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Urban kibbutz

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An urban kibbutz (Hebrew: קיבוץ עירוני, Kibbutz Ironi) is a form of kibbutz located within an existing city. There are currently just over 100 in Israel, totalling around 2,000 members.[1]

Although there were attempts to form urban kibbutzim in the early 20th century, their success was limited and most failed.[2] The idea was revived in the 1970s when they were established as co-operative communities by former kibbutz members and Nahal graduates. They were created as a way of retaining the kibbutz lifestyle whilst moving into mainstream society,[1] but more recently have been seen as a way of combatting social problems; in Haifa the city council asked members of the HaNoar HaOved VeHaLomed youth group to form an urban kibbutz in the Hadar neighbourhood in order to work with at-risk children.[3]

Some standard kibbutzim such as Mesilot began as urban kibbutzim. The urban kibbutz in Gedera was the first Ethiopian kibbutz in the country.[4]

List of urban kibbutzim[edit]


  1. ^ a b Eli Ashkenazi (23 January 2008). "What is an urban kibbutz?". Haaretz. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
  2. ^ Shulamit Reinharz (March 2008). "An Urban Kibbutz in Jerusalem". The Jewish Advocate. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
  3. ^ Fadi Eyadat (27 December 2006). "Urban kibbutz youth steer at-risk teens away from life of crime". Haaretz. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
  4. ^ Tamar Rotem (23 January 2008). "First kibbutz for Ethiopian immigrants opens in Gedera". Haaretz. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
  5. ^ Melanie Lidman (29 November 2009). "Housing on the horizon?". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 13 January 2014.

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