Urbi et Orbi

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The 2008 Urbi et Orbi by Pope Benedict XVI on the Feast of the Nativity of Jesus Christ, Christmas Day, Saint Peter's Square, Vatican City

Urbi et Orbi ("to the City [of Rome] and to the World") denotes a papal address and apostolic blessing given to the city of Rome and to the entire world by the Roman pontiff on certain solemn occasions.

Occasions[edit]

The facade of Saint Peter's Basilica with loggia balcony, where the Pope usually gives the blessing Urbi et Orbi

The Urbi et Orbi address and blessing are given each Easter and Christmas from the central loggia of Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome, at noontime, and are broadcast worldwide through the European Broadcasting Union and other linkups. The address concludes with greetings in many languages in relation to the feast celebrated.

The Roman Catholic Church, by the willful grace and intent of the Pope grants a plenary indulgence, on the usual conditions, to those who "devoutly receive" the blessing that the Pope imparts Urbi et Orbi.

For any ordinary plenary indulgence, the "usual conditions" are:

  • Reception of sacramental confession through a Catholic priest within 20 days (before or after) performing the specific work
  • Reception of Eucharistic communion within 20 days (before or after) performing the specific work
  • Prayers for the intentions of the Pope designated for that particular month or occasion, usually at the same time the work is performed, though recitation some days before or after also suffices

Gaining a plenary indulgence requires that a baptized Roman Catholic must also exclude any attachment to sin, even venial sin.[1]

Since 1985, this indulgence is granted not only to the people in Saint Peter's Square, but also to those who though unable to be physically present, "piously follow" it by radio or television.[2][3]

This is now extended to all who receive the papal blessing over the Internet ("the new communications medium"), since the blessing is preceded by an announcement by the Cardinal Protodeacon: "His Holiness Pope N. grants a plenary indulgence in the form laid down by the Church to all the faithful present and to those who receive his blessing by radio, television and the new communications media. Let us ask Almighty God to grant the Pope many years as leader of the Church and peace and unity to the Church throughout the world."[4]

Another occasion for the Urbi et Orbi comes at the end of a papal conclave when the new pope makes his first appearance to the world following his election. In addition, Popes John Paul II and Francis started with a short speech with the latter requesting prayers from the faithful, and JP II deliberately mispronouncing correct in Italian in an effort to gain the support of the followers below. The people were nervous about having a non-Italian as pope for the first time since the Dutch born [[Pope Adrian VI who reigned from January 1522 to September of 1523.

Greetings in different languages[edit]

From Pope Paul VI to Pope Benedict XVI, after delivering their Urbi et Orbi Message, the Pope would greet the different nations in their native languages. The Pope will begin by saying: "To those who listen to me, I address a cordial greeting in the different language expressions."

Language Easter

(Phonetic Reading) [5]

Christmas

(Phonetic Reading) [6]

Italian Buona Pasqua a voi, uomini e donne di Roma e d’Italia! Buon Natale agli abitanti di Roma e dell’intera Italia!
French Le Christ est ressuscité. Sainte fête de Pâques ! Que pour vous ce mystère soit source de bonheur et de paix profonde. Heureuse et sainte fête de Noël ! Que le Christ Sauveur vous garde dans l’espérance et qu’il vous fasse le don de la paix profonde !
English May the grace and joy of the Risen Christ be with you all. May the birth of the Prince of Peace remind the world where its true happiness lies; and may your hearts be filled with hope and joy, for the Saviour has been born for us.
German Euch allen ein gesegnetes und frohes Osterfest! Der Friede und die Freude des auferstandenen Herrn sei mit Euch. Die Geburt Jesu Christi, des Erlösers der Menschen, erfülle Euer Leben mit tiefer Freude und reicher Gnade; sein Friede möge in Euren Herzen wohnen. Gesegnete und frohe Weihnachten!
Spanish Os deseo a todos una buena y feliz fiesta de Pascua, con la paz y la alegría, la esperanza y el amor de Jesucristo Resucitado. ¡Feliz Navidad! Que la Paz de Cristo reine en vuestros corazones, en la familias y en todos los pueblos.
Portuguese Uma Páscoa feliz com Cristo Ressuscitado. Feliz Natal para todos! O nascimento do Menino Jesus ilumine de alegria e paz vossos lares e Nações!
Dutch Zalig Pasen!

Ik wil mijn hartelijke dank tot uitdrukking brengen voor de fraaie bloemen uit Nederland voor de Paasmis op het Sint Pietersplein.

Zalig en gelukkig Kerstmis.
Luxembourgian Frou a geseent Oushteren. Schéin Chreschtdag.
Greek Χριστός άνέστη

(Christós ánésti̱)

Καλα Κριστουγεννα

(Kalá Christoúgenna)

Albanian Për shumë wjet Pashkët. Per shum vjet Krishtlindjen.
Romanian Cristos a ínviat. Sărbători Fericite de Crăciun si Anul Nou.
Hungarian Krisztus feltamadott. Alleluja. Àldott Karácsonyt.
Polish Chrystus zmartwychwstał. Błogosławionych świąt Bożego Narodzenia.
Czech Kristus vstal z mrtvých. Narodil se vám Spasitel. Radujte se!
Slovakian Radostné veľkonočné sviatky. Milostiplné a radostné Viacočné Sviatky.
Croatian Sretan Uskrs! Sretan Božić, Isusovo Porođenje!
Slovenian Blagoslovljene velikonočne praznike. Božje Dete, naj vam podeli svoj blagoslov.
Serbian Христос васкрсе!

(Hristos vaskrse!)

Среħан Божиħ - Христос се роди!

(Srećan Božić - Hristos se rodi!)

Serbian-Lusatian Chrystus z mortwych stanył. Zohnowane hody! A zbožowne Nowe lěto!
Bulgarian Христос възкресе

(Khristos vŭzkrese)

Честито Рождество Христово

(Chestito Rozhdestvo Khristovo)

Macedonian Христос Воскресна.

(Hristos Voskresna.)

Нека ви е честит Божик и Нова Година

(Neka vi e čestit Božiк и Nova Godina)

Byelorussian Christos uvaskrós. Viasiòłych kalàdnych Sviàtaû!
Russian Христос Воскресе.

(Hristos Voskrese.)

Сердечно поздравляю всех с Праздником Рождества Христова

(Serdechno pozdravlyayu vsekh s Prazdnikom Rozhdestva Khristova)

Mongolian ХРИСТИЙН ДАХИН АМИЛАЛЫН БАЯРЫН МЗНД ХУРГЗЕ!

KHRISTIIN DAKHIN AMILALYN BAYARYN MENDHURGIE!

Hristijn Tersen Edrijn mendhurgie
Kazakh Иса тірілпті

(Ïsa tirilpti)

Родecтвo мepeкeci ктты болсын!

(Rodectvo mepekeci kttı bolsın!)

Ukrainian Христос Воскрес.

(Khrystos Voskres.)

Веселих Свят з Різдвом Христовим і Новим Роком!

(Veselykh Svyat z Rizdvom Khrystovym i Novym Rokom!)

Lithuanian Linksmų Šventų Velykų. Linksmų Šventų Kalėdų.
Latvian Priecīgas lieldienas. Priecīgus Ziemsvētkus!
Estonian Kristus on surnuist üles tyusnud. Häid joulupühi.
Finnish Siunattua pääsiäistä. Hyvää joulua.
Swedish Glad Pàsk. God Jul, Gott Nytt Àr.
Icelandic Gleðilega Páska. Gleðileg jól!
Irish Beannacht na Cāsga dhuibh go lēir. Nollaig shona dhaoibh go léir.
Romani Lachi Patrači. Baxtalò Krečùno! Thaj Nevo berš!
Maltese L-Ghid it-tajjeb. Il-Milied it tajjeb lill-poplu kollu ta' Malta u ta' Għawdex.
Georgian K’riste Aghsdga Gilotsavt Krist’es Shobas
Turkish Paskalya bayramini kutlarim. Noel bayramı kutlu olsun.
Arab El Messieh kahm! Hakken kahm! Miládon-mazídon
Ethiopian-Eritrean Burúk Fasika Burúk ledét
Hebrew
Aramaic
Armenian Kuhreestos harryav ee merrelotz Sznorawórsz surp dz'nunt
Swahili Heri na baraka zangu kwa sikukuu ja Pasaka kwenu wote. Heri kwa noeli na baraka nyingi kwa mwaka mpya.
Kirundi and Kinyarwanda Pasika Nziza, mwese. Gumya umutima mu mahoro! Noeli nziza!
Malagasy Arahaba Tratry Ny Paka. Arahaba tratrin'i Noely.
Hindi
Tamil
Malayalam
Bengalese
Burmese
Urdu (Pakistan) Eid-e-Wiladat al Masih mubarik hu
Chinese 復活節快樂 / 复活节快乐 (Fùhuójié kuàilè) 聖誕節快樂 / 圣诞节快乐 (Shèngdànjié kuàilè)
Japanese よい復活祭を (yoi Fukkatsu-sai-o) Krismas to színnen omédeto godzáimas
Korean 부활절 축하해요 (Buhwaljeol chughahaeyo) 성탄 축하해요 (Sungtan chukhahaeyo)
Vietnamese Mừng lễ Phục sinh. Chúc mừng Giáng sinh.
Sinhalese
Thai S̄uk̄h s̄ạnt̒ wạn pạs̄kā dæ̀ chāw thịy thuk thuk th̀ān S̄uk̄hs̄ạnt̒ wạn khris̄t̒mās̄ s̄mp̣hph dæ̀ phī̀n̂xng chāw thịy thī̀rạk thuk khn
Indonesian Selamat Paskah. Selamat Hari Natal.
Cambodian Rīkarāy Bon Noel
Filipino Maligayang pagkabuhay ni Kristo. Maligayang pasko at manigong bagong taon.
Maori Nga mihi o te Aranga ki a koutou. Meri Kirihimete.
Samoan Ia manuia le Efeta. Ia manuia le Kirisimasi.
Esperanto Felician Paskon en Kristo resurektinta. Dibenitan Kristnaskon kaj prosperan novjaron.
Guaraní Ña nerenyhe vy’agui, Aleluya Ko navidad árape che maitei ame'ê peême.
Latin Different greeting every year

Formulæ of Apostolic blessing[edit]

Latin[edit]

Sancti Apostoli Petrus et Paulus: de quorum potestate et auctoritate confidimus, ipsi intercedant pro nobis ad Dominum.
: Amen.
Precibus et meritis beatae Mariae semper Virginis, beati Michaelis Archangeli, beati Ioannis Baptistae et sanctorum Apostolorum Petri et Pauli et omnium Sanctorum, misereatur vestri omnipotens Deus; et dimissis omnibus peccatis vestris, perducat vos Iesus Christus ad vitam æternam.
: Amen.
Indulgentiam, absolutionem, et remissionem omnium peccatorum vestrorum, spatium veræ et fructuosae pœnitentiae, cor semper paenitens, et emendationem vitae, gratiam et consolationem Sancti Spiritus; et finalem perseverantiam in bonis operibus tribuat vobis omnipotens et misericors Dominus.
: Amen.
Et benedictio Dei omnipotentis, Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti, descendat super vos et maneat semper.
: Amen.[4]

English translation[edit]

May the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, in whose power and authority we trust, intercede for us before the Lord.
: Amen.
Through the prayers and merits of Blessed Mary ever Virgin, Saint Michael the Archangel, Saint John the Baptist, the holy apostles Peter and Paul, and all the saints, may Almighty God have mercy on you and forgive all your sins, and may Jesus Christ bring you to everlasting life.
℟: Amen.
May the almighty and merciful Lord grant you indulgence, absolution and the remission of all your sins, a season of true and fruitful penance, a well-disposed heart, amendment of life, the grace and comfort of the Holy Spirit and final perseverance in good works.
℟: Amen.
And may the blessing of Almighty God, the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, come down on you and remain with you forever.
℟: Amen.[4]

Former practice[edit]

Prior to the occupation of Rome by the army of the Kingdom of Italy (September 20, 1870), this blessing was given more frequently and at specific basilicas at Rome:

On the occasion of a Holy Year the Pope gave the blessing on other occasions too for the benefit of pilgrims. In the jubilee year of 1650 Pope Innocent XI did so at Epiphany, Pentecost, and All Saints. He and later Popes gave such special-occasion blessings from the balcony of the Quirinal Palace, which was then the papal residence.[7]

After the occupation, Pope Pius IX considered himself a "prisoner in the Vatican" and in protest ceased to give the blessing. The practice was later resumed, though in a more limited manner, following the resolution of the so-called "Roman Question" (i.e., the legal relationship between the Holy See and the Italian government).

Etymology[edit]

The term Urbi et Orbi evolved from the consciousness of the ancient Roman Empire. In fact it should be expressed by the Pope as the bishop of Rome (urbs = city; urbi the corresponding dative form; compare: urban) as well as the head of the Roman Catholic Church. Thus, as it were, includes the whole world (orbis = earth; orbi the corresponding dative form; compare: Orbit).

The formula is found more frequently in the language of the church, as in the inscription at the Lateran Basilica, after which the church is: omnium urbis et orbis Ecclesiarum mater et caput[8] - "the head and mother of all churches of the city and of the earth" = the principal and mother of all churches of the world.

In the 4th century, Pope Damasus I wrote in a letter to the bishops of Illyricum:

Unde iustum est, omnes in Universo Romanorum Orbe Doctores legis, ea, quae legis sunt, sapere, et non fidem doctrinis variis maculare.[9] - (English: "Hence, it is just, that all doctors of the law in the Universe of the World of the Romans, those, who are of the law, are wise, and do not teach the faith with various doctrines.")

The ritual of the papal blessing Urbi et Orbi developed in the 13th Century during Pope Gregory X, who consulted before his election with Niccolò and Maffeo Polo.[10][11]

Other uses[edit]

It is the motto of Long Island University.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Normae de Indulgentiis, 20
  2. ^ Enchiridion Indulgentiarum, "Aliae Concessiones", 4
  3. ^ John Tagliabue, "Vatican to allow indulgences by TV", New York Times, 19 December 1985
  4. ^ a b c "Urbi et Orbi" in Easter Sunday Booklet, Office of Liturgical Celebration of Supreme Pontiff, 27 March, 2016
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ [2]
  7. ^ Andrew Meehan, "Urbi et Orbi" in Catholic Encyclopedia (New York 1912)
  8. ^ The British and foreign evangelical review and quarterly record of Christian literature, Vol. XV., page 39, James Oswald Dykes, James Stuart Candlish, Hugh Sinclair Paterson, Joseph Samuel Exell, James Nisbet & Co., London 1866.
  9. ^ Cassiodorus, Historia Eccl., 5, CAPUT XXIX. Litterae Damasi et caeterorum ad Illyricum contra concilium in Nicaea Thraciae factum.
  10. ^ A Natural History of Latin, page 294, Tore Janson, Oxford University Press 2007, ISBN 978-0-19-162265-6
  11. ^ The Travels Of Marco Polo, page 214, Henry Yule, Plain Label Books, ISBN 978-1-60303-615-3

External links[edit]