List of Presidents of the United States

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"Presidents of the United States", "American Presidents", and "U.S. Presidents" redirect here. For the C-SPAN series, see American Presidents: Life Portraits. For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation).
The White House in Washington, D.C. is the official residence of the President, headquarters of the executive branch, and a prominent symbol of the office.

The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is indirectly elected to a four-year term by the people through an Electoral College (or by the House of Representatives, should the Electoral College fail to award an absolute majority of votes to any person). Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected president more than twice, and no one who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected may be elected more than once.[1] Dwight Eisenhower is the first president to have been legally prohibited from seeking a third term. Upon the death, resignation, or removal from office of an incumbent president, the vice president assumes the office. The president must be at least 35 years of age, has to have lived in the United States for 14 years, and has to be a "natural born" citizen of the United States.

This list includes only those persons who were sworn into office as president following the ratification of the United States Constitution, which took effect on March 4, 1789. For American leaders before this ratification, see President of the Continental Congress.[2] The list does not include any acting presidents under the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

There have been 43 people sworn into office, and 44 presidencies, as Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms and is counted chronologically as both the 22nd and 24th president. Of the individuals elected as president, four died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison,[3] Zachary Taylor,[4] Warren G. Harding,[5] and Franklin D. Roosevelt), four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln,[6] James A. Garfield,[6][7] William McKinley,[8] and John F. Kennedy), and one resigned (Richard Nixon).[9]

George Washington, the first president, was inaugurated in 1789 after a unanimous vote of the Electoral College. William Henry Harrison spent the shortest time in office with 32 days in 1841. Franklin D. Roosevelt spent the longest with over twelve years, but died shortly into his fourth term in 1945; he is the only president to have served more than two terms. Four presidents—John Q. Adams, Rutherford B. Hayes, Benjamin Harrison, and George W. Bush—lost the popular vote but assumed office; Bush was subsequently re-elected with a popular majority.

John Tyler was the first vice president to assume the presidency intra-term, and set the precedent that a vice president who does so becomes the fully functioning president with his own presidency, as opposed to a caretaker president. The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution put Tyler's precedent into law in 1967. This constitutional amendment also established a mechanism by which an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency could be filled. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill a vacancy under this Provision when he appointed Gerald Ford to the office. Later, Ford became the second to do so when he appointed Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him. Previously, an intra-term vacancy was left unfilled.

List of presidents

  Nonpartisan     Federalist     Democratic-Republican     Democratic     Whig     Republican
President Presidency[a] Party Election Previous service Vice President
1 Gilbert Stuart Williamstown Portrait of George Washington.jpg George Washington
1732–1799
(Lived: 67 years)
[10][11][12]
April 30, 1789
[b]


March 4, 1797
Nonpartisan
[13]
1
(1788–89)
Commander-in-Chief
of the
Continental Army

(1775–83)
John Adams
[c][d]
2
(1792)
2 Official Presidential portrait of John Adams (by John Trumbull, circa 1792).jpg John Adams
1735–1826
(Lived: 90 years)
[14][15][16]
March 4, 1797

March 4, 1801
Federalist 3
(1796)
1st
Vice President of the United States
Thomas Jefferson
[e]
3 Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800.jpg Thomas Jefferson
1743–1826
(Lived: 83 years)
[17][18][19]
March 4, 1801

March 4, 1809
Democratic-
Republican
4
(1800)
2nd
Vice President of the United States
Aaron Burr
March 4, 1801March 4, 1805
5
(1804)
George Clinton
March 4, 1805March 4, 1809
4 James Madison.jpg James Madison
1751–1836
(Lived: 85 years)
[20][21][22]
March 4, 1809

March 4, 1817
Democratic-
Republican
6
(1808)
5th
United States Secretary of State

(1801–09)
George Clinton
March 4, 1809April 20, 1812
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Clinton's 2nd term)
7
(1812)
Elbridge Gerry
March 4, 1813November 23, 1814
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Gerry's term)
5 James Monroe White House portrait 1819.gif James Monroe
1758–1831
(Lived: 73 years)
[23][24][25]
March 4, 1817

March 4, 1825
Democratic-
Republican
8
(1816)
7th
United States Secretary of State

(1811–17)
Daniel D. Tompkins
9
(1820)
6 JQA Photo.tif John Quincy Adams
1767–1848
(Lived: 80 years)
[26][27][28]
March 4, 1825

March 4, 1829
Democratic-
Republican
10
(1824)
8th
United States Secretary of State

(1817–25)
John C. Calhoun
7 Andrew Jackson Daguerrotype-crop.jpg Andrew Jackson
1767–1845
(Lived: 78 years)
[29][30][31]
March 4, 1829

March 4, 1837
Democratic 11
(1828)
U.S. Senator from Tennessee
(1823–25)
John C. Calhoun
[f]
March 4, 1829December 28, 1832
(Resigned from office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Calhoun's term)
12
(1832)
Martin Van Buren
March 4, 1833March 4, 1837
8 Martin Van Buren by Mathew Brady c1855-58.jpg Martin Van Buren
1782–1862
(Lived: 79 years)
[32][33][34]
March 4, 1837

March 4, 1841
Democratic 13
(1836)
8th
Vice President of the United States
Richard Mentor Johnson
9 William Henry Harrison daguerreotype edit.jpg William Henry Harrison
1773–1841
(Lived: 68 years)
[35][36][37]
March 4, 1841

April 4, 1841
(Died in office)
Whig 14
(1840)
United States Minister to Colombia
(1828–29)
John Tyler
(Succeeded to presidency)
10 Tyler Daguerreotype (restoration).jpg John Tyler
1790–1862
(Lived: 71 years)
[38][39][40]
April 4, 1841

March 4, 1845
Whig
April 4, 1841September 13, 1841
10th
Vice President of the United States
Office vacant
Nonpartisan
September 13, 1841March 4, 1845
[g]
11 JKP.tif James K. Polk
1795–1849
(Lived: 53 years)
[41][42][43]
March 4, 1845

March 4, 1849
Democratic 15
(1844)
9th
Governor of Tennessee

(1839–41)
George M. Dallas
12 Zachary Taylor restored and cropped.png Zachary Taylor
1784–1850
(Lived: 65 years)
[44][45][46]
March 4, 1849

July 9, 1850
(Died in office)
Whig 16
(1848)
Major General of the 1st Infantry Regiment
United States Army
(1846–49)
Millard Fillmore
(Succeeded to presidency)
13 Millard Fillmore-Edit1.jpg Millard Fillmore
1800–1874
(Lived: 74 years)
[47][48][49]
July 9, 1850

March 4, 1853
Whig 12th
Vice President of the United States
Office vacant
14 Mathew Brady - Franklin Pierce - alternate crop.jpg Franklin Pierce
1804–1869
(Lived: 64 years)
[50][51][52]
March 4, 1853

March 4, 1857
Democratic 17
(1852)
Brigadier General of the 9th Infantry
United States Army
(1847–48)
William R. King
March 4April 18, 1853
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of King's term)
15 James Buchanan.jpg James Buchanan
1791–1868
(Lived: 77 years)
[53][54][55]
March 4, 1857

March 4, 1861
Democratic 18
(1856)
United States Minister to the
Court of St James's
(1853–56)
John C. Breckinridge
16 Abraham Lincoln November 1863.jpg Abraham Lincoln
1809–1865
(Lived: 56 years)
[56][57][58]
March 4, 1861

April 15, 1865
(Died in office)
  Republican
(National Union)
[h]
19
(1860)
U.S. Representative for Illinois' 7th District
(1847–49)
Hannibal Hamlin
March 4, 1861March 4, 1865
20
(1864)
Andrew Johnson
March 4April 15, 1865
(Succeeded to presidency)
17 Andrew Johnson photo portrait head and shoulders, c1870-1880-Edit1.jpg Andrew Johnson
1808–1875
(Lived: 66 years)
[59][60][61]
April 15, 1865

March 4, 1869
National Union
[h]
Unaffiliated
[i]
16th
Vice President of the United States
Office vacant
18 Ulysses Grant 1870-1880.jpg Ulysses S. Grant
1822–1885
(Lived: 63 years)
[62][63][64]
March 4, 1869

March 4, 1877
Republican 21
(1868)
Commanding General of the U.S. Army
(1864–69)
Schuyler Colfax
March 4, 1869March 4, 1873
22
(1872)
Henry Wilson
March 4, 1873November 22, 1875
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Wilson's term)
19 President Rutherford Hayes 1870 - 1880 Restored.jpg Rutherford B. Hayes
1822–1893
(Lived: 70 years)
[65][66][67]
March 4, 1877

March 4, 1881
Republican 23
(1876)
32nd
Governor of Ohio

(1868–72 & 1876–77)
William A. Wheeler
20 James Abram Garfield, photo portrait seated.jpg James A. Garfield
1831–1881
(Lived: 49 years)
[68][69][70]
March 4, 1881

September 19, 1881
(Died in office)
Republican 24
(1880)
U.S. Representative for Ohio's 19th District
(1863–81)
Chester A. Arthur
(Succeeded to presidency)
21 Chester Alan Arthur.jpg Chester A. Arthur
1829–1886
(Lived: 57 years)
[71][72][73]
September 19, 1881

March 4, 1885
Republican 20th
Vice President of the United States
Office vacant
22 StephenGroverCleveland.png Grover Cleveland
1837–1908
(Lived: 71 years)
[74][75]
March 4, 1885

March 4, 1889
Democratic 25
(1884)
28th
Governor of New York

(1883–85)
Thomas A. Hendricks
March 4November 25, 1885
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Hendricks' term)
23 Benjamin Harrison, head and shoulders bw photo, 1896.jpg Benjamin Harrison
1833–1901
(Lived: 67 years)
[76][77][78]
March 4, 1889

March 4, 1893
Republican 26
(1888)
U.S. Senator from Indiana
(1881–87)
Levi P. Morton
24 Grover Cleveland - NARA - 518139.jpg Grover Cleveland
1837–1908
(Lived: 71 years)
[74][75]
March 4, 1893

March 4, 1897
Democratic 27
(1892)
22nd
President of the United States

(1885–89)
Adlai Stevenson
25 William McKinley by Courtney Art Studio, 1896.jpg William McKinley
1843–1901
(Lived: 58 years)
[79][80][81]
March 4, 1897

September 14, 1901
(Died in office)
Republican 28
(1896)
39th
Governor of Ohio

(1892–96)
Garret Hobart
March 4, 1897November 21, 1899
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Hobart's term)
29
(1900)
Theodore Roosevelt
March 4September 14, 1901
(Succeeded to presidency)
26 President Roosevelt - Pach Bros.tif Theodore Roosevelt
1858–1919
(Lived: 60 years)
[82][83][84]
September 14, 1901

March 4, 1909
Republican 25th
Vice President of the United States
Office vacant
September 14, 1901March 4, 1905
30
(1904)
Charles W. Fairbanks
March 4, 1905March 4, 1909
27 William Howard Taft, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing front.tif William Howard Taft
1857–1930
(Lived: 72 years)
[85][86][87]
March 4, 1909

March 4, 1913
Republican 31
(1908)
42nd
United States Secretary of War

(1904–08)
James S. Sherman
March 4, 1909October 30, 1912
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Sherman's term)
28 President Wilson 1919.tif Woodrow Wilson
1856–1924
(Lived: 67 years)
[88][89][90]
March 4, 1913

March 4, 1921
Democratic 32
(1912)
34th
Governor of New Jersey

(1911–13)
Thomas R. Marshall
33
(1916)
29 Warren G Harding-Harris & Ewing.jpg Warren G. Harding
1865–1923
(Lived: 57 years)
[91][92][93]
March 4, 1921

August 2, 1923
(Died in office)
Republican 34
(1920)
U.S. Senator from Ohio
(1915–21)
Calvin Coolidge
(Succeeded to presidency)
30 Calvin Coolidge cph.3g10777.jpg Calvin Coolidge
1872–1933
(Lived: 60 years)
[94][95][96]
August 2, 1923

March 4, 1929
Republican 29th
Vice President of the United States
Office vacant
August 2, 1923March 4, 1925
35
(1924)
Charles G. Dawes
March 4, 1925March 4, 1929
31 President Hoover portrait.tif Herbert Hoover
1874–1964
(Lived: 90 years)
[97][98][99]
March 4, 1929

March 4, 1933
Republican 36
(1928)
3rd
United States Secretary of Commerce

(1921–28)
Charles Curtis
32 FDR 1944 Color Portrait.tif Franklin D. Roosevelt
1882–1945
(Lived: 63 years)
[100][101][102]
March 4, 1933

April 12, 1945
(Died in office)
Democratic 37
(1932)
44th
Governor of New York

(1929–32)
John Nance Garner
March 4, 1933January 20, 1941
[j]
38
(1936)
39
(1940)
Henry A. Wallace
January 20, 1941January 20, 1945
40
(1944)
Harry S. Truman
January 20April 12, 1945
(Succeeded to presidency)
33 Harry S. Truman - NARA - 530677.tif Harry S. Truman
1884–1972
(Lived: 88 years)
[103][104][105]
April 12, 1945

January 20, 1953
Democratic 34th
Vice President of the United States
Office vacant
April 12, 1945January 20, 1949
41
(1948)
Alben W. Barkley
January 20, 1949January 20, 1953
34 President Eisenhower Portrait 1959.tif Dwight D. Eisenhower
1890–1969
(Lived: 78 years)
[106][107][108]
January 20, 1953

January 20, 1961
Republican 42
(1952)
Supreme Allied Commander Europe
(1949–52)
Richard Nixon
43
(1956)
35 John F. Kennedy, White House color photo portrait.jpg John F. Kennedy
1917–1963
(Lived: 46 years)
[109][110][111]
January 20, 1961

November 22, 1963
(Died in office)
Democratic 44
(1960)
U.S. Senator from Massachusetts
(1953–60)
Lyndon B. Johnson
(Succeeded to presidency)
36 Lyndon B. Johnson Oval Office Portrait.tif Lyndon B. Johnson
1908–1973
(Lived: 64 years)
[112][113]
November 22, 1963

January 20, 1969
Democratic 37th
Vice President of the United States
Office vacant
November 22, 1963January 20, 1965
45
(1964)
Hubert Humphrey
January 20, 1965January 20, 1969
37 Richard M. Nixon, ca. 1935 - 1982 - NARA - 530679.tif Richard Nixon
1913–1994
(Lived: 81 years)
[114][115][116]
January 20, 1969

August 9, 1974
(Resigned from office)
Republican 46
(1968)
36th
Vice President of the United States

(1953–61)
Spiro Agnew
January 20, 1969October 10, 1973
(Resigned from office)
47
(1972)
Office vacant
October 10December 6, 1973
Gerald Ford
December 6, 1973August 9, 1974
(Succeeded to presidency)
38 Gerald Ford - NARA - 530680.tif Gerald Ford
1913–2006
(Lived: 93 years)
[117][118][119]
August 9, 1974

January 20, 1977
Republican 40th
Vice President of the United States
Office vacant
August 9December 19, 1974
Nelson Rockefeller
December 19, 1974January 20, 1977
39 JimmyCarterPortrait2.jpg Jimmy Carter
Born 1924
(91 years old)
[120][121][122]
January 20, 1977

January 20, 1981
Democratic 48
(1976)
76th
Governor of Georgia

(1971–75)
Walter Mondale
40 Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg Ronald Reagan
1911–2004
(Lived: 93 years)
[123][124][125]
January 20, 1981

January 20, 1989
Republican 49
(1980)
33rd
Governor of California

(1967–75)
George H. W. Bush
50
(1984)
41 George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, 1989 official portrait.jpg George H. W. Bush
Born 1924
(92 years old)
[126][127][128]
January 20, 1989

January 20, 1993
Republican 51
(1988)
43rd
Vice President of the United States
Dan Quayle
42 Bill Clinton.jpg Bill Clinton
Born 1946
(70 years old)
[129][130][131]
January 20, 1993

January 20, 2001
Democratic 52
(1992)
40th & 42nd
Governor of Arkansas

(1979–81 & 1983–92)
Al Gore
53
(1996)
43 George-W-Bush.jpeg George W. Bush
Born 1946
(70 years old)
[132][133]
January 20, 2001

January 20, 2009
Republican 54
(2000)
46th
Governor of Texas

(1995–2000)
Dick Cheney
55
(2004)
44 President Barack Obama.jpg Barack Obama
Born 1961
(55 years old)
[134][135]
January 20, 2009

Incumbent
Democratic 56
(2008)
U.S. Senator from Illinois
(2005–08)
Joe Biden
57
(2012)

Living former presidents

Presently, there are four living former presidents. The most recent death of a former president was that of Gerald Ford (served 1974–77) on December 26, 2006 (aged 93 years, 165 days). The most recently serving president to die was Ronald Reagan (served 1981–89) on June 5, 2004 (aged 93 years, 120 days). Jimmy Carter currently holds the record for having the longest post-presidency of any president.

Living as of September 2016
President Presidency[a] Date of birth
39 Jimmy Carter 1977–1981 (1924-10-01) October 1, 1924 (age 91)
41 George H. W. Bush 1989–1993 (1924-06-12) June 12, 1924 (age 92)
42 Bill Clinton 1993–2001 (1946-08-19) August 19, 1946 (age 70)
43 George W. Bush 2001–2009 (1946-07-06) July 6, 1946 (age 70)
From left: President Obama stands alongside the four living former U.S. Presidents in descending order of service at the dedication of the George W. Bush Presidential Center at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas, April 2013
President Barack Obama pauses with former Presidents George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George H.W. Bush, and Jimmy Carter during the dedication of the George W. Bush Presidential Center at the George W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum on the campus of Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas, April 25, 2013. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b A presidency is defined as an uninterrupted period of time in office served by one person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Upon the resignation of 37th president Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford became the 38th president even though he simply served out the remainder of Nixon's second term and was never elected to the presidency in his own right. Grover Cleveland was both the 22nd president and the 24th president because his two terms were not consecutive. A period during which a vice president temporarily becomes acting president under the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution is not a presidency, because the president remains in office during such a period.
  2. ^ Due to logistical delays, instead of being inaugurated on March 4, 1789, the date scheduled for operations of the federal government under the new Constitution to begin, Washington's first inauguration was held 1 month and 26 days later. As a result, his first term was only 1,404 days long (as opposed to the usual 1461), and was the shortest term for a U.S. president who neither died in office nor resigned.
  3. ^ Political parties had not been anticipated when the Constitution was drafted in 1787 and ratified in 1788, nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in 1788–89. When they did develop, during Washington's first term, Adams joined the faction which became the Federalist Party. The elections of 1792 were the first ones in the United States to be contested on anything resembling a partisan basis.
  4. ^ Due to logistical delays, Adams assumed the office of Vice President 1 month and 17 days after the March 4, 1789 scheduled start of operations of the new government under the Constitution. As a result, his first term was only 1,413 days long, and was the shortest term for a U.S. vice president who neither died in office nor resigned.
  5. ^ The 1796 presidential election was the first contested American presidential election and the only one in which a president and vice president were elected from opposing political parties. Federalist John Adams was elected president, and Jefferson of the Democratic-Republicans was elected vice president.
  6. ^ John Calhoun, formerly a Democratic-Republican, founded the Nullifier Party in 1828 to oppose the Tariff of 1828 and advance the cause of states' rights, but was brought on as Andrew Jackson's running mate in the 1828 presidential election in an effort to broaden the democratic coalition emerging around Jackson.
  7. ^ John Tyler, a former Democrat, ran for vice president on the Whig Party ticket with Harrison in 1840. Tyler's policy priorities as president soon proved to be opposed to most of the Whig agenda, and he was expelled from the party in September 1841.
  8. ^ a b When he ran for reelection in 1864, Republican Abraham Lincoln formed a bipartisan electoral alliance with War Democrats by selecting Democrat Andrew Johnson as his running mate, and running on the National Union Party ticket.
  9. ^ Democrat Andrew Johnson ran for Vice President on the National Union Party ticket with Republican Abraham Lincoln in 1864. Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner. Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party.
  10. ^ The Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution (ratified on January 23, 1933) moved Inauguration Day from March 4 to January 20, beginning in 1937. As a result, Garner's first term in office was 1 month and 12 days shorter than a normal term.

References

  1. ^ "The Constitution: Amendments 11–27". U.S. National Archives & Records Administration. Retrieved October 1, 2008. 
  2. ^ "Excerpts from "Forgotten Presidents" – The Patriots Handbook, by George Grant". Harrold.org. Retrieved August 8, 2011. 
  3. ^ Cleaves, Freeman (1939). Old Tippecanoe: William Henry Harrison and His Time. C. Scribner's Sons. p. 152. 
  4. ^ Ingersoll, Jared. "Death of the President". University of Virginia's Miller Center of Public Affairs. Retrieved November 2, 2010. 
  5. ^ Russell, Francis (1962). The Shadow of Blooming Grove – Warren G. Harding in His Times. Easton Press. p. 591. ISBN 0070543380. 
  6. ^ a b Martin, Paul "Lincoln's Missing Bodyguard", Smithsonian Magazine, April 8, 2010, Retrieved November 15, 2010
  7. ^ Donald (1996), p. 597.
  8. ^ "Big Ben Parker and President McKinley's Assassination". Math.buffalo.edu. Retrieved August 8, 2011. 
  9. ^ "Nixon Resigns". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  10. ^ The White House (March 12, 2007). "Biography of George Washington". Whitehouse.gov. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  11. ^ "George Washington – no Political Party – 1st President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  12. ^ "Life Portrait of George Washington". American Presidents: Life Portraits. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  13. ^ "George Washington's views on political parties in America | Washington Times Communities". Communities.washingtontimes.com. 2012-03-09. Retrieved January 2, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Biography of John Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  15. ^ "John Adams – Federalist Party – 2nd President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  16. ^ "Life Portrait of John Adams". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  17. ^ "Biography of Thomas Jefferson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  18. ^ "Thomas Jefferson – Democratic-Republican Party – 3rd President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  19. ^ "Life Portrait of Thomas Jefferson". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  20. ^ "Biography of James Madison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  21. ^ "James Madison – Democratic-Republican Party – 4th President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  22. ^ "Life Portrait of James Madison". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  23. ^ "Biography of James Madison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  24. ^ "James Monroe – Democratic-Republican Party – 5th President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  25. ^ "Life Portrait of James Monroe". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  26. ^ "Biography of John Quincy Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  27. ^ "John Quincy Adams – Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, WHIG Party – 6th President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  29. ^ "Biography of Andrew Jackson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  30. ^ "Andrew Jackson – Democratic-Republican Party – 7th President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  32. ^ "Biography of Martin Van Buren". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  33. ^ "Martin Van Buren – Democratic-Republican, Democratic, and Free Soil Party – 8th President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  35. ^ "Biography of William Henry Harrison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  36. ^ "William Henry Harrison – WHIG Party – 9th President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  38. ^ "Biography of John Tyler". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  39. ^ "John Tyler – No Party – 10th President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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