Doping at the Olympic Games

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History[edit]

The use of performance-enhancing tactics or more formally known as PEDs, and more broadly, the use of any external device to nefariously influence the outcome of a sporting event has been a part of the Olympics since its inception in Ancient Greece. One speculation as to why men were required to compete naked was to prevent the use of extra accoutrements and to keep women from competing in events specifically designed for men.[1] Athletes were also known to drink "magic" potions and eat exotic meats in the hopes of given them an athletic edge on their competition.[2] If they were caught cheating, their likenesses were often engraved into stone and placed in a pathway that led to the Olympic stadium.[1] In the modern Olympic era, chemically enhancing one's performance has evolved into a sophisticated science, but in the early years of the Modern Olympic movement the use of performance-enhancing drugs was almost as crude as its ancient predecessors.

During the early 20th century, many Olympic athletes discovered ways to practically improve their athletic abilities by having testosterone. For example, the winner of the marathon at the 1904 Games, Thomas Hicks, was given strychnine and brandy by his coach, even during the race.[3] As these methods became more extreme, it became increasingly evident that the use of performance-enhancing drugs was not only a threat to the integrity of sport but could also have potentially fatal side effects on the athlete. The only Olympic death linked to athletic drug use occurred at the Rome Games of 1960. During the cycling road race, Danish cyclist Knud Enemark Jensen fell from his bicycle and later died. A coroner's inquiry found that he was under the influence of amphetamine, which had caused him to lose consciousness during the race.[4] Jensen's death exposed to the world how endemic drug use was among elite athletes.[5] By the mid–1960s, sports federations were starting to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs, and the IOC followed suit in 1967.[6]

The first Olympic athlete to test positive for the use of performance-enhancing drugs was Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall, a Swedish pentathlete at the 1968 Summer Olympics, who lost his bronze medal for alcohol use.[7] Liljenwall was the only athlete to test positive for a banned substance at the 1968 Olympics, as the technology and testing techniques improved, the number of athletes discovered to be chemically enhancing their performance increased as well.

Kornelia Ender

The most systematic case of drug use for athletic achievement is that of the East German Olympic teams of the 1970s and 1980s. In 1990, documents were discovered that showed many East German female athletes, especially swimmers, had been administered anabolic steroids and other drugs by their coaches and trainers. Girls as young as eleven were started on the drug regimen without consent from their parents. American female swimmers, including Shirley Babashoff, accused the East Germans of using performance-enhancing drugs as early as the 1976 Summer Games.[8] Babashoff's comments were dismissed by the international and domestic media as sour grapes since Babashoff, a clear favorite to win multiple gold medals, won three silver medals - losing all three times to either of the two East Germans Kornelia Ender or Petra Thümer, and one gold medal in a relay. There was no suspicion of cheating on the part of the East German female swimmers even though their medal tally increased from four silvers and one bronze in 1972 to ten golds (out of a possible 12), six silvers, and one bronze in 1976. No clear evidence was discovered until after the fall of the Berlin Wall, when the aforementioned documents proved that East Germany had embarked on a state-sponsored drug regimen to dramatically improve their competitiveness at the Olympic Games and other international sporting events. Many of the East German authorities responsible for this program have been subsequently tried and found guilty of various crimes in the German penal system.[9][10]

A very publicized steroid-related disqualification at an Olympic Games was the case of Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson, who won the Men's 100 metres at the 1988 Seoul Olympics, but tested positive for stanozolol. His gold medal was subsequently stripped and awarded to runner-up Carl Lewis, who himself had tested positive for banned substances prior to the Olympics, but had not been banned due to a lack of consistency in the application of the rules. At that time National Olympic Committees had leeway to determine whether a specific athlete met the criteria to be banned from Olympic competition.[11]

Response[edit]

In the late 1990s, the IOC took the initiative in a more organized battle against doping, leading to the formation of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in 1999. The 2000 Summer Olympics and 2002 Winter Olympics have shown that the effort to eliminate performance-enhancing drugs from the Olympics is not over, as several medalists in weightlifting and cross-country skiing were disqualified due to failing a drug test. During the 2006 Winter Olympics, only one athlete failed a drug test and had a medal revoked. The IOC-established drug testing regimen (now known as the "Olympic Standard") has set the worldwide benchmark that other sporting federations attempt to emulate.[12] During the Beijing games, 3,667 athletes were tested by the IOC under the auspices of the World Anti-Doping Agency. Both urine and blood testing was used in a coordinated effort to detect banned substances and recent blood transfusions. While several athletes were barred from competition by their National Olympic Committees prior to the Games, six athletes failed drug tests while in competition in Beijing.[13][14]

Prohibited drugs[edit]

Summer Olympic Games[edit]

What follows is a list of all the athletes that have tested positive for a banned substance either during or after an Olympic Games in which they competed. Any medals listed were revoked by the International Olympic Commission (IOC). In 1967 the IOC banned the use of performance-enhancing drugs, instituted a Medical Commission, and created a list of banned substances.[15] Mandatory testing began at the following year's Games.[15]

1968 Mexico City[edit]

Main article: 1968 Summer Olympics
Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall Sweden Modern pentathlon Ethanol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (team)

1972 Munich[edit]

Main article: 1972 Summer Olympics
Name Country Sport Anti-doping rule violation Medals Ref.
Bakaava Buidaa Mongolia Judo Caffeine 2nd, silver medalist(s) (63 kg) [16]
Miguel Coll Puerto Rico Basketball Amphetamine [16][17]
Rick DeMont United States Swimming Ephedrine 1st, gold medalist(s) (men's 400 m freestyle) [16]
Aad van den Hoek Netherlands Cycling Coramine 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (100 km team race) [16]
Jaime Huélamo Spain Cycling Coramine 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (individual road race) [16]
Walter Legel Austria Weightlifting Amphetamine [16]
Mohammad Reza Nasehi Iran Weightlifting Ephedrine [16]

1976 Montreal[edit]

Main article: 1976 Summer Olympics
Name Country Sport Anti-doping rule violation Medals Ref.
Blagoi Blagoev Bulgaria Weightlifting Anabolic steroid 2nd, silver medalist(s) (82.5 kg) [16]
Mark Cameron United States Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [16]
Paul Cerutti Monaco Shooting Amphetamine [16]
Dragomir Ciorosian Romania Weightlifting Fencamfamine [16]
Philippe Grippaldi United States Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [16]
Zbigniew Kaczmarek Poland Weightlifting Anabolic steroid 1st, gold medalist(s) (67.5 kg) [16]
Valentin Khristov Bulgaria Weightlifting Anabolic steroid 1st, gold medalist(s) (110 kg) [16]
Lorne Liebel Canada Sailing Phenylpropanolamine [16]
Arne Norrback Sweden Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [16]
Peter Pavlasek Czechoslovakia Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [16]
Danuta Rosani Poland Athletics Anabolic steroid [16][18]

1980 Moscow[edit]

Main article: 1980 Summer Olympics

Though no athletes were caught doping at the 1980 Summer Olympics, it has been claimed that athletes had begun using testosterone and other drugs for which tests had not been yet developed. A 1989 report by a committee of the Australian Senate claimed that "there is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow Games, certainly not a gold medal winner...who is not on one sort of drug or another: usually several kinds. The Moscow Games might well have been called the Chemists' Games".[19]

A member of the IOC Medical Commission, Manfred Donike, privately ran additional tests with a new technique for identifying abnormal levels of testosterone by measuring its ratio to epitestosterone in urine. Twenty percent of the specimens he tested, including those from sixteen gold medalists would have resulted in disciplinary proceedings had the tests been official.[19] The results of Donike's unofficial tests later convinced the IOC to add his new technique to their testing protocols.[20] The first documented case of "blood doping" occurred at the 1980 Summer Olympics as a runner was transfused with two pints of blood before winning medals in the 5000 m and 10,000 m.[21]

1984 Los Angeles[edit]

Main article: 1984 Summer Olympics
Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Ref.
Serafim Grammatikopoulos Greece Weightlifting Nandrolone
Vésteinn Hafsteinsson Iceland Athletics Nandrolone [18]
Tomas Johansson Sweden Wrestling Methenolone 2nd, silver medalist(s) (super-heavy)
Stefan Laggner Austria Weightlifting Nandrolone
Göran Pettersson Sweden Weightlifting Nandrolone
Eiji Shimomura Japan Volleyball Testosterone
Mikiyasu Tanaka Japan Volleyball Ephedrine
Ahmed Tarbi Algeria Weightlifting Nandrolone
Mahmud Tarha Lebanon Weightlifting Nandrolone
Giampaolo Urlando Italy Athletics Testosterone [18]
Martti Vainio Finland Athletics Methenolone 2nd, silver medalist(s) (10,000 m) [18]
Anna Verouli Greece Athletics Nandrolone [18]

The organizers of the Los Angeles games had refused to provide the IOC doping authorities with a safe prior to the start of the games. Due to a lack of security, medical records were subsequently stolen.[19] A 1994 letter from IOC Medical Commission chair Alexandre de Mérode claimed that Tony Daly, a member of the Los Angeles organizing committee had destroyed the records.[19] Dick Pound later wrote of his frustration that the organizing committee had removed evidence before it could be acted on by the IOC. Pound also claimed that IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch and Primo Nebiolo, President of the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) had conspired to delay the announcement of positive tests so that the games could pass without controversy.[19]

The American cyclist Pat McDonough later admitted to "blood doping" at the 1984 Los Angeles Games.[22] Following the games it was revealed that one-third of the U.S. cycling team had received blood transfusions before the games, where they won nine medals, their first medal success since the 1912 Summer Olympics.[22] "Blood doping" was banned by the IOC in 1985, though no test existed for it at the time.[22]

1988 Seoul[edit]

Main article: 1988 Summer Olympics
Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Ref.
Alidad Afghanistan Wrestling Furosemide
Kerrith Brown Great Britain Judo Furosemide
Kalman Csengeri Hungary Weightlifting Stanozolol
Mitko Grablev Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide 1st, gold medalist(s) (56 kg)
Angell Guenchev Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide 1st, gold medalist(s) (67.5 kg)
Ben Johnson Canada Athletics Stanozolol 1st, gold medalist(s) (men's 100 m) [18]
Fernando Mariaca Spain Weightlifting Pemoline
Jorge Quesada Spain Modern pentathlon Propanolol
Andor Szanyi Hungary Weightlifting Stanozolol 2nd, silver medalist(s) (100 kg)
Alexander Watson Australia Modern Pentathlon Caffeine

1992 Barcelona[edit]

Main article: 1992 Summer Olympics
Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Ref.
Madina Biktagirova Unified Team Athletics Norephedrine [18]
Wu Dan China Volleyball Strychnine
Bonnie Dasse United States Athletics Clenbuterol [18]
Jud Logan United States Athletics Clenbuterol [18]
Nijolė Medvedeva Lithuania Athletics Mesocarb [18]

1996 Atlanta[edit]

Main article: 1996 Summer Olympics
Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Ref.
Antonella Bevilacqua Italy Athletics Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine [18][23]
Dean Capobianco Australia Athletics Stanozolol [18][23]
Sandra Farmer-Patrick United States Athletics Testosterone [18][24]
Daniel Plaza Spain Athletics Nandrolone [18][25][26]
Iva Prandzheva Bulgaria Athletics Metadienone [18][27]
Mary Slaney United States Athletics Testosterone [18][28]
Natalya Shekhodanova Russia Athletics Stanozolol [18][27][29]

Five athletes tested positive for the stimulant bromantan and were disqualified by the IOC, but later reinstated after an appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport: swimmers Andrey Korneyev and Nina Zhivanevskaya, Greco-Roman wrestler Zafar Guliyev and sprinter Marina Trandenkova, all from Russia, and the Lithuanian track cyclist Rita Razmaitė. Dr. Vitaly Slionssarenko, physician to the Lithuanian cycling team and team coach Boris Vasilyev were expelled from the games.[30][31][32] The CAS overturned the IOC decision, because bromantan had only recently been added to the prohibited list,[27] and the athletes and officials were reprimanded.[33][34][35] The Russians had argued that bromantans wasn't a stimulant and thus not banned.[36][37]

The Irish long-distance runner Marie McMahon (Davenport) got a reprimand after testing positive for the stimulant phenylpropanolamine,[27][38][39] and Cuban judoka Estella Rodriguez Villanueva got a reprimand after she tested positive for the diuretic furosemide.[27]

2000 Sydney[edit]

Main article: 2000 Summer Olympics

Tim Montgomery, who was part of the USA Men's 4 × 100 m relay team which won the gold, in 2008 admitted that he had used Testosterone and HGH before the Sydney Games, and said “I have a gold medal that I’m sitting on that I didn’t get with my own ability”.[40] IOC at the time said they would look into the case,[41] but no action has since been taken by IOC to disqualify Montgomery from the Games.

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Ref.
Fritz Aanes Norway Wrestling Norandrosterone and noretiochdandone
Lance Armstrong United States Cycling
(Road race and Time trial)
Investigation concluded 2012:
Use, Possession, Trafficking, Administration of Prohibited Substances and Methods and Assisting, Encouraging, Aiding, Abetting, Covering Up or any other type of complicity involving one or more anti-doping rule violations and/or attempted anti-doping rule violations.
3rd, bronze medalist(s) (Time trial)
Ashot Danielyan Armenia Weightlifting Stanozolol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (+105 kg)
Izabela Dragneva Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide 1st, gold medalist(s) (48 kg)
Stian Grimseth Norway Weightlifting Nandrolone
Ivan Ivanov Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide 2nd, silver medalist(s) (56 kg)
Marion Jones United States Athletics THG 1st, gold medalist(s) (women's 100 m), 1st, gold medalist(s) (women's 200 m),
1st, gold medalist(s) (women's 4x400 m relay), 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (women's long jump),
3rd, bronze medalist(s) (women's 4x100 m relay)
[18]
Alexander Leipold Germany Wrestling Nandrolone 1st, gold medalist(s) (76 kg)
Sevdalin Minchev Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (62 kg)
Antonio Pettigrew United States Athletics EPO and HGH 1st, gold medalist(s) (men's 4 × 400 m relay) [18]
Svetlana Pospelova Russia Athletics Stanozolol [18][42]
Oyuunbilegiin Pürevbaatar Mongolia Wrestling Furosemide
Andreea Răducan Romania Gymnastics Pseudophedrine[43] 1st, gold medalist(s) (women's individual all-round)
Andris Reinholds Latvia Rowing Nandrolone
Jerome Young United States Athletics Nandrolone 1st, gold medalist(s) (men's 4 × 400 m relay) [18]

2004 Athens[edit]

Main article: 2004 Summer Olympics
Name Country Sport Anti-doping rule violation Medals Ref.
Wafa Ammouri Morocco Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [44]
Adrián Annus Hungary Athletics Falsified test result, evasion of doping control 1st, gold medalist(s) (men's hammer throw) [18][44]
Ludger Beerbaum Germany Equestrian Betamethasone (to horse Goldfever) 1st, gold medalist(s) (team jumping)
Yuriy Bilonog Ukraine Athletics Oxandrolone (positive after retest in 2012) 1st, gold medalist(s) (men's shot put) [18][45][46]
Zhanna Block Ukraine Athletics BALCO investigation [18]
Andrew Brack Greece Baseball Stanozolol (pre-Games test) [47]
Viktor Chislean Moldova Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [44]
Crystal Cox United States Athletics Anabolic agents and hormones (investigation completed 2010) 1st, gold medalist(s) (women's 4 × 400 m relay) [18][48]
Róbert Fazekas Hungary Athletics Refused to submit sample 1st, gold medalist(s) (men's discus throw) [18][44][49]
Mabel Fonseca Puerto Rico Wrestling Stanozolol [44]
Anton Galkin Russia Athletics Stanozolol [18][44]
Ferenc Gyurkovics Hungary Weightlifting Oxandrolone 2nd, silver medalist(s) (105 kg) [44]
Tyler Hamilton United States Cycling Use of prohibited substances and methods (self admission) 1st, gold medalist(s) (men's road time trial) [50]
Marion Jones United States Athletics BALCO investigation [18]
Zoltan Kecskes Hungary Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [44]
Konstantinos Kenteris Greece Athletics Evasion of doping control [44][49]
Albina Khomic Russia Weightlifting Testosterone [44]
Aye Khine Nan Myanmar Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [44]
Irina Korzhanenko Russia Athletics Stanozolol 1st, gold medalist(s) (women's shot put) [18][44][49]
Zoltán Kovács Hungary Weightlifting Refused to submit sample [44]
Svetlana Krivelyova Russia Athletics Oxandrolone (positive after retest in 2012) 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (women's shot put) [18][46][51][52]
Pratima Kumari Na India Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [44]
Aleksey Lesnichiy Belarus Athletics Clenbuterol [18][44][49]
David Munyasia Kenya Boxing Cathine [44]
Derek Nicholson Greece Baseball Diuretic (pre-Games test) [47]
Cian O'Connor Ireland Equestrian Antipsychotics (to horse Waterford Crystal) 1st, gold medalist(s) (individual jumping)
Olena Olefirenko Ukraine Rowing Ethamivan 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (women's quadruple sculls) [44]
Oleg Perepetchenov Russia Weightlifting Clenbuterol (positive after retest in 2012) 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (62 kg) [53][54]
Duane Ross United States Athletics BALCO investigation [18]
Leonidas Sampanis Greece Weightlifting Testosterone 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (62 kg) [44]
Thinbaijam Sanamcha Chanu India Weightlifting Furosemide [44]
Mital Sharipov Kyrgyzstan Weightlifting Furosemide [44]
Olga Shchukina Uzbekistan Athletics Clenbuterol [18][44][49]
Şule Şahbaz Turkey Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [44]
Ekaterini Thanou Greece Athletics Evasion of doping control [44][49]
Ivan Tsikhan Belarus Athletics Methandienone (positive after retest in 2012) 2nd, silver medalist(s) (men's hammer throw) [18][46]
Irina Yatchenko Belarus Athletics Methandienone (positive after retest in 2012) 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (women's discus throw) [18][46]

2008 Beijing[edit]

Main article: 2008 Summer Olympics

"Zero Tolerance for Doping" was adopted as an official slogan for the Beijing Olympic Games.[55] A number of athletes were already eliminated by testing prior to coming to Beijing.[55]

Out of the 4,500 samples that were collected from participating athletes at the games, six athletes with positive specimens were ousted from the competition. It is possible that further positive tests may still be found as samples are sealed and frozen for eight years. It is unclear who remains in charge of these samples, the host or the IOC. The quality of testing was questioned when the BBC reported that samples positive for EPO were labeled as negative by Chinese laboratories in July.[56] The rate of positive findings is lower than at Athens four years ago, but it cannot be deduced that the prevalence of doping has decreased; possibly, doping technology has become more sophisticated and a number of drugs cannot be detected.[55][56][57]

In May 2016, following the Russian doping scandal, the IOC announced that 32 targeted retests had come back positive for performance enhancing drugs, of which Russian News Agency TASS announced that 14 were from Russian athletes, 11 of them track and field athletes, including 2012 Olympic champion high jumper Anna Chicherova. Authorities have sent the B-samples for confirmation testing. Those confirmed as having taken doping agents stand to lose records and medals from the 2008 games to 2016 under IOC and WADA rules.[58]

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Details
Christian Ahlmann Germany Equestrian Capsaicin
Bernardo Alves Brazil Equestrian Capsaicin
Lyudmila Blonska Ukraine Athletics Methyltestosterone 2nd, silver medalist(s) (heptathlon) IOC post-event testing[18][59]
Yuliya Chermoshanskaya Russia Athletics
200 m
4 × 100 metres relay
Stanozolol & dehydrochlormethyltestosterone 1st, gold medalist(s) (4 × 100 metres relay) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[60]
Fani Halkia Greece Athletics (DNS) Methyltrienolone Pre-Games testing in Japan[61][62][63]
Tony André Hansen Norway Equestrian Capsaicin 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (team jumping)
Alissa Kallinikou Cyprus Athletics Testosterone In competition test in July 2008[18][64]
Anastasia Kapachinskaya Russia Athletics
400 m
4 × 400 metres relay
Stanozolol & dehydrochlormethyltestosterone 2nd, silver medalist(s) (4 × 400 metres relay) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[65]
Kim Jong-su North Korea Shooting Propranolol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (men's 10 m air pistol), 2nd, silver medalist(s) (50 m pistol)
Courtney King United States Equestrian Felbinac
Hripsime Khurshudyan Armenia Weightlifiting
75 kg
Stanozolol IOC re-analyse of sample in 2016[66]
Denis Lynch Ireland Equestrian Capsaicin
Andrei Mikhnevich Belarus Athletics Retest of sample from 2005 WCh: Clenbuterol, Methandienone and Oxandrolone 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (men's shotput) IAAF retest of sample from the 2005 IAAF World Championships. All results from August 2005 onwards annulled.[18][67][68]
Maria Isabel Moreno Spain Cycling (DNS) Erythropoietin Pre-Games testing in Olympic village, Beijing[69]
Tezdzhan Naimova Bulgaria Athletics Tampering with doping control IAAF out-of-competition test in June 2008.[18][64]
Vanja Perisic Croatia Athletics CERA IOC re-analyse of sample in 2009[18][70]
Rodrigo Pessoa Brazil Equestrian Nonivamide
Alexander Pogorelov Russia Athletics
Decathlon
Dehydrochlormethyltestosterone IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[65]
Rashid Ramzi Bahrain Athletics CERA 1st, gold medalist(s) (men's 1500 m) IOC re-analyse of sample in 2009[18][70]
Igor Razoronov Ukraine Weightlifting Nandrolone [71]
Davide Rebellin Italy Cycling CERA 2nd, silver medalist(s) (men's road race) IOC re-analyse of sample in 2009[70]
Stefan Schumacher Germany Cycling CERA AFDL re-analyse of sample from 2008 Tour de France in autumn of 2008 and IOC re-analyse of sample from 2008 Olympic Games in 2009[70]
Adam Seroczyński Poland Canoeing Clenbuterol
Nurcan Taylan Turkey Weightlifiting
48 kg
Stanozolol IOC re-analyse of sample in 2016[66]
Do Thi Ngan Thuong Vietnam Gymnastics Furosemide
Athanasia Tsoumeleka Greece Athletics CERA IOC re-analyse of sample in 2009[18][70]
Ivan Yushkov Russia Athletics
Shot put
Stanozolol, oxandrolone & Dehydrochlormethyltestosterone IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[65]
Sibel Özkan Turkey Weightlifiting
48 kg
Stanozolol 2nd, silver medalist(s) IOC re-analyse of sample in 2016[72]

2012 London[edit]

Main article: 2012 Summer Olympics

It was announced prior to the Summer games that half of all competitors would be tested for drugs, with 150 scientists set to take 6,000 samples between the start of the games and the end of the Paralympic games.[73] All medalists would also be tested. The Olympic anti-doping laboratory would test up to 400 samples every day for more than 240 prohibited substances.[73]

The head of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), John Fahey, announced on 24 July that 107 athletes had been sanctioned for doping offences in the six months to June 19.[74] The "In-competition" period began on July 16. During the "In-competition" period Olympic competitors can be tested at any time without notice or in advance.[75]

British sprinter Dwain Chambers, cyclist David Millar and shot putter Carl Myerscough[76] competed in London after the British Olympic Association's policy of punishing drug cheats with lifetime bans was overturned by the Court of Arbitration for Sport.[73]

Gold medallists at the games who had been involved in previous doping offences included Alexander Vinokourov, the winner of the men's road race,[77] Tatyana Lysenko, the winner of the women's hammer throw, Aslı Çakır Alptekin winner of the women's 1500 meters and Sandra Perković, winner of the women's discus throw.[78][79] Other competitors at the Summer games involved in previous doping cases included American athletes Justin Gatlin and LaShawn Merritt,[80] and Jamaican sprinter Yohan Blake.[81]

Spanish athlete Ángel Mullera was first selected for the 3000 m steeplechase and later removed when emails were published in which he discussed EPO use with a trainer.[82] Mullera appealed to CAS which ordered the Spanish Olympic Committee to allow him to participate.[83]

Prior to the Olympic competition, several prominent track and field athletes were ruled out of the competition due to failed tests. World indoor medallists Dimitrios Chondrokoukis, Debbie Dunn, and Mariem Alaoui Selsouli were withdrawn from their Olympic teams in July for doping, as was 2004 Olympic medallist Zoltán Kővágó.[84][85][86] At the Olympic competition, Tameka Williams admitted to taking a banned stimulant and was removed from the games.[87] Ivan Tsikhan did not compete in the hammer throw as a re-test of his sample from the 2004 Athens Olympics, where he won silver, was positive.[88] Amine Laâlou,[89] Marina Marghieva,[90] Diego Palomeque,[91] and defending 50 km walk champion Alex Schwazer were also suspended before taking part in their events.[92]

Syrian hurdler Ghfran Almouhamad became the first track-and-field athlete to be suspended following a positive in-competition doping sample.[93] Nadzeya Astapchuk was stripped of the women's shot put title after her sample came back positive for the banned anabolic agent metenolone.[94] Karin Melis Mey was withdrawn before the long jump final when an earlier failed doping test was confirmed.[95]

A WADA report released in 2015 detailed an extensive Russian state-sponsored doping program implicating athletes, coaches, various Russian institutions, doctors and labs. The report stated that the London Olympic Games "were, in a sense, sabotaged by the admission of athletes who should have not been competing" and detailed incidents of bribery and bogus urine samples. The report recommended that Russia be barred from track and field events for the 2016 Olympics. It also recommended lifetime bans for five coaches and five athletes from the country, including runners Mariya Savinova, Ekaterina Poistogova, Anastasiya Bazdyreva, Kristina Ugarova, and Tatjana Myazina.[96][97]

Disqualified[edit]

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Details of test
Hussain Al-Hamdah Saudi Arabia Athletics
5000 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 26 March 2009 onwards.[18][98]
Ghfran Almouhamad Syria Athletics
400 metres hurdles
Methylhexaneamine IOC pre-competition testing at 2012 Summer Olympics[18][99]
Elena Arzhakova Russia Athletics
800 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 12 July 2011 onwards.[18][100][101]
Sergey Bakulin Russia Athletics
50 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/results annulled from 25 February 2011 to 24 December 2012.[102][103]
Olga Beresnyeva Ukraine Swimming
Open water
EPO Retesting in 2015 of samples from IOC pre-Games testing in Ukraine[104][105]
Valeriy Borchin Russia Athletics
20 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/results annulled from 14 August 2009 to 15 October 2012.[102][103]
Aslı Çakır-Alptekin Turkey Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalities 1st, gold medalist(s) IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 29 July 2010 onwards.[106][107]
Nicholas Delpopolo United States Judo Cannabis IOC post-event testing at 2012 Summer Olympics.[108]
Hamza Driouch Qatar Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 2 Aug. 2012 onwards.[18][109][110]
Tyson Gay United States Athletics
100 metres
Anabolic androgenic steroids USADA investigation after positive for anabolic androgenic ateroids in 2013; admittance.[18][111][112][113]
Yelizaveta Grechishnikova Russia Athletics
10,000 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 18 August 2009 onwards.[18][101][114]
Semoy Hackett Trinidad and Tobago Athletics
100 metres
200 metres
4 × 100 metres relay
Methylhexaneamine Positive from Division I Outdoor Track & Field Championships in June 2012[18][115][116]
Hassan Hirt France Athletics
5000 metres
EPO IOC pre-Games testing.[18][117]
Yuliya Kalina Ukraine Weightlifting
58 kg
Dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (Oral Turinabol) 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC retest in 2016.[118]
Vladimir Kanaikin Russia Athletics
20 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/results annulled from 25 February 2011 to 17 December 2012.[102][103]
Olga Kaniskina Russia Athletics
20 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalities 2nd, silver medalist(s) IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/results annulled from 15 August 2009 to 15 October 2012.[102][103]
Natallia Kareiva Belarus Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 28 July 2010 onwards.[18][101][119][120]
Sergey Kirdyapkin Russia Athletics
50 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalities 1st, gold medalist(s) IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/results annulled from 20 August 2009 to 15 October 2012.[102][103]
Blaža Klemenčič Slovenia Cycling
MTB
EPO UCI reanalysis of sample from 27 March 2012 in 2015. All results annulled from 27 March 2012 until 31 December 2012.[121]
Yekaterina Kostetskaya Russia Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 30 August 2011 onwards.[18][122][123]
Pavel Kryvitski Belarus Athletics
Hammer throw
Stanozolol & dehydrochlormethyltestosterone IOC re-analyse of sample in 2016[66]
Zalina Marghieva Moldova Athletics
Hammer throw
2009 WCh retest: Stanozolol, Oral Turinabol IAAF retesting of samples from 2009 IAAF World Championships[18][124]
Karin Melis Mey Turkey Athletics
Long jump
Testosterone Positive from the 2012 European Athletics Championships in June.[18][124] Provisionally suspended after the qualifying round at the Games.
Andrei Mikhnevich Belarus Athletics
Shot put
2005 WCh retest: Clenbuterol, Methandienone and Oxandrolone IAAF retest of sample from the 2005 IAAF World Championships. All results from August 2005 onwards annulled.[18][67]
Nadzeya Ostapchuk Belarus Athletics
Shot put
Methenolone 1st, gold medalist(s) IOC post-event testing at 2012 Summer Olympics (two separate positive samples).[18][125]
Darya Pishchalnikova Russia Athletics
Discus throw
Oxandrolone 2nd, silver medalist(s) Random out of competition test in May 2012. All her results (Including those at the 2012 Summer Olympics) since May 2012 were annulled by the IAAF in April 2013.[18][126]
Hysen Pulaku Albania Weightlifting Stanozolol IOC pre-competition testing at 2012 Summer Olympics.[77]
Oleksandr Pyatnytsya Ukraine Athletics
Javelin throw
Dehydrochlormethyltestosterone 2nd, silver medalist(s) IOC re-analyse of sample in 2016[66]
Pınar Saka Turkey Athletics
400 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 18 June 2010 onwards.[18][101][127]
Mohammed Shaween Saudi Arabia Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 12 June 2011 onwards.[18][122][123]
Anzhelika Shevchenko Ukraine Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 2 July 2011 onwards.[18][101]
Liliya Shobukhova Russia Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 9 October 2009 onwards.[128][129]
Svitlana Shmidt Ukraine Athletics
Steeplechase
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 8 March 2012 onwards.[18][130][131][132]
Soslan Tigiev Uzbekistan Wrestling Methylhexaneamine 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC post-event testing at 2012 Summer Olympics.[133]
USA's Men's 4 × 100 meter relay team United States Athletics
4 × 100 meters
DHEA (Tyson Gay) 2nd, silver medalist(s) USADA investigation after Tyson Gays positive for Anabolic Androgenic Steroids in 2013; admittance.[18][111][112][113]
Binnaz Uslu Turkey Athletics
Steplechase
2011 WCh retest: Stanozolol IAAF retest of sample from 2011 World Championships[18][124][134]
Wang Jiali China Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 29 May 2012 onwards.[18][135]
Nevin Yanit Turkey Athletics
100 metres hurdles
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 28 June 2012 onwards.[18][136][137][138]
Igor Yerokhin Russia Athletics
50 km walk
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 25 February 2011 onwards.[18][139]
Lyudmyla Yosypenko Ukraine Athletics
Heptathlon
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 25 August 2011 onwards.[18][124]
Yuliya Zaripova Russia Athletics
3000 metres steeplechase
Biological passport abnormalities 1st, gold medalist(s) IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/results annulled from 20 July 2011 to 25 July 2013.[102][103]

Did not start[edit]

Athletes who were selected for the Games, but provisionally suspended before competing.

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Details of test
Victoria Baranova Russia Cycling
Track - sprint (
Testosterone IOC pre-Games testing in Belarus[140]
Kissya Cataldo Brazil Rowing
Single sculls
EPO International Rowing Federation pre-Games testing in Brazil[80][141]
Luiza Galiulina Uzbekistan Gymnastics Furosemide IOC pre-Games testing in Uzbekistan.[142]
Amine Laâlou Morocco Athletics
1500 metres
Furosemide IAAF post-competition testing at Diamond League meeting in Monte Carlo.[143]
Marina Marghieva
(Marina Nichișenco)
Moldova Athletics
Hammer throw
Stanozolol IOC pre-Games testing.[18][144][124]
Diego Palomeque Colombia Athletics
400 metres
Exogenous testosterone IOC pre-competition testing at 2012 Summer Olympics.[145]
Alex Schwazer Italy Athletics
50 km walk
EPO IOC pre-Games testing in Italy.[146]
Tameka Williams Saint Kitts and Nevis Athletics
100 metres
"Blast Off Red" Did not fail test but confessed to have used an illegal "veterinary medicine".[147]


2016 Rio de Janeiro[edit]

Main article: 2016 Summer Olympics

More than 90 competitors at the games had previously been punished for doping offences; these included the American sprinter Justin Gatlin and the Russian swimmer Yuliya Yefimova.[148] The winner of the Men's 77kg weightlifting contest, the Kazakhstani weightlifter Nijat Rahimov, had previously been banned for 2 years for doping.[149]

The Taiwanese weightlifter Lin Tzu-chi was withdrawn from the games hours before her event by her country's delegation for an abnormal drugs test.[149]

The Kenyan athletics coach John Anzrah, who travelled to Rio independently of his country's delegation was sent home after being caught posing as an athlete during a doping test.[150] This followed the sending home of Kenya's track and field manager Michael Rotich who was filmed by a newspaper offering to give athletes advanced notice of any pending drugs test in return for a one-off payment.[151]

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Details of test
Michael O'Reilly Ireland Boxing
Middleweight
not disclosed O'Reilly admitted to taking a dietary supplement given to him by someone unrelated to his team or association.[152]
Silvia Danekova Bulgaria Athletics
Steeplechase
EPO Provisionally suspended after a failed A-sample test given a few days after arriving in Brazil.[153]
Chen Xinyi China Swimming
100 metre butterfly
Hydrochlorothiazide Tested positive for the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide; applied for B sample to be tested and hearing to be held.[154]
Kléber Ramos Brazil Cycling
Road race
CERA IOC pre-games test 31 July and out-of-competition test (blood and urine) 4 August.[155] Provisionally suspended by UCI on 12 August.[156]
Antonis Martasidis Cyprus Weightlifting
85 kg
Sent home from the Olympics after failing a pre-games test conducted on 25 July.[157]
Tomasz Zieliński Poland Weightlifting
94 kg
Nandrolone Sent home from the Olympics after failing a test conducted at the Polish Championships in July.[158]
Adrian Zieliński Poland Weightlifting
94 kg
Nandrolone [158]
Theodora Gianeni Greece Swimming
50 metre freestyle
Sent home from the Olympics on the day of the opening ceremony after failing a pre-games test conducted in July.[157][159]
Izzat Artykov Kyrgyzstan Weightlifting
69 kg
Strychnine 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (69 kg) Positive test for strychnine and forfeiture of medal announced by CAS.[160]
Serghei Tarnovschi Moldova Canoeing
C-1 1000 metres
C-2 1000 metres
3rd, bronze medalist(s) (C-1 1000 metres) Result from pre-game test. Provisionally suspended on 18 August.[161]
Narsingh Pancham Yadav India Wrestling
Freestyle 74 kg
Methandienone Originally cleared to compete by the National Anti-doping Agency of India after failed tests on 25 June and 5 July. Appeal by WADA was upheld by CAS on 18 August, with a 4 years suspension handed down.[162]
Chagnaadorj Usukhbayar Mongolia Weightlifting
56 kg
Exogenous testosterone IOC out-of-competiton test on 7. August.[163]

Winter Olympic Games[edit]

1968 Grenoble[edit]

Main article: 1968 Winter Olympics

No athletes were caught doping at these Games.

1972 Sapporo[edit]

Main article: 1972 Winter Olympics
Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Alois Schloder West Germany Ice hockey Ephedrine

1976 Innsbruck[edit]

Main article: 1976 Winter Olympics
Name Country Sport Anti-doping rule violation Medals Ref.
Galina Kulakova Soviet Union Cross-country skiing Ephedrine 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (5 km) [16]
Frantisek Pospisil Czechoslovakia Ice hockey Codeine, Morphine [16][164][165]
Dr. Otto Trefny Czechoslovakia Ice hockey Administration of prohibited substances to Frantisek Pospisil. Banned from the Olympic Games for life. [16][164][165]

1980 Lake Placid[edit]

Main article: 1980 Winter Olympics

No athletes were caught using performance-enhancing drugs at these Games.

1984 Sarajevo[edit]

Main article: 1984 Winter Olympics

The Finnish cross-country skier Aki Karvonen admitted in 1994 that he'd had blood transfusions for the Sarajevo Games.[166] Blood transfusions weren't formally banned by IOC until 1986. Karvonen won a silver and two bronze at the games.

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Pürevjavyn Batsükh Mongolia Cross-country skiing Methandienone

1988 Calgary[edit]

Main article: 1988 Winter Olympics
Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Jaroslaw Morawiecki Poland Ice hockey Testosterone

1992 Albertville[edit]

Main article: 1992 Winter Olympics

No athletes were caught using performance-enhancing drugs at these Games. The Russian biathlete Sergei Tarasov admitted in 2015 that the Russian biathlon team had carried out illegal blood transfusions at the Games. Something went very wrong with his transfusion, and he was rushed to the hospital where they saved his life.[167]

1994 Lillehammer[edit]

Main article: 1994 Winter Olympics

No athletes were caught using performance-enhancing drugs at these Games

1998 Nagano[edit]

Main article: 1998 Winter Olympics

No athletes were caught using performance-enhancing drugs at these games. The Canadian snowboarder Ross Rebagliati, winner of the men's giant slalom, was initially disqualified and stripped of his gold medal by the International Olympic Committee's Executive Board after testing positive for marijuana.[168] Marijuana was not then on the list of prohibited substances by the IOC, and their decision was reversed by the Court of Arbitration for Sport and Rebagliati's medal reinstated.[168][169][170]

2002 Salt Lake City[edit]

Main article: 2002 Winter Olympics
Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Natalia Baranova-Masalkina Russia Cross-country skiing WADA pre-Games test: EPO[171]
Alain Baxter Great Britain Alpine skiing Methamphetamine 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (slalom)
Olga Danilova Russia Cross-country skiing Darbepoetin 1st, gold medalist(s) (10 km pursuit), 2nd, silver medalist(s) (10 km)
Larisa Lazutina Russia Cross-country skiing Darbepoetin 1st, gold medalist(s) (30 km), 1st, gold medalist(s) (10 km), 2nd, silver medalist(s) (15 km freestyle)
Marc Mayer Austria Cross-country skiing Possession of blood-transfusion equipment[172][173]
Walter Mayer Austria Cross-country skiing/Biathlon Austrian cross-country/biathlon team coach, performed blood transfusions on Marc Mayer and Achim Walcher.[172][173]
Johann Mühlegg Spain Cross-country skiing Darbepoetin 1st, gold medalist(s) (50 km), 1st, gold medalist(s) (30 km freestyle), 1st, gold medalist(s) (20 km pursuit)
Volker Müller Austria Cross-country skiing/Biathlon German chiropractor working for the Austrian cross-country/biathlon team, involved in the blood transfusions on Marc Mayer and Achim Walcher.[172][173]
Vasily Pankov Belarus Ice hockey Nandrolone
Achim Walcher Austria Cross-country skiing Possession of blood-transfusion equipment[172][173]

2006 Turin[edit]

Main article: 2006 Winter Olympics
Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Roland Diethard Austria Cross country skiing Possession of a prohibited substance or method[174]
Johannes Eder Austria Cross country skiing Possession and use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or method[174]
Christian Hoffmann Austria Cross country skiing Investigation concluded in 2011: Blood doping[175]
Wolfgang Perner Austria Biathlon Possession of a prohibited substance or method[176]
Jürgen Pinter Austria Cross country skiing Possession of a prohibited substance or method[177]
Olga Pyleva Russia Biathlon Carphedon 2nd, silver medalist(s) (15 km)
Wolfgang Rottmann Austria Biathlon Possession of a prohibited substance or method[176]
Martin Tauber Austria Cross country skiing Possession of a prohibited substance or method[174]

2010 Vancouver[edit]

Main article: 2010 Winter Olympics
Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Kornelia Marek Poland Cross-country skiing Erythropoietin[178]

2014 Sochi[edit]

Main article: 2014 Winter Olympics

According to the director of the country’s antidoping laboratory at the time, Grigory Rodchenkov, dozens of Russian athletes at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, including at least 15 medal winners, were part of a state-run doping program, meticulously planned for years to ensure dominance at the Games. [179]

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Details of test
Nicklas Bäckström Sweden Ice hockey Pseudoephedrine[180] 2nd, silver medalist(s) Awarded despite the doping violation.[181]
Johannes Dürr Austria Cross-country skiing Erythropoietin[182]
Ralfs Freibergs Latvia Ice hockey Dehydrochloromethyltestosterone[183]
William Frullani Italy Bobsleigh Methylhexanamine[184][185]
Marina Lisogor Ukraine Cross-country skiing Trimetazidine[186][187]
Alexandr Loginov Russia Biathlon EPO Positive after IBU re-tested sample from 26 November 2013. All results from that date onwards annulled.[188]
Vitalijs Pavlovs Latvia Ice hockey Methylhexanamine[189]
Evi Sachenbacher-Stehle Germany Biathlon Methylhexanamine[184][190]
Serguei Sednev Ukraine Biathlon EPO Positive after IBU re-tested sample from 22 January 2013. All results from that date onwards annulled.[191]
Daniel Zalewski Poland Bobsleigh Stimulant[192]

See also[edit]

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