Urban rail transit in India

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Urban rail transit in India consists of suburban rail, rapid transit, monorail, light rail, and tram systems.

Suburban railway[edit]

Suburban rail plays a major role in the public transport system of many major Indian cities. Suburban rail is a rail service between a central business district and the suburbs, a conurbation or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. The trains are called suburban trains. These trains are also referred to as "local trains" or "locals". The suburban rail systems in Hyderabad, Pune, Barabanki–Lucknow, Lucknow–Kanpur and Bengaluru do not have dedicated suburban tracks but share tracks with long distance trains. The suburban rail system of Chennai and Mumbai have both dedicated tracks and tracks shared with long distance trains

The first suburban rail system in India is Mumbai Suburban Railway which started operations in 1853. The Kolkata Suburban Railway has the largest network in the entire country.

Suburban trains that handle commuter traffic are all electric multiple units (EMUs). They usually have nine or twelve coaches, sometimes even fifteen to handle rush hour traffic. One unit of an EMU train consists of one power car and two general coaches. Thus a nine coach EMU is made up of three units having one power car at each end and one at the middle. The rakes in the suburban rails run on 25kV AC.[1] Ridership on India's suburban railways has risen from 1.2 million in 1970–71 to 4.4 million in 2012–13. The suburban railways of Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai account for about 7.1% of the Indian Railways 20819.3  million train kilometres but contribute 53.2% of all railway passengers.[2] In some cities of India, the opening of rapid transit systems have led to a decline in the use of the suburban rail system.

  • White background In service
  • Green background Under construction
  • Blue background In planning
  • Yellow background Proposed but not planned
  • Pink background Proposed to be scrapped
System City State Opening Year System Length (km) No of Lines No of Stations Gauge Traction Notes
Mumbai Suburban Railway Mumbai Maharashtra 16 April 1853 427.5 6 140 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25kV AC
OHE
First suburban railway
Kolkata Suburban Railway Kolkata West Bengal 15 August 1854 1243 25 365+ 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25kV AC
OHE
Largest suburban railway
Lucknow–Kanpur Suburban Railway Lucknow
Kanpur
Uttar Pradesh 23 April 1867 72 2 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25kV AC
OHE
Chennai Suburban Railway Chennai Tamil Nadu 2 April 1931 303 4 150+ 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25kV AC
OHE
Largest Suburban Railway in South India
Delhi Suburban Railway(excluding NCR) Delhi Delhi 1 October 1975 85-100 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25kV AC
OHE
Pune Suburban Railway Pune Maharashtra 16 April 1978 63 2 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25kV AC
OHE
Hyderabad Multi-Modal Transport System Hyderabad Telangana 9 August 2003 43 3 36 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25kV AC
OHE
Barabanki–Lucknow Suburban Railway Barabanki
Lucknow
Uttar Pradesh 9 August 2013 36 2 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25kV AC
OHE
Pernem–Karwar Suburban Railway Goa
Karwar
Goa, Karnataka 1 April 2015 100 1 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25kV AC
OHE
Bengaluru Commuter Rail Bengaluru Karnataka Planning 200 2 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25kV AC
OHE
Ahmedabad Suburban Railway Ahmedabad Gujarat Planning 52.96 2 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25kV AC
OHE
Coimbatore Suburban Railway Coimbatore Tamil Nadu Proposed 2 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25kV AC
OHE
Delhi–Alwar Regional Rapid Transit System Delhi
Alwar
Delhi, Rajasthan Proposed
Delhi–Meerut Regional Rapid Transit System Delhi
Meerut
Delhi, Uttar Pradesh Proposed
Delhi–Panipat Regional Rapid Transit System Delhi
Panipat
Delhi, Haryana Proposed

Rapid transit (Metro)[edit]

There are currently 11 operational rapid transit (also called 'metro') systems in ten cities in India. As of November 2017, India has 425 kilometres (264 miles) of operational metro lines and 369 stations. A further 500+ km of lines are under construction. Metro rail lines in India are composed of mainly standard gauge. Projects like the Kolkata Metro and Delhi Metro used broad gauge for their earliest lines but all new projects in India are on standard gauge as rolling stock imported is of standard gauge.

The first rapid transit system in India is Kolkata Metro, which started operations in 1984. The Delhi Metro has the largest network in the entire country. The newest metro opened in Hyderabad Metro on 29 November 2017.

In 2006, the National Urban Transport Policy proposed the construction of a metro rail system in every city with a population of 20 lakh (2 million).[3] On 11 August 2014, Union Government announced that it would provide financial assistance, for the implementation of a metro rail system, to all Indian cities having a population of more than 1 million.[4][5] In May 2015, the Union Government approved the Union Urban Development Ministry's proposal to implement metro rail systems in 50 cities. The majority of the planned projects will be implemented through special purpose vehicles, which will be established as 50:50 joint ventures between the Union and respective State Government. The Union Government will invest an estimated 5 lakh crore (US$73 billion).[6][7] In a new draft policy unveiled in March 2017, the Central Government stated that it wanted state governments to consider metro rail as the "last option" and implement it only after considering all other possible mass rapid transit systems. The decision was taken due to the high cost of constructing metro rail systems.[8] In August 2017, the Union Government announced that it would not provide financial assistance to new metro rail project, unless some sort of private partnership is involved.[9][10][11]

  • White background In service
  • Green background Under construction
  • Blue background In planning
  • Yellow background Proposed but not planned
  • Pink background Defunct
System City State Opening System Length (km) No of Lines[a] No of Stations[b] Gauge Traction Notes
IO[c] UC[d] Planned[e]
Kolkata Metro Kolkata West Bengal 24 October 1984 27.22 113.42 1 24 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge
1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
750 V DC Third rail First mass rapid transit /metro rail system in India and the 17th zone of the Indian Railways. Its First in India to have the Third rail for power supply and the first to use fully Made in India metro coaches by ICF & BEML, First metro in India to run underwater through tunnel line below Hooghly river.
Delhi Metro Delhi NCR Delhi, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh 24 December 2002 296[12] 84[13] 111[14] 8 214 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge
1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
25kV AC OHE India's first modern rapid transit/metro system.
Namma Metro Bengaluru Karnataka 20 October 2011 42.30 34.37 57.07 2 41 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 750 V DC Third rail First metro in southern India and also first to have the third rail for power supply in south India & to introduce Wi-Fi onboard trains.[15]
Rapid Metro Gurgaon Haryana 14 November 2013 11.7 1 11 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 750 V DC Third rail India's first fully privately financed metro,[16] and the first metro system in the country to auction naming rights for its stations.[17]
Mumbai Metro Mumbai Maharashtra 8 June 2014 11.4 68.6 156.8 1 12 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25kV AC OHE India's first public private partnership (PPP) metro system with Reliance group.
Jaipur Metro Jaipur Rajasthan 3 June 2015 9.63 2.4 23.01 1 9 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25kV AC OHE Double-story elevated road and Metro track project for the first time in the country.
Chennai Metro Chennai Tamil Nadu 29 June 2015 35 18.52 104.4 2 26 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25kV AC OHE First metro rail in the country to connect two lines (blue & green) through loop line to run direct service from the airport to central even though had interchange station at Alandur. First metro in India for underground stations with sliding doors. First Metro service in India to use ALSTOM coaches.
Kochi Metro Kochi Kerala 17 June 2017[18] 18.4 25.6  56.7 3 49 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 750 V DC Third rail First Indian metro to go live with CBTC signalling.[19][20][21][22] The first metro in India to have QR code based ticket instead of tokens. First metro to had fully made in India Alstom coaches. The first metro in India to have theme-based stations.[22][23][24] the first government-owned company in India to formally appoint transgenders [25]. [26] First Indian Public Transport Organisation in the country to adopt an open-data approach and to Provide transit data in General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) format [27][28] Kochi metro has India's first open-loop transit card (Kochi-1 card) for travel. [29]
Lucknow Metro Lucknow Uttar Pradesh 5 September 2017 8.5 33  140 2 33 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25kV AC OHE The fastest built and commissioned metro system in the world.[30][31][32] Opened to the public on 5 September 2017.[33][34][35]
Hyderabad Metro Hyderabad Telangana 29 November 2017[36] 30 41.6 168 3 64 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25kV AC OHE India's first metro to have CBTC and integrated telecommunications and supervision systems, i.e. driver less metro. Longest route length commissioned in the first phase among all metros(30☃☃km) . It is a Public-Private Partnership with L&T.
Noida Metro Noida Uttar Pradesh September 2018[37] 29.7 1 22 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25kV AC OHE Construction was started in late 2014.
Nagpur Metro Nagpur Maharashtra March 2019[38] 43 93 2 42 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25kV AC OHE Fastest built metro in India to reach at triastage, Trail run conducted on 30 September 2017[39]
Navi Mumbai Metro Navi Mumbai Maharashtra April 2020[40] 11.10 12.30[41] 1 20 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25kV AC OHE
Metro-Link Express for Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad Ahmedabad & Gandhinagar Gujarat June 2020[42] 19  37.766[43] 2 32 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 750 V DC Third rail Construction began on 15 March 2015.[44]
Pune Metro Pune Maharashtra 2021[45] 31.5 54 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge Construction began in May. 30% work completed as of June 2018.[46]
Kanpur Metro Kanpur Uttar Pradesh 2021 24 38 2 24 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25 kv AC OHE DPR approved by the state cabinet on 17 January 2018.[47]
Visakhapatnam Metro Visakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh 2021 39 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge N/A Govt. to take up the Project under PPP model, RFP invited and Tender may be awarded before June -2018.[48] DPR prepared and to be submitted.[49][50][51][52]
Surat Metro Surat Gujarat 2023[53] 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge N/A DPR submitted to the Union Cabinet.[54]
Patna Metro Patna Bihar 2022 60[55] 5 54 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) 25kV AC OHE Work on Patna Metro Rail Project to begin in 2019[56]
Coimbatore Metro Coimbatore Tamil nadu 2022 3 24 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25 kv AC

OHE

DPR being prepared.[57]
Guwahati Metro Guwahati Assam 2022 61.4 TBD N/A DPR approved by the sate cabinet.[58]
Bhopal Metro Bhopal Madhya Pradesh 2024[59] 85[59] 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25kV AC DPR approved by state cabinet.[60]
Agra Metro Agra Uttar Pradesh 2024[61][62][63] 27[64] 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge N/A DPR approved by the state cabinet on 17 January 2018.[47]
Meerut Metro Meerut Uttar Pradesh 2024[61][62][63] 30 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge N/A DPR approved by the state cabinet on 17 January 2018.[47]
Varanasi Metro Varanasi Uttar Pradesh 2024[61][62][63] 25[65] [66] 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge N/A DPR approved by the state cabinet.[61][62][63]
Kozhikode Light Metro Kozhikode Kerala 2025[67] 22[67] 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge N/A DPR prepared by DMRC; awaiting state cabinet approval.[68]
Indore Metro Indore Madhya Pradesh 2025[69] 107[70] 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25kV AC DPR approved by state cabinet.[60]
Thiruvananthapuram Light Metro Thiruvananthapuram Kerala 2025[71] 22[71] TBD N/A DPR approved and submitted by DMRC in November 2017; awaiting state cabinet approval.[72]
Dehradun Metro Dehradun - Rishikesh - Haridwar Uttarakand 2025 73 2 TBD N/A DPR being prepared.[73][74]
Srinagar Metro Srinagar Jammu & Kashmir 2025 N/A N/A DPR being prepared.[75]
Greater Gwalior Metro Gwalior Madhya Pradesh 2025 105 N/A N/A DPR being prepared.
Jabalpur Metro Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh 2025 N/A N/A DPR being prepared.
Greater Nashik Metro Nashik Maharashtra 2025 N/A N/A Proposed metro line which will connect Igatpuri, Deolali, Nashik Road, Nasik Central and Ozar Airport.
Western railway elevated corridor Mumbai Maharashtra 63.27 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge N/A Rejected because of infeasibility.
Chandigarh Metro Chandigarh Tricity Punjab 37.5 TBD N/A Rejected because of commercial viability.[76]
Bareilly Metro Bareilly Uttar Pradesh Proposed
Ludhiana Metro Ludhiana Punjab Proposed
Allahabad Metro Allahabad Uttar Pradesh Proposed
Ranchi Metro Ranchi Jharkhand Proposed

Monorail[edit]

The Mumbai Monorail, which opened on 2 February 2014 is the first operational monorail system used for rapid transit in independent India.[77] Many other Indian cities have monorail projects, as a feeder system to the metro, in different phases of planning.

  • White background In service
  • Green background Under construction
  • Blue background In planning
  • Yellow background Proposed but not planned
  • Pink background Defunct
System City State Opening Year System Length (km) No of Lines No of Stations Traction Notes
Mumbai Monorail Mumbai Maharashtra 2 February 2014 8.26 1 7 750 V DC Third rail
Chennai Monorail Chennai Tamil Nadu 57 3 37 Centre approved Chennai monorail project, to be implemented under DBFOT model.[78][79][80][81][82]
Kolkata Monorail Kolkata West Bengal 72 2
Allahabad Monorail Allahabad Uttar Pradesh 70.4 2
Bengaluru Monorail Bengaluru Karnataka 60
Delhi Monorail Delhi Delhi 90 6
Indore Monorail Indore Madhya Pradesh
Kanpur Monorail Kanpur Uttar Pradesh 63 3
Navi Mumbai Monorail Navi Mumbai Maharashtra 36.82 2
Patna Monorail Patna Bihar 32 4
Pune Monorail Pune Maharashtra 52 2
Ahmedabad Monorail Ahmedabad Gujarat 30 4
Aizawl Monorail Aizawl Mizoram
Bhubaneswar Monorail Bhubaneswar Odisha
Jodhpur Monorail Jodhpur Rajasthan [83][84][85][86][87]
Kota Monorail Kota Rajasthan [83][84][85][86][87]
Nagpur Monorail Nagpur Maharashtra 50 DPR is being prepared.[88]
Nashik Monorail Nashik Maharashtra 130 DPR is being prepared.
Hyderabad Monorail Hyderabad Telangana 15 Proposed.
Tiruchirappalli Monorail Tiruchirappalli Tamil Nadu Proposed.
Ranchi Monorail Ranchi Jharkhand Proposed.
Coimbatore Monorail Coimbatore Tamil Nadu Proposed.
Warangal Monorail Warangal Telangana Proposed.
Chandigarh Monorail Chandigarh Tricity Punjab Proposed.

Light rail[edit]

Like monorail, light rail is also considered as a feeder system for the Metro systems. Two light rail projects have been proposed respectively in Delhi and Kolkata. There would be a total number of 68 stations of light rail in India.

  • White background In service
  • Green background Under construction
  • Blue background In planning
  • Yellow background Proposed but not planned
  • Pink background Defunct
System City State Opening Year System Length (km) No of Lines No of Stations Gauge Traction Notes
Vijayawada Metro Vijayawada Andhra Pradesh 2020 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge [89]
Kolkata Light Rail Transit Kolkata West Bengal 2 12 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 750 V DC Third rail
Delhi Light Rail Transit Delhi Delhi 45 3

Tram[edit]

In addition to trains, trams were introduced in many cities in late 19th century, though almost all of these were phased out. The Trams in Kolkata is currently the only tram system in the country. The Calcutta Tramways Company (Now under WBTC) is in the process of upgrading the existing tramway network at a cost of 240 million (US$3.5 million).[90]

  • White background In service
  • Green background Under construction
  • Blue background In planning
  • Yellow background Proposed but not planned
  • Pink background Defunct
System City State Opening Year System Length (km) No of Lines No of Stations Gauge Traction Notes
Kolkata Tram Kolkata West Bengal 1873 57.17 25 NA 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 550 V DC
OHE
First and only operational tram system in India

Rolling stock manufacturers[edit]

There are three metro rolling stock manufacturers in India. Bharat Earth Movers is the only Indian rolling stock manufacturer. The other manufacturers are the Indian subsidiaries of Canadian firm Bombardier and French company Alstom. Under the Union Government's Make in India program, 75% of the rolling stock procured for use on Indian metro systems are required to be manufactured in India.[91]

Bharat Earth Movers

Bharat Earth Movers manufactures of Rolling Stock consortium with Hyundai Mitsubishi Rotem.

  • Delhi Metro – 200 coaches
  • Hyderabad Metro – 171 coaches
  • Namma Metro – 150 coaches
  • Kolkata Metro – 84 coaches
  • Jaipur Metro – 40 coaches
  • Nagpur metro - 9(On lease from Hyderabad metro)
Bombardier

Bombardier built a £26m factory in Savli, Gujarat after it won a contract to supply 614 cars to the Delhi Metro.[92] Production at Savli began in June 2009.[93] In June 2012, the plant won an order to supply semi-finished bogies to Australia.[93]

Alstom

In 2013, Alstom built a factory in Sri City, Andhra Pradesh after it won a €243 million contract to supply 168 cars to the Chennai Metro.[94] The 156-acre plant will be used to supply trains to cities in India and abroad.[95]

  • Chennai Metro – 168 coaches
  • Lucknow Metro – 80 coaches
  • Kochi Metro – 75 coaches
Integral Coach Factory

Integral Coach Factory manufactures Rolling Stock, ICF has manufactured "Medha Rakes" and is in the process of supplying them to various metro systems.

Others

Chinese firm CRRC is planning to set up a manufacturing plant in Nagpur, Maharashtra

Legislation[edit]

The subject of Railways is in the Union List of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution, giving Parliament the exclusive power to enact legislation concerning it. According to former Minister of Urban Development Kamal Nath, "Since the Metro rail is a central subject, it has been decided that all such projects in the country, whether within one municipal area or beyond, shall be taken up under the Central Metro Acts."[96]

Construction of metros in India is governed by the centrally enacted The Metro Railways (Construction of Works) Act, 1978 which defines itself as an act to provide for the construction of works relating to metro railways in the metropolitan cities and for matters connected therewith.[97] Operation and maintenance of metros are governed by The Delhi Metro Railway (Operation and Maintenance) Act, 2002. Both laws were amended in 2009 with the passing of The Metro Railways (Amendment) Act, 2009.[98] The amendment expanded the coverage of both the acts to all metropolitan areas of India.

Initially, state governments attempted to implement metro rail projects through various Tramways Act. However, the Commissioner of Railways Safety (CRS), who operates under the Ministry of Civil Aviation, is tasked with providing safety certification for metro rail projects. The CRS refused safety certification unless the projects were implemented under a Metro Act enacted by the state government and published in The Gazette of India.[99] Research Design and Standards Organization (RDSO), another railway entity, also refused certification to projects not implemented under the criteria. Subsequently, several state governments have enacted their own Metro Acts.[99]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Indicates lines that are in operation for operational systems, lines that are under construction for under construction systems and proposed lines for proposed systems.
  2. ^ Indicates stations that are in operation for operational systems, stations that are under construction for under construction systems and proposed stations for proposed systems.
  3. ^ In Operation - The length of the system currently in operation.
  4. ^ Under construction - The length of the system currently under construction.
  5. ^ Planned - The length of the system currently planned to be built, but construction has not yet started.