Urocyon

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Urocyon[1]
Temporal range: Early Pliocene–Holocene
Urocyon cinereoargenteus.jpg
Gray fox
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Subfamily: Caninae
Genus: Urocyon
Baird, 1857[2]
Type species
Canis Virginianus
Species
  • U. cinereoargenteus (Schreber), 1774
  • U. littoralis Baird, 1857
  • U. citrinus Tedford, Wang & Taylor (2009)[3]
  • U. galushai Tedford, Wang & Taylor (2009)[3]
  • U. minicephalus Martin, 1974
  • U. progressus Stevens, 1965
  • U. webbi Tedford, Wang & Taylor (2009)[3]

Urocyon (from the Greek word for "tailed dog"[5]) is a genus of Canidae which includes the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and the island fox (Urocyon littoralis).[1] These two fox species are found in the Western Hemisphere. Whole genome sequencing indicates that Urocyon is the most basal genus of the living canids.[6] Fossils of what is believed to be the ancestor of the gray fox, Urocyon progressus, have been found in Kansas and date to the Upper Pliocene,[7] with some undescribed specimens dating even older.[8]

Extant species[edit]

Image Scientific name Common name Distribution
Grey Fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus).jpg Urocyon cinereoargenteus gray fox Southern half of North America from southern Canada to the northern part of South America (Venezuela and Colombia), excluding the mountains of northwestern United States
Urocyon littoralis (Island fox) FWS 001.jpg Urocyon littoralis Island fox Channel Islands (off the coast of Southern California)

Cozumel fox[edit]

The Cozumel fox is a critically endangered or extinct small gray fox found on the island of Cozumel, Mexico. The last reported sighting was in 2001, but surveys focusing on this species have not yet been carried out.[9] The Cozumel fox has not been scientifically described, is a dwarf form as is the island fox, but slightly larger being up to three-quarters the size of the gray fox. It had been isolated on the island for at least 5,000 years, and probably far longer. This would indicate that the colonization of the island of Cozumel by Urocyon predates that of humans.[10]

Extinct species[edit]

Species name Type specimen era and location[3]
U. citrinus New species. Early Irvingtonian, Citris County, Florida.
U. galushai New species. Late Blancan, San Simon Valley, Graham County, Arizona.
U. minicephalus Martin, 1974. Late Irvingtonian, Sumter County, Florida.
U. progressus Stevens, 1965. Early Blancan, Meade County, Kansas. A later review found that the material represents Urocyon, but because of the few fragments this species cannot be diagnosed.[3]
U. webbi New species. Middle Hemphillian, Citrus County, Florida.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 582–583. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ Baird, S. 1857. Reports of explorations and surveys, to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. vol.8(1):121, 138. Vulpinae
  3. ^ a b c d e Tedford, Richard H.; Wang, Xiaoming; Taylor, Beryl E. (2009). "Phylogenetic systematics of the North American fossil Caninae (Carnivora: Canidae)" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 325: 1–218. doi:10.1206/574.1. hdl:2246/5999. S2CID 83594819.
  4. ^ Schreber, Johann Christian Daniel; Goldfuss, Georg August; Wagner, Andreas Johann (1774). Die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen. p. 361. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.67399.( The mammals in illustrations according to nature, with descriptions)
  5. ^ Urocyon.
  6. ^ Lindblad-Toh, K.; Wade, C.M.; Mikkelsen, T.S.; Karlsson, E.K.; Jaffe, D.B.; Kamal, M.; et al. (2005). "Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog". Nature. 438 (7069): 803–819. Bibcode:2005Natur.438..803L. doi:10.1038/nature04338. PMID 16341006.
  7. ^ Stevens, M.S. (1965). "A new species of Urocyon from the Upper Pliocene of Kansas". Journal of Mammalogy. 46 (2): 265–269. doi:10.2307/1377846. JSTOR 1377846.
  8. ^ Prevosti, F.J.; Rincóon, A.D. (2007). "A new fossil canid assemblage from the late Pleistocene of northern South America: The canids of the Inciarte asphalt pit (Zulia, Venezuela), fossil record and biogeography". J. Paleontol. 81 (5): 1053–1065. doi:10.1666/pleo05-143.1. S2CID 131259363.
  9. ^ Cuarón, Alfredo D.; Martinez-Morales, Miguel Angel; McFadden, Katherine W.; Valenzuela, David & Gompper, Matthew E. (2004). "The status of dwarf carnivores on Cozumel Island, Mexico". Biodiversity and Conservation. 13 (2): 317–331. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.511.2040. doi:10.1023/B:BIOC.0000006501.80472.cc. S2CID 25730672.
  10. ^ Gompper, M. E.; Petrites, A. E. & Lyman, R. L. (2006). "Cozumel Island fox (Urocyon sp.) dwarfism and possible divergence history based on subfossil bones". J. Zool. 270 (1): 72–77. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00119.x.