger and denser populations than many many smaller towns[41] with most excessive example of Poznań, most spread urban area of the country with population of the city app. 534 thousand and metropolitan area around 1 million inhabitants. On the other hand, the Katowice urban area with numerous large and medium cities covers 1,468 km and has above 2 million people. The metropolitan areas in Poland are the biggest urban zones (e.g. Katowice metropolitan area, Łódź metropolitan area and Szczecin metropolitan area) and have great impact on the rural surroundings, as it is around Lublin, Radom, Kielce, Tarnów and Białystok.

Russia[edit]

Moscow, the capital and largest city of Russia

Moscow, the capital and largest city of Russia, has a population estimated at 12.4 million residents within the city limits,[42] while over 17 million residents in the urban area,[43] and over 20 million residents in the Moscow Metropolitan Area.[44] It is among the world's largest cities, being the most populous city entirely within Europe, the most populous urban area in Europe,[43] the most populous metropolitan area in Europe,[44] and also the largest city by land area on the European continent.[45] Saint Petersburg, the cultural capital, is the second-largest city, with a population of roughly 5.4 million inhabitants.[46] Other major urban areas are Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, and Chelyabinsk.

 
Largest cities or towns in Russia
Rank Name Federal subject Pop. Rank Name Federal subject Pop.
Moscow
Moscow
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
1 Moscow Moscow 13,010,112 11 Rostov-on-Don Rostov Oblast 1,142,162 Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
2 Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg 5,601,911 12 Omsk Omsk Oblast 1,125,695
3 Novosibirsk Novosibirsk Oblast 1,633,595 13 Krasnodar Krasnodar Krai 1,099,344
4 Yekaterinburg Sverdlovsk Oblast 1,544,376 14 Voronezh Voronezh Oblast 1,057,681
5 Kazan Tatarstan 1,308,660 15 Perm Perm Krai 1,034,002
6 Nizhny Novgorod Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 1,228,199 16 Volgograd Volgograd Oblast 1,028,036
7 Chelyabinsk Chelyabinsk Oblast 1,189,525 17 Saratov Saratov Oblast 901,361
8 Krasnoyarsk Krasnoyarsk Krai 1,187,771 18 Tyumen Tyumen Oblast 847,488
9 Samara Samara Oblast 1,173,299 19 Tolyatti Samara Oblast 684,709
10 Ufa Bashkortostan 1,144,809 20 Barnaul Altai Krai 630,877

Spain[edit]

Spain is a very highly urbanized country. Madrid is its largest urban area. The Southern and Eastern coasts with Barcelona, Valencia and Málaga are more urbanised than the Northern and Western ones.

Sweden[edit]

Urban areas in Sweden (tätorter) are statistically defined localities, totally independent of the administrative subdivision of the country. There are 1,956 such localities in Sweden, with a population ranging from 200 to 1,372,000 inhabitants.[48]

United Kingdom[edit]

In 2013 the United Kingdom's Office for National Statistics (ONS) published 2011 Built-up Areas – Methodology and Guidance which sets out its definition of a Built-up area (BUA) as an area of built-up land of at least 20 hectares (0.077 sq mi), separated from other settlements by at least 200 metres (660 ft). For 2011 census data there are 5,493 built-up areas, of which 501 are divided into Built-up area sub-divisions (BUASD) for which data is also available. Each built-up area is named algorithmically, using Ordnance Survey place-name data.[49]

The ONS has produced census results from urban areas since 1951, since 1981 based upon the extent of irreversible urban development indicated on Ordnance Survey maps. The definition is an extent of at least 20 ha and at least 1,500 census residents. Separate areas are linked if less than 200 m (220 yd) apart. Included are transportation features.[50] The UK has five Urban Areas with a population over a million and a further sixty nine with a population over one hundred thousand.

 
Largest urban areas of the United Kingdom
(England and Wales: 2011 census built-up area;[51] Scotland: 2016 estimates settlement;[52] Northern Ireland: 2001 census urban area)[53]
Rank Urban area Pop. Principal settlement Rank Urban area Pop. Principal settlement
1 Greater London 9,787,426 London 11 Bristol 617,280 Bristol
2 Greater Manchester 2,553,379 Manchester 12 Edinburgh 512,150 Edinburgh
3 West Midlands 2,440,986 Birmingham 13 Leicester 508,916 Leicester
4 West Yorkshire 1,777,934 Leeds 14 Belfast 483,418 Belfast
5 Greater Glasgow 985,290 Glasgow 15 Brighton & Hove 474,485 Brighton
6 Liverpool 864,122 Liverpool 16 South East Dorset 466,266 Bournemouth
7 South Hampshire 855,569 Southampton 17 Cardiff 390,214 Cardiff
8 Tyneside 774,891 Newcastle upon Tyne 18 Teesside 376,633 Middlesbrough
9 Nottingham 729,977 Nottingham 19 Stoke-on-Trent 372,775 Stoke-on-Trent
10 Sheffield 685,368 Sheffield 20 Coventry 359,262 Coventry

Oceania[edit]

Australia[edit]

The Australian Bureau of Statistics refers to urban areas as Urban Centres, which it generally defines as population clusters of 1,000 or more people.[54] Australia is one of the most urbanised countries in the world, with more than 50% of the population residing in Australia's three biggest urban centres.[citation needed][54]

Sydney is Australia's largest city, home to 5.3 million inhabitants.[55]
 
Largest populated areas in Australia
Rank Name State Pop. Rank Name State Pop.
Sydney
Sydney
Melbourne
Melbourne
1 Sydney NSW 5,259,764 11 Geelong Vic 289,400 Brisbane
Brisbane
Perth
Perth
2 Melbourne Vic 4,976,157 12 Hobart Tas 251,047
3 Brisbane Qld 2,568,927 13 Townsville Qld 181,665
4 Perth WA 2,192,229 14 Cairns Qld 155,638
5 Adelaide SA 1,402,393 15 Darwin NT 148,801
6 Gold CoastTweed Heads Qld/NSW 706,673 16 Toowoomba Qld 143,994
7 NewcastleMaitland NSW 509,894 17 Ballarat Vic 111,702
8 CanberraQueanbeyan ACT/NSW 482,250 18 Bendigo Vic 102,899
9 Sunshine Coast Qld 355,631 19 Albury-Wodonga NSW/Vic 97,676
10 Wollongong NSW 305,880 20 Launceston Tas 93,332

New Zealand[edit]

Statistics New Zealand defines urban areas in New Zealand, which are independent of any administrative subdivisions and have no legal basis.[57] There are four classes of urban area: major urban areas (population 100,000+), large urban areas (population 30,000–99,999), medium urban areas (population 10,000–29,999) and small urban areas (population 1,000–9,999). As of 2021, there are 7 major urban areas, 13 large urban areas, 22 medium urban areas and 136 small urban areas. Urban areas are reclassified after each New Zealand census, so population changes between censuses does not change an urban area's classification.

 
Largest cities or towns in New Zealand
Statistics New Zealand June 2023 estimate (SSGA18 boundaries)[58]
Rank Name Region Pop. Rank Name Region Pop.
Auckland
Auckland
Christchurch
Christchurch
1 Auckland Auckland 1,478,800 11 Porirua Wellington 60,900 Wellington
Wellington
Hamilton
Hamilton
2 Christchurch Canterbury 384,800 12 New Plymouth Taranaki 59,600
3 Wellington Wellington 215,200 13 Rotorua Bay of Plenty 58,900
4 Hamilton Waikato 185,300 14 Whangārei Northland 56,900
5 Tauranga Bay of Plenty 161,800 15 Nelson Nelson 51,900
6 Lower Hutt Wellington 113,000 16 Hastings Hawke's Bay 51,500
7 Dunedin Otago 106,200 17 Invercargill Southland 51,000
8 Palmerston North Manawatū-Whanganui 82,500 18 Upper Hutt Wellington 45,400
9 Napier Hawke's Bay 67,500 19 Whanganui Manawatū-Whanganui 42,800
10 Hibiscus Coast Auckland 63,400 20 Gisborne Gisborne 38,200

North America[edit]

Canada[edit]

According to Statistics Canada, an urban area in Canada is an area with a population of at least 1,000 people where the density is no fewer than 400 persons per square kilometre (1,000/sq mi).[59] If two or more urban areas are within 2 km (1.2 mi) of each other by road, they are merged into a single urban area, provided they do not cross census metropolitan area or census agglomeration boundaries.[60]

In the Canada 2011 Census, Statistics Canada redesignated urban areas with the new term "population centre";[61] the new term was chosen in order to better reflect the fact that urban vs. rural is not a strict division, but rather a continuum within which several distinct settlement patterns may exist. For example, a community may fit a strictly statistical definition of an urban area, but may not be commonly thought of as "urban" because it has a smaller population, or functions socially and economically as a suburb of another urban area rather than as a self-contained urban entity, or is geographically remote from other urban communities. Accordingly, the new definition set out three distinct types of population centres: small (population 1,000 to 29,999), medium (population 30,000 to 99,999) and large (population 100,000 or greater).[61] Despite the change in terminology, however, the demographic definition of a population centre remains unchanged from that of an urban area: a population of at least 1,000 people where the density is no fewer than 400 persons per km2.

 
Largest metropolitan areas in Canada
Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.
1 Toronto Ontario 6,202,225 11 London Ontario 543,551
2 Montreal Quebec 4,291,732 12 Halifax Nova Scotia 465,703
3 Vancouver British Columbia 2,642,825 13 St. Catharines–Niagara Ontario 433,604
4 Ottawa–Gatineau Ontario–Quebec 1,488,307 14 Windsor Ontario 422,630
5 Calgary Alberta 1,481,806 15 Oshawa Ontario 415,311
6 Edmonton Alberta 1,418,118 16 Victoria British Columbia 397,237
7 Quebec City Quebec 839,311 17 Saskatoon Saskatchewan 317,480
8 Winnipeg Manitoba 834,678 18 Regina Saskatchewan 249,217
9 Hamilton Ontario 785,184 19 Sherbrooke Quebec 227,398
10 Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo Ontario 575,847 20 Kelowna British Columbia 222,162

Mexico[edit]

Mexico is one of many countries where the urbanization rate is at least 80%. Mexico City, its capital, is the largest urban area in the country.

United States[edit]

In the United States, the Census Bureau defines urban areas and delineates urban area boundaries after each census. The Bureau defines an urban area as "a statistical geographic entity consisting of a densely settled core created from census blocks and contiguous qualifying territory that together have at least 2,000 housing units or 5,000 persons."[63] There were 2,646 urban areas identified by the Census Bureau for 2020. 511 of these had a population of 50,000 or more.[64]

For the 2000 and 2010 censuses, the Census Bureau differentiated between two kinds of urban areas: urbanized areas and urban clusters. The term urbanized area denoted an urban area of 50,000 or more people. Urban areas under 50,000 people were called urban clusters. Urbanized areas were first delineated in the United States in the 1950 census, while urban clusters were added in the 2000 census. The distinction between urbanized areas and urban clusters was removed for the 2020 census.[63]

Urban areas consist of a densely-settled urban core, plus surrounding developed areas that meet certain density criteria. Since urban areas are composed of census blocks and not cities, counties, or county-equivalents, urban area boundaries may consist of partial areas of these political units. Urban areas are distinguished from rural areas: any area not part of an urban area is considered to be rural by the Census Bureau.[63]

The largest urban area in the United States is that of New York City and its surrounding suburbs. The New York–Jersey CityNewark, NY–NJ urban area had a population of 19,426,449 as of 2020, while the larger metropolitan area had a population of 20,140,470, and the combined statistical area had a population of 23,582,649. The next five largest urban areas in the U.S. are those of Los Angeles, Chicago, Miami, Houston, and Dallas.[64] 80.0 percent of the population of the United States lives within the boundaries of an urban area as of the 2020 census.[65]

The concept of Urbanized Areas as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau is often used as a more accurate gauge of the size of a city, since in different cities and states the lines between city borders and the urbanized area of that city are often not the same. For example, the city of Greenville, South Carolina has a city population just over 68,000 and an urbanized area population of around 400,000, while Greensboro, North Carolina has a city population just over 285,000 and an urbanized area population of around 300,000 — meaning that Greenville is actually "larger" for some intents and purposes, but not for others, such as taxation, local elections, etc.

In the U.S. Department of Agriculture's natural resources inventory, urban areas are officially known as developed areas or urban and built-up areas. Such areas include cities, ethnic villages, other built-up areas of more than 10 ac (4 ha), industrial sites, railroad yards, cemeteries, airports, golf courses, shooting ranges, institutional and public administration sites, and similar areas. The 1997 national resources inventory placed over 98,000,000 ac (40,000,000 ha) in this category, an increase of 25,000,000 ac (10,000,000 ha) since 1982.[66]

South America[edit]

Argentina[edit]

Argentina is highly urbanized.[67] The ten largest metropolitan areas account for half of the population, and fewer than one in ten live in rural areas. About 3 million people live in Buenos Aires City and the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area totals around 15 million, making it one of the largest urban areas in the world, with a population of 18 million all up.[68]

Córdoba has around 1.5 million people living in the urban area, while Rosario, Mendoza and Tucumán have around 1.2 million inhabitants each[68] and La Plata, Mar del Plata, Salta and Santa Fe[68][69] have at least 500,000 people each.

Brazil[edit]

In Brazil, the terms metropolitan area (Portuguese: região metropolitana) and urban agglomeration (aglomeração urbana) have specific meanings. They are defined by federal and state legislation as collections of municipalities focused on "integrating the organization, planning and execution of public functions of common interest".[70] An integrated development area (região integrada de desenvolvimento) is one of the two above structures that crosses state (or Federal District) boundaries.
Skyline of São Paulo, the largest city in Brazil
 
Largest urban agglomerations in Brazil
Rank Name State Pop. Rank Name State Pop.
São Paulo
São Paulo
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
1 São Paulo São Paulo 21,314,716 11 Belém Pará 2,157,180 Belo Horizonte
Belo Horizonte
Recife
Recife
2 Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro 12,389,775 12 Manaus Amazonas 2,130,264
3 Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais 5,142,260 13 Campinas São Paulo 2,105,600
4 Recife Pernambuco 4,021,641 14 Vitória Espírito Santo 1,837,047
5 Brasília Federal District 3,986,425 15 Baixada Santista São Paulo 1,702,343
6 Porto Alegre Rio Grande do Sul 3,894,232 16 São José dos Campos São Paulo 1,572,943
7 Salvador Bahia 3,863,154 17 São Luís Maranhão 1,421,569
8 Fortaleza Ceará 3,594,924 18 Natal Rio Grande do Norte 1,349,743
9 Curitiba Paraná 3,387,985 19 Maceió Alagoas 1,231,965
10 Goiânia Goiás 2,347,557 20 João Pessoa Paraíba 1,168,941

Chile[edit]

Chile is highly urbanized. The largest urban area in the country is its capital, Santiago.

See also[edit]

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External links[edit]