Urethral cancer

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This article is about cancer of the urethra. For cancer of the ureter, see Ureteral cancer.
Urethral cancer
Urethral urothelial cell carcinoma.jpg
Micrograph of a urethral cancer, urothelial cell carcinoma, found on a prostate core biopsy. H&E stain.
Classification and external resources
Specialty Oncology
DiseasesDB 31473
eMedicine med/3080
MeSH D014523

Urethral cancer is cancer originating from the urethra. Cancer in this location is rare, and the most common type is papillary transitional cell carcinoma.[1] The most common site of urethral cancer is the bulbomembranous urethra.

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Symptoms that may be caused by urethral cancer include: Bleeding from the urethra or blood in the urine, Weak or interrupted flow of urine, Urination occurs often, painful urination, inability to pass urine, A lump or thickness in the perineum or penis, Discharge from the urethra, Enlarged lymph nodes or pain in the groin or vaginal area.

Risk factors[edit]

The main medical risk factors are having bladder cancer or having conditions that cause chronic inflammation in the urethra. People over the age of 60 and white women have the highest risks.

Diagnosis[edit]

Diagnosis is established by transurethral biopsy. Types of urethral cancer include transitional cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and melanoma.

Treatment[edit]

Surgery is the most common treatment for cancer of the urethra. One of the following types of surgery may be done: Open excision, Electro-resection with flash, Laser surgery, Cystourethrectomy, Cystoprostatectomy, Anterior body cavity, or Incomplete or basic penectomy surgery.

Chemotherapy is sometimes used to destroy urethral cancer cells. It is a systemic urethral cancer treatment (i.e., destroys urethral cancer cells throughout the body) that is administered orally or intravenously. Medications are often used in combination to destroy urethral cancer that has metastasized. Commonly used drugs include cisplatin, vincristine, and methotrexate.

Side effects include anemia (causing fatigue, weakness), nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, hair loss, mouth sores, increased risk for infection, shortness of breath, or excessive bleeding and bruising.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ries, LAG; Young, JL; Keel, GE; Eisner, MP; Lin, YD; Horner, M-J, eds. (2007). "SEER Survival Monograph: Cancer Survival Among Adults: US SEER Program, 1988-2001, Patient and Tumor Characteristics". SEER Program. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. pp. 251–262. Retrieved 18 October 2013.  |contribution= ignored (help)
  2. ^ Urethral Cancer Treatment