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Monument in Jena to the Urburschenschaft
The fraternity's 1816 black-red-golden flag.

The Urburschenschaft (German: [ˈʔuːɐ̯ˌbʊʁʃn̩ʃaft]) was the first Burschenschaft, one traditional form of German student fraternities.

It was founded in 1815 in Jena, Thuringia, in Germany. As colours, it adopted Black-Red-Gold, later to become the National colours of Germany. Other Burschenschaften were founded in the early 19th century as associations of university students inspired by the ideals of the Urburschenschaft, liberal and nationalistic ideas.

The Jena Urburschenschaft had 859 active students as members, about 60 per cent of all the students at the university of Jena from 1815 to 1820. One of its first members was Heinrich von Gagern, the president of the Frankfurt Parliament in 1848/49.