Doping at the Olympic Games

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This article is about the history of competitors at the Olympic Games using banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs.

History[edit]

The use of performance-enhancing tactics or more formally known as PEDs, and more broadly, the use of any external device to nefariously influence the outcome of a sporting event has been a part of the Olympics since its inception in Ancient Greece. One speculation as to why men were required to compete naked was to prevent the use of extra accoutrements and to keep women from competing in events specifically designed for men.[1] Athletes were also known to drink "magic" potions and eat exotic meats in the hopes of giving them an athletic edge on their competition.[2] If they were caught cheating, their likenesses were often engraved into stone and placed in a pathway that led to the Olympic stadium.[1] In the modern Olympic era, chemically enhancing one's performance has evolved into a sophisticated science, but in the early years of the Modern Olympic movement the use of performance-enhancing drugs was almost as crude as its ancient predecessors. For example, the winner of the marathon at the 1904 Games, Thomas Hicks, was given strychnine and brandy by his coach, even during the race.[3]

During the early 20th century, many Olympic athletes discovered ways to improve their athletic abilities by boosting testosterone. As their methods became more extreme, it became increasingly evident that the use of performance-enhancing drugs was not only a threat to the integrity of sport but could also have potentially fatal side effects on the athlete. The only Olympic death linked to athletic drug use occurred at the Rome Games of 1960. During the cycling road race, Danish cyclist Knud Enemark Jensen fell from his bicycle and later died. A coroner's inquiry found that he was under the influence of amphetamine, which had caused him to lose consciousness during the race.[4] Jensen's death exposed to the world how endemic drug use was among elite athletes.[5] By the mid–1960s, sports federations were starting to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs, and the IOC followed suit in 1967.[6]

The first Olympic athlete to test positive for the use of performance-enhancing drugs was Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall, a Swedish pentathlete at the 1968 Summer Olympics, who lost his bronze medal for alcohol use, 'two beers to steady his nerves'.[7] Liljenwall was the only athlete to test positive for a banned substance at the 1968 Olympics, as the technology and testing techniques improved, the number of athletes discovered to be chemically enhancing their performance increased as well.

Kornelia Ender

The most systematic case of drug use for athletic achievement is that of the East German Olympic teams of the 1970s and 1980s. In 1990, documents were discovered that showed many East German female athletes, especially swimmers, had been administered anabolic steroids and other drugs by their coaches and trainers. Girls as young as eleven were started on the drug regimen without consent from their parents. American female swimmers, including Shirley Babashoff, accused the East Germans of using performance-enhancing drugs as early as the 1976 Summer Games.[8] Babashoff's comments were dismissed by the international and domestic media as sour grapes since Babashoff, a clear favorite to win multiple gold medals, won three silver medals - losing all three times to either of the two East Germans Kornelia Ender or Petra Thümer, and one gold medal in a relay. There was no suspicion of cheating on the part of the East German female swimmers even though their medal tally increased from four silvers and one bronze in 1972 to ten golds (out of a possible 12), six silvers, and one bronze in 1976. No clear evidence was discovered until after the fall of the Berlin Wall, when the aforementioned documents proved that East Germany had embarked on a state-sponsored drug regimen to dramatically improve their competitiveness at the Olympic Games and other international sporting events. Many of the East German authorities responsible for this program have been subsequently tried and found guilty of various crimes in the German penal system.[9][10]

According to British journalist Andrew Jennings, a KGB colonel stated that the agency's officers had posed as anti-doping authorities from the International Olympic Committee to undermine doping tests and that Soviet athletes were "rescued with [these] tremendous efforts".[11] On the topic of the 1980 Summer Olympics, a 1989 Australian study said "There is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow Games, certainly not a gold medal winner, who is not on one sort of drug or another: usually several kinds. The Moscow Games might as well have been called the Chemists' Games."[11]

Documents obtained in 2016 revealed the Soviet Union's plans for a statewide doping system in track and field in preparation for the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Dated prior to the country's decision to boycott the Games, the document detailed the existing steroids operations of the program, along with suggestions for further enhancements.[12] The communication, directed to the Soviet Union's head of track and field, was prepared by Dr. Sergei Portugalov of the Institute for Physical Culture. Portugalov was also one of the main figures involved in the implementation of the Russian doping program prior to the 2016 Summer Olympics.[12]

A very publicized steroid-related disqualification at an Olympic Games was the case of Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson, who won the Men's 100 metres at the 1988 Seoul Olympics, but tested positive for stanozolol. His gold medal was subsequently stripped and awarded to runner-up Carl Lewis, who himself had tested positive for banned substances prior to the Olympics, but had not been banned due to a lack of consistency in the application of the rules. At that time National Olympic Committees had leeway to determine whether a specific athlete met the criteria to be banned from Olympic competition.[13]

Response[edit]

In the late 1990s, the IOC took the initiative in a more organized battle against doping, leading to the formation of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in 1999. The 2000 Summer Olympics and 2002 Winter Olympics have shown that the effort to eliminate performance-enhancing drugs from the Olympics is not over, as several medalists in weightlifting and cross-country skiing were disqualified due to failing a drug test. During the 2006 Winter Olympics, only one athlete failed a drug test and had a medal revoked. The IOC-established drug testing regimen (now known as the "Olympic Standard") has set the worldwide benchmark that other sporting federations attempt to emulate.[14] During the Beijing games, 3,667 athletes were tested by the IOC under the auspices of the World Anti-Doping Agency. Both urine and blood testing was used in a coordinated effort to detect banned substances and recent blood transfusions. While several athletes were barred from competition by their National Olympic Committees prior to the Games, six athletes failed drug tests while in competition in Beijing.[15][16]

Prohibited drugs[edit]

Summer Olympic Games[edit]

What follows is a list of all the athletes that have tested positive for a banned substance either during or after an Olympic Games in which they competed. Any medals listed were revoked by the International Olympic Commission (IOC). In 1967 the IOC banned the use of performance-enhancing drugs, instituted a Medical Commission, and created a list of banned substances.[17] Mandatory testing began at the following year's Games.[17] In a few cases the IOC has reversed earlier rulings that stripped athletes of medals. In the case of Rick DeMont, the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) has recognized his gold medal performance in the 1972 Summer Olympics in 2001,[18] but only the IOC has the power to restore his medal, and it has as of 2017 refused to do so.[18]

1968 Mexico City[edit]

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall  Sweden Modern pentathlon Ethanol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (team)

1972 Munich[edit]

Name Country Sport Anti-doping rule violation Medals Ref.
Bakaava Buidaa  Mongolia Judo Caffeine 2nd, silver medalist(s) (63 kg) [19]
Miguel Coll  Puerto Rico Basketball Amphetamine [19][20]
Rick DeMont  United States Swimming Ephedrine 1st, gold medalist(s) (men's 400 m freestyle) [19]
Aad van den Hoek  Netherlands Cycling Coramine 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (100 km team race) [19]
Jaime Huélamo  Spain Cycling Coramine 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (individual road race) [19]
Walter Legel  Austria Weightlifting Amphetamine [19]
Mohammad Reza Nasehi  Iran Weightlifting Ephedrine [19]

1976 Montreal[edit]

Name Country Sport Anti-doping rule violation Medals Ref.
Blagoi Blagoev  Bulgaria Weightlifting Anabolic steroid 2nd, silver medalist(s) (82.5 kg) [19]
Mark Cameron  United States Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [19]
Paul Cerutti  Monaco Shooting Amphetamine [19]
Dragomir Cioroslan  Romania Weightlifting Fencamfamine [19]
Philippe Grippaldi  United States Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [19]
Zbigniew Kaczmarek  Poland Weightlifting Anabolic steroid 1st, gold medalist(s) (67.5 kg) [19]
Valentin Khristov  Bulgaria Weightlifting Anabolic steroid 1st, gold medalist(s) (110 kg) [19]
Lorne Liebel  Canada Sailing Phenylpropanolamine [19]
Arne Norrback  Sweden Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [19]
Peter Pavlasek  Czechoslovakia Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [19]
Danuta Rosani  Poland Athletics Anabolic steroid [19][21]

1980 Moscow[edit]

Though no athletes were caught doping at the 1980 Summer Olympics, it has been claimed that athletes had begun using testosterone and other drugs for which tests had not been yet developed. A 1989 report by a committee of the Australian Senate claimed that "there is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow Games, certainly not a gold medal winner...who is not on one sort of drug or another: usually several kinds. The Moscow Games might well have been called the Chemists' Games".[22]

A member of the IOC Medical Commission, Manfred Donike, privately ran additional tests with a new technique for identifying abnormal levels of testosterone by measuring its ratio to epitestosterone in urine. Twenty percent of the specimens he tested, including those from sixteen gold medalists would have resulted in disciplinary proceedings had the tests been official.[22] The results of Donike's unofficial tests later convinced the IOC to add his new technique to their testing protocols.[23] The first documented case of "blood doping" occurred at the 1980 Summer Olympics as a runner was transfused with two pints of blood before winning medals in the 5000 m and 10,000 m.[24]

1984 Los Angeles[edit]

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Ref.
Serafim Grammatikopoulos  Greece Weightlifting Nandrolone
Vésteinn Hafsteinsson  Iceland Athletics Nandrolone [21]
Tomas Johansson  Sweden Wrestling Methenolone 2nd, silver medalist(s) (super-heavy)
Stefan Laggner  Austria Weightlifting Nandrolone
Göran Pettersson  Sweden Weightlifting Nandrolone
Eiji Shimomura  Japan Volleyball Testosterone
Mikiyasu Tanaka  Japan Volleyball Ephedrine
Ahmed Tarbi  Algeria Weightlifting Nandrolone
Mahmud Tarha  Lebanon Weightlifting Nandrolone
Giampaolo Urlando  Italy Athletics Testosterone [21]
Martti Vainio  Finland Athletics Methenolone 2nd, silver medalist(s) (10,000 m) [21]
Anna Verouli  Greece Athletics Nandrolone [21]

The organizers of the Los Angeles games had refused to provide the IOC doping authorities with a safe prior to the start of the games. Due to a lack of security, medical records were subsequently stolen.[22] A 1994 letter from IOC Medical Commission chair Alexandre de Mérode claimed that Tony Daly, a member of the Los Angeles organizing committee had destroyed the records.[22] Dick Pound later wrote of his frustration that the organizing committee had removed evidence before it could be acted on by the IOC. Pound also claimed that IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch and Primo Nebiolo, President of the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) had conspired to delay the announcement of positive tests so that the games could pass without controversy.[22]

The American cyclist Pat McDonough later admitted to "blood doping" at the 1984 Los Angeles Games.[25] Following the games it was revealed that one-third of the U.S. cycling team had received blood transfusions before the games, where they won nine medals, their first medal success since the 1912 Summer Olympics.[25] "Blood doping" was banned by the IOC in 1985, though no test existed for it at the time.[25]

1988 Seoul[edit]

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Ref.
Ali Dad  Afghanistan Wrestling Furosemide
Kerrith Brown  Great Britain Judo Furosemide
Kalman Csengeri  Hungary Weightlifting Stanozolol
Mitko Grablev  Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide 1st, gold medalist(s) (56 kg)
Angell Guenchev  Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide 1st, gold medalist(s) (67.5 kg)
Ben Johnson  Canada Athletics Stanozolol 1st, gold medalist(s) (men's 100 m) [21]
Fernando Mariaca  Spain Weightlifting Pemoline
Jorge Quesada  Spain Modern pentathlon Propanolol
Andor Szanyi  Hungary Weightlifting Stanozolol 2nd, silver medalist(s) (100 kg)
Alexander Watson  Australia Modern Pentathlon Caffeine

1992 Barcelona[edit]

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Ref.
Madina Biktagirova  Unified Team Athletics Norephedrine [21]
Wu Dan  China Volleyball Strychnine
Bonnie Dasse  United States Athletics Clenbuterol [21]
Jud Logan  United States Athletics Clenbuterol [21]
Nijolė Medvedeva  Lithuania Athletics Mesocarb [21]

1996 Atlanta[edit]

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Ref.
Antonella Bevilacqua  Italy Athletics Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine [21][26]
Dean Capobianco  Australia Athletics Stanozolol [21][26]
Sandra Farmer-Patrick  United States Athletics Testosterone [21][27]
Daniel Plaza  Spain Athletics Nandrolone [21][28][29]
Iva Prandzheva  Bulgaria Athletics Metadienone [21][30]
Mary Slaney  United States Athletics Testosterone [21][31]
Natalya Shekhodanova  Russia Athletics Stanozolol [21][30][32]

Five athletes tested positive for the stimulant bromantan and were disqualified by the IOC, but later reinstated after an appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport: swimmers Andrey Korneyev and Nina Zhivanevskaya, Greco-Roman wrestler Zafar Guliyev and sprinter Marina Trandenkova, all from Russia, and the Lithuanian track cyclist Rita Razmaitė. Dr. Vitaly Slionssarenko, physician to the Lithuanian cycling team and team coach Boris Vasilyev were expelled from the games.[33][34][35] The CAS overturned the IOC decision, because bromantan had only recently been added to the prohibited list,[30] and the athletes and officials were reprimanded.[36][37][38] The Russians had argued that bromantans wasn't a stimulant and thus not banned.[39][40]

The Irish long-distance runner Marie McMahon (Davenport) got a reprimand after testing positive for the stimulant phenylpropanolamine,[30][41][42] and Cuban judoka Estella Rodriguez Villanueva got a reprimand after she tested positive for the diuretic furosemide.[30]

2000 Sydney[edit]

Tim Montgomery, who was part of the USA Men's 4 × 100 m relay team which won the gold, in 2008 admitted that he had used Testosterone and HGH before the Sydney Games, and said “I have a gold medal that I’m sitting on that I didn’t get with my own ability”.[43] IOC at the time said they would look into the case,[44] but no action has since been taken by IOC to disqualify Montgomery from the Games.

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Ref.
Fritz Aanes  Norway Wrestling Norandrosterone and noretiochdandone
Lance Armstrong  United States Cycling
(Road race and Time trial)
Investigation concluded 2012:
Use, Possession, Trafficking, Administration of Prohibited Substances and Methods and Assisting, Encouraging, Aiding, Abetting, Covering Up or any other type of complicity involving one or more anti-doping rule violations and/or attempted anti-doping rule violations.
3rd, bronze medalist(s) (Time trial)
Ashot Danielyan  Armenia Weightlifting Stanozolol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (+105 kg)
Izabela Dragneva  Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide 1st, gold medalist(s) (48 kg)
Stian Grimseth  Norway Weightlifting Nandrolone
Ivan Ivanov  Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide 2nd, silver medalist(s) (56 kg)
Marion Jones  United States Athletics THG 1st, gold medalist(s) (women's 100 m), 1st, gold medalist(s) (women's 200 m),
1st, gold medalist(s) (women's 4x400 m relay), 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (women's long jump),
3rd, bronze medalist(s) (women's 4x100 m relay)
[21]
Alexander Leipold  Germany Wrestling Nandrolone 1st, gold medalist(s) (76 kg)
Sevdalin Minchev  Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (62 kg)
Antonio Pettigrew  United States Athletics EPO and HGH 1st, gold medalist(s) (men's 4 × 400 m relay) [21]
Svetlana Pospelova  Russia Athletics Stanozolol [21][45]
Oyuunbilegiin Pürevbaatar  Mongolia Wrestling Furosemide
Andreea Răducan  Romania Gymnastics Pseudophedrine[46] 1st, gold medalist(s) (women's individual all-round)
Andris Reinholds  Latvia Rowing Nandrolone
Jerome Young  United States Athletics Nandrolone 1st, gold medalist(s) (men's 4 × 400 m relay) [21]

2004 Athens[edit]

Name Country Sport Anti-doping rule violation Medals Ref.
Wafa Ammouri  Morocco Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [47]
Adrián Annus  Hungary Athletics Falsified test result, evasion of doping control 1st, gold medalist(s) (men's hammer throw) [21][47]
Ludger Beerbaum  Germany Equestrian Betamethasone (to horse Goldfever) 1st, gold medalist(s) (team jumping)
Yuriy Bilonog  Ukraine Athletics Oxandrolone (positive after retest in 2012) 1st, gold medalist(s) (men's shot put) [21][48][49]
Zhanna Block  Ukraine Athletics BALCO investigation [21]
Andrew Brack  Greece Baseball Stanozolol (pre-Games test) [50]
Viktor Chislean  Moldova Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [47]
Crystal Cox  United States Athletics Anabolic agents and hormones (investigation completed 2010) 1st, gold medalist(s) (women's 4 × 400 m relay) [21][51]
Róbert Fazekas  Hungary Athletics Refused to submit sample 1st, gold medalist(s) (men's discus throw) [21][47][52]
Mabel Fonseca  Puerto Rico Wrestling Stanozolol [47]
Anton Galkin  Russia Athletics Stanozolol [21][47]
Ferenc Gyurkovics  Hungary Weightlifting Oxandrolone 2nd, silver medalist(s) (105 kg) [47]
Tyler Hamilton  United States Cycling Use of prohibited substances and methods (self admission) 1st, gold medalist(s) (men's road time trial) [53]
Marion Jones  United States Athletics BALCO investigation [21]
Zoltan Kecskes  Hungary Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [47]
Konstantinos Kenteris  Greece Athletics Evasion of doping control [47][52]
Albina Khomich  Russia Weightlifting Testosterone [47]
Aye Khine Nan  Myanmar Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [47]
Irina Korzhanenko  Russia Athletics Stanozolol 1st, gold medalist(s) (women's shot put) [21][47][52]
Zoltán Kovács  Hungary Weightlifting Refused to submit sample [47]
Svetlana Krivelyova  Russia Athletics Oxandrolone (positive after retest in 2012) 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (women's shot put) [21][49][54][55]
Pratima Kumari Na  India Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [47]
Aleksey Lesnichiy  Belarus Athletics Clenbuterol [21][47][52]
David Munyasia  Kenya Boxing Cathine [47]
Derek Nicholson  Greece Baseball Diuretic (pre-Games test) [50]
Cian O'Connor  Ireland Equestrian Antipsychotics (to horse Waterford Crystal) 1st, gold medalist(s) (individual jumping)
Olena Olefirenko  Ukraine Rowing Ethamivan 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (women's quadruple sculls) [47]
Oleg Perepetchenov  Russia Weightlifting Clenbuterol (positive after retest in 2012) 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (62 kg) [56][57]
Duane Ross  United States Athletics BALCO investigation [21]
Leonidas Sampanis  Greece Weightlifting Testosterone 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (62 kg) [47]
Thinbaijam Sanamcha Chanu  India Weightlifting Furosemide [47]
Mital Sharipov  Kyrgyzstan Weightlifting Furosemide [47]
Olga Shchukina  Uzbekistan Athletics Clenbuterol [21][47][52]
Şule Şahbaz  Turkey Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [47]
Ekaterini Thanou  Greece Athletics Evasion of doping control [47][52]
Ivan Tsikhan  Belarus Athletics Methandienone (positive after retest in 2012) 2nd, silver medalist(s) (men's hammer throw) [21][49]
Irina Yatchenko  Belarus Athletics Methandienone (positive after retest in 2012) 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (women's discus throw) [21][49]

2008 Beijing[edit]

"Zero Tolerance for Doping" was adopted as an official slogan for the Beijing Olympic Games.[58] A number of athletes were already eliminated by testing prior to coming to Beijing.[58]

Out of the 4,500 samples that were collected from participating athletes at the games, six athletes with positive specimens were ousted from the competition. Further positive tests were found in 2016, as samples had been sealed and stored for eight years. The quality of the original testing was questioned when the BBC reported that samples positive for EPO were labeled as negative by Chinese laboratories in July, 2008.[59] The initial rate of positive findings was lower than at Athens in 2004, but the prevalence of doping had not necessarily decreased; the technology for creating and concealing drugs had become more sophisticated, and a number of drugs could not be detected.[58][59][60]

In August 2015, the Turkish Athletics Federation confirmed that an in-competition test of Elvan Abeylegesse at the 2007 IAAF World Championships in Athletics had been retested and found to be positive for a controlled substance, and that she had been temporarily suspended.[61] On 29 March 2017, the IAAF confirmed the positive test, announced retroactive disqualifications and voided all of her results from 25 August 2007 until 25 August 2009, including the 2008 Summer Olympics.[62] As a result, she was stripped of two silver medals she had won in the women's 5,000 and 10,000 meter races.

In May 2016, following the Russian doping scandal, the IOC announced that 32 targeted retests had come back positive for performance-enhancing drugs, of which Russian News Agency TASS announced that 14 were from Russian athletes, 11 of them track and field athletes, including 2012 Olympic champion high jumper Anna Chicherova. Authorities have sent the B-samples for confirmation testing. Those confirmed as having taken doping agents stand to lose records and medals from the 2008 games to 2016 under IOC and WADA rules.[63]

On 18 June 2016, the IWF reported that as a consequence of the IOC's reanalyses of samples from the 2008 Olympic Games, the samples of the following seven weightlifters had returned positive results: Hripsime Khurshudyan (Armenia), Intigam Zairov (Azerbaijan), Alexandru Dudoglo (Moldova), gold medalist Ilya Ilyin (Kazakhstan), bronze medalist Nadezda Evstyukhina and silver medalist Marina Shainova (both from Russia), and Nurcan Taylan (Turkey). In line with the relevant rules and regulations, the IWF imposed mandatory provisional suspensions upon the athletes. Zairov and Ilyin had been serving previous suspensions.[64] In November 2016, Ilyin was stripped of the gold medal.[65]

On 22 July 2016, Sibel Özkan (TUR) was disqualified due to an anti-doping rule violation and stripped of her silver medal.[66] Medals have not been reallocated as yet.

On 28 July 2016, it was announced that retests of samples from the 2008 Summer Olympics detected a positive sample for performance-enhancing drugs from Aksana Miankova of Belarus, who won a gold medal in the women's hammer throw.[67][68] There have been no decisions about stripping and reallocation of medals as yet.

On 16 August 2016, the Russian women's 4 × 100 metres relay team was disqualified for doping. Russian teammates were stripped of their gold Olympic medals, as Yuliya Chermoshanskaya had her samples reanalyzed and tested positive for two prohibited substances.[69] The IAAF was requested to modify the results accordingly and to consider any further action within its own competence.[70]

On 19 August 2016, the Russian women's 4 × 400 metres relay team was disqualified for doping.[71] Russian teammates were stripped of their silver Olympic medals, as Anastasiya Kapachinskaya had her samples reanalyzed and tested positive for the same two prohibited substances as Chermoshanskaya.[72]

On 24 August 2016, the IWF reported that as a consequence of the IOC's reanalyses of samples from the 2008 Olympic Games, the samples of the following athletes had returned positive results: Nizami Pashayev (Azerbaijan), Iryna Kulesha, Nastassia Novikava, Andrei Rybakou (all from Belarus), Cao Lei, Chen Xiexia, Liu Chunhong (all from China), Mariya Grabovetskaya, Maya Maneza, Irina Nekrassova, Vladimir Sedov (all from Kazakhstan), Khadzhimurat Akkaev, Dmitry Lapikov (both from Russia), and Natalya Davydova and Olha Korobka (both from Ukraine). In line with the relevant rules and regulations, the IWF imposed mandatory provisional suspensions upon the athletes, who remain provisionally suspended in view of potential anti-doping rule violations until their cases are closed.[73]

On 29 August 2016, some non-official reports indicated that Artur Taymazov of Uzbekistan had been stripped of the 2008 Olympic gold medal in the freestyle wrestling 120 kg event due to a positive test for doping.[74]

On 31 August 2016, the IOC disqualified six sportspeople for failing doping tests at the 2008 Games. They included three Russian medalists: weightlifters Nadezhda Evstyukhina (bronze medal in the women's 75 kg event), Marina Shainova (silver medal in the women's 58 kg event), and Tatyana Firova, who finished second with teammates in the 4 × 400 m relay. Bronze medal weightlifter Tigran Martirosyan of Armenia (men's 69 kg event) and fellow weightlifters Alexandru Dudoglo (9th place) of Moldova and Intigam Zairov (9th place) of Azerbaijan were also disqualified.[75]

On 1 September 2016, the IOC disqualified a further two athletes. Cuban discus thrower Yarelys Barrios, who won a silver medal in the women's discus, was disqualified after testing positive for Acetazolamide and ordered to return her medal. Qatari sprinter Samuel Francis, who finished 16th in the 100 meters, was also disqualified after testing positive for Stanozolol.[76]

On 13 September 2016, four more Russian athletes were disqualified for doping offenses. Two of those were medalists from the 2008 Summer Olympics: silver medalist Mariya Abakumova in the women's javelin throw and Denis Alekseyev, who was part of the bronze medal team in the men's 4 × 400 m relay. Inga Abitova, who finished 6th in the 10,000 meters, and cyclist Ekaterina Gnidenko also tested positive for a banned substance and were disqualified. [77]

On 23 September 2016, some non-official reports indicate wrestler Vasyl Fedoryshyn of Ukraine has been stripped of the 2008 Olympic silver medal in the freestyle 60 kg event due to a positive test for doping.[78]

On 6 October 2016, the IOC disqualified Anna Chicherova of the Russian Federation for testing positive for performance-enhancing drugs. She won a bronze medal in the women's high jump. Russia would likely keep the bronze medal, as the fourth-place athlete in the competition was also from Russia.[79] Through 6 October 2016, the IOC has reported Adverse Analytical Findings for 25 weightlifters from its 2016 retests of samples from the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, all but three of whom tested positive for anabolic agents (three Chinese weightlifters were positive for growth hormones).[80]

On 26 October 2016, the IOC disqualified nine more athletes for failing drugs tests at the 2008 Games. Among them were six medal winners: weightlifters Andrei Rybakou and Nastassia Novikava, both from Belarus, and Olha Korobka of Ukraine; women’s steeplechase bronze medalist Ekaterina Volkova of Russia; and freestyle wrestlers Soslan Tigiev of Uzbekistan and Taimuraz Tigiyev of Kazakhstan. The others were men’s 62 kg weightlifter Sardar Hasanov of Azerbaijan, long jumper Wilfredo Martinez of Cuba, and 100m-hurdler Josephine Nnkiruka Onyia of Spain.[81]

On 17 November 2016, the IOC disqualified 16 more athletes for failing drugs tests at the 2008 games. Among them were 10 medal winners: weightlifters Khadzhimurat Akkayev and Dmitry Lapikov and wrestler Khasan Baroyev from the Russian Federation, weightlifters Mariya Grabovetskaya, Irina Nekrassova and wrestler Asset Mambetov from Kazakhstan, weightlifter Nataliya Davydova and pole vaulter Denys Yurchenko from Ukraine, long/triple jumper Hrysopiyí Devetzí of Greece and wrestler Vitaliy Rahimov of Azerbaijan. The others were women’s 75 kg weightlifter Iryna Kulesha of Belarus, women’s +63 kg weightlifter Maya Maneza of Kazakhstan, women's high jumper Vita Palamar of Ukraine, men’s 94 kg weightlifter Nizami Pashayev of Azerbaijan, men’s 85 kg weightlifter Vladimir Sedov of Kazakhstan, and women’s high jumper Elena Slesarenko of the Russian Federation.[82]

On 25 November 2016, the IOC disqualified 5 more athletes for failing drugs tests at the 2008 games. Among them were 3 medal winners: gold-medalists 94 kg weightlifter Ilya Ilin of Kazakhstan and hammer thrower Aksana Miankova of Belarus and silver-medalist shot putter Natallia Mikhnevich of Belarus. The others were shot putter Pavel Lyzhyn and 800m runner Sviatlana Usovich, both of Belarus.[83]

On 12 January 2017, the IOC disqualified five more athletes for failing drug tests at the 2008 Games. These included three Chinese women's weightlifting gold medalists: Lei Cao (75 kg), Xiexia Chen (48 kg) and Chunhong Liu (69 kg). Two women athletes from Belarus were disqualified: bronze medalist shot putter Nadzeya Ostapchuk and hammer thrower Darya Pchelnik, who did not medal.[84]

On 25 January 2017, the IOC stripped Jamaica of the athletics gold medal in the men's 4 × 100 m relay due to Nesta Carter testing positive for the prohibited substance methylhexaneamine.[85][86][87] The IOC also stripped Russian jumper Tatyana Lebedeva of two silver medals in women's triple jump and long jump due to use of turinabol.[85]

On 1 March 2017, the IOC disqualified Victoria Tereshchuk of Ukraine due to use of turinabol and stripped her of the bronze medal in modern pentathlon.[88]

By April 2017, the 2008 Summer Olympics has had the most (50) Olympic medals stripped for doping violations.

Disqualified[edit]

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Details
Elvan Abeylegesse  Turkey Athletics 2nd, silver medalist(s) (5,000 meters)
2nd, silver medalist(s) (10,000 meters)
disqualification following post-event testing for 2007 IAAF World Championships [89]
Christian Ahlmann  Germany Equestrian Capsaicin
Bernardo Alves  Brazil Equestrian Capsaicin
Lyudmila Blonska  Ukraine Athletics Methyltestosterone 2nd, silver medalist(s) (heptathlon) IOC post-event testing[21][90]
Tony André Hansen  Norway Equestrian Capsaicin 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (team jumping)
Alissa Kallinikou  Cyprus Athletics Testosterone In competition test in July 2008[21][91]
Kim Jong-su  North Korea Shooting Propranolol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (men's 10 m air pistol), 2nd, silver medalist(s) (50 m pistol)
Courtney King  United States Equestrian Felbinac
Denis Lynch  Ireland Equestrian Capsaicin
Andrei Mikhnevich  Belarus Athletics Retest of sample from 2005 WCh: Clenbuterol, Methandienone and Oxandrolone 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (men's shotput) IAAF retest of sample from the 2005 IAAF World Championships. All results from August 2005 onwards annulled.[21][92][93]
Tezdzhan Naimova  Bulgaria Athletics Tampering with doping control IAAF out-of-competition test in June 2008.[21][91]
Rodrigo Pessoa  Brazil Equestrian Nonivamide
Igor Razoronov  Ukraine Weightlifting Nandrolone [94]
Adam Seroczyński  Poland Canoeing Clenbuterol
Do Thi Ngan Thuong  Vietnam Gymnastics Furosemide
Vanja Perisic  Croatia Athletics
800 Metres
CERA IOC re-analysis of sample in 2009[21][95]
Rashid Ramzi  Bahrain Athletics
1500 Metres
CERA 1st, gold medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2009[21][95]
Davide Rebellin  Italy Cycling
Road Race
CERA 2nd, silver medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2009[95]
Stefan Schumacher  Germany Cycling
Time Trial
CERA IOC re-analysis of sample in 2009[95]
Athanasia Tsoumeleka  Greece Athletics
20 Kilometre Walk
CERA IOC re-analysis of sample in 2009[21][95]
Yuliya Chermoshanskaya  Russia Athletics
200 Metres
4 × 100 Metres Relay
Stanozolol & Turinabol 1st, gold medalist(s) (4x100 metre relay) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[96]
Tatyana Firova  Russia Athletics
400 Metres
4 × 400 Metres Relay
Turinabol & Metabolite of 1-Testosterone, 1-Androstenedione or 1-Androstenediol 2nd, silver medalist(s) (4×400 metre relay) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[97]
Anastasia Kapachinskaya  Russia Athletics
400 Metres
4 × 400 Metres Relay
Stanozolol & Turinabol 2nd, silver medalist(s) (4x400 metre relay) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[98]
Hripsime Khurshudyan  Armenia Weightlifiting
75 kg
Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[99]
Tigran Gevorg Martirosyan  Armenia Weightlifting
69 kg
Stanozolol & Turinabol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[97]
Samuel Adelebari Francis  Qatar Athletics
100 Metres
200 Metres
Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[100]
Nadezhda Evstyukhina  Russia Weightlifting
75 kg
Turinabol & EPO 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[97]
Alexander Pogorelov  Russia Athletics
Decathlon
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[98]
Marina Shainova  Russia Weightlifting
58 kg
Stanozolol and Turinabol 2nd, silver medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[97]
Alexandru Dudoglo  Moldova Weightlifting
69 kg
Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[97]
Nurcan Taylan  Turkey Weightlifiting
48 kg
Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[99]
Yarelys Barrios  Cuba Athletics
Discus Throw
Acetazolamide 2nd, silver medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[100]
Intigam Zairov  Azerbaijan Weightlifting
85 kg
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[97]
Ivan Yushkov  Russia Athletics
Shot Put
Stanozolol, Oxandrolone & Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[98]
Sibel Özkan  Turkey Weightlifiting
48 kg
Stanozolol 2nd, silver medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[101]
Ilya Ilyin  Kazakhstan Weightlifiting
94 kg
Stanozolol 1st, gold medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[102]
Mariya Abakumova  Russia Athletics
Javelin Throw
Turinabol 2nd, silver medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[103]
Inga Abitova  Russia Athletics
10,000 Metres
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[104]
Denis Alexeev  Russia Athletics
400 Metres
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[105]
Anna Chicherova  Russia Athletics
High Jump
Turinabol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[106]
Sardar Hasanov  Azerbaijan Weightlifting
62 kg
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[107]
Wilfredo Martínez  Cuba Athletics
Long Jump
Acetazolamide IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[108]
Josephine Nnkiruka Onyia  Spain Athletics
100 Metre Hurdles
Methylhexanamine IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[109]
Soslan Tigiev  Uzbekistan Wrestling
Freestyle 74 kg
Turinabol 2nd, silver medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[110]
Ekaterina Volkova  Russia Athletics
3000 Metre Steeplechase
Turinabol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[111]
Olha Korobka  Ukraine Weightlifting
+75 kg
Turinabol 2nd, silver medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[112]
Nastassia Novikava  Belarus Weightlifting
53 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[113]
Andrei Rybakou  Belarus Weightlifting
85 kg
Stanozolol & Turinabol 2nd, silver medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[114]
Taimuraz Tigiyev  Kazakhstan Wrestling
Freestyle 96 kg
Turinabol 2nd, silver medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[115]
Khadzhimurat Akkayev  Russia Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[116]
Khasan Baroyev  Russia Wrestling
Greco-Roman 120 kg
Turinabol 2nd, silver medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[117]
Nataliya Davydova  Ukraine Weightlifting
69 kg
Turinabol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[118]
Chrysopigi Devetzi  Greece Athletics
Triple Jump
Stanozolol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[119]
Mariya Grabovetskaya  Kazakhstan Weightlifting
+75 kg
Turinabol, Oxandrolone & Stanozolol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[120]
Iryna Kulesha  Belarus Weightlifting
75 kg
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[121]
Dmitry Lapikov  Russia Weightlifting
105 kg
Turinabol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[122]
Asset Mambetov  Kazakhstan Wrestling
Greco-Roman 96 kg
Stanozolol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[123]
Maya Maneza  Kazakhstan Weightlifting
63 kg
Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[124]
Irina Nekrassova  Kazakhstan Weightlifting
63 kg
Stanozolol 2nd, silver medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[125]
Vita Palamar  Ukraine Athletics
High Jump
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[126]
Nizami Pashayev  Azerbaijan Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol, Oxandrolone & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[127]
Vitaliy Rahimov  Azerbaijan Wrestling
Greco-Roman 60 kg
Turinabol 2nd, silver medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[128]
Vladimir Sedov  Kazakhstan Weightlifting
85 kg
Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[129]
Elena Slesarenko  Russia Athletics
High Jump
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[130]
Denys Yurchenko  Ukraine Athletics
Pole Vault
Turinabol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[131]
Pavel Lyzhyn  Belarus Athletics
Shot Put
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[132]
Aksana Miankova  Belarus Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol & Oxandrolone 1st, gold medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[133]
Natallia Mikhnevich  Belarus Athletics
Shot Put
Metandienone & Stanozolol 2nd, silver medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[134]
Sviatlana Vusovich  Belarus Athletics
800 Metres
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[135]
Nadzeya Ostapchuk  Belarus Athletics
Shot Put
Turinabol & Tamoxifen 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[136]
Darya Pchelnik  Belarus Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[137]
Cao Lei  China Weightlifiting
75 kg
GHRP-2 & Metabolite 1st, gold medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[138]
Chen Xiexia  China Weightlifiting
48 kg
GHRP-2 & Metabolite 1st, gold medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[138]
Liu Chunhong  China Weightlifiting
69 kg
GHRP-2 , Metabolite & Sibutramine 1st, gold medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[138]
Nesta Carter  Jamaica Athletics
4 × 100 Metres Relay
Methylhexanamine 1st, gold medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[139]
Tatyana Lebedeva  Russia Athletics
Triple Jump
Long Jump
Turinabol 2nd, silver medalist(s)
2nd, silver medalist(s)
IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[140]
Victoria Tereshchuk  Ukraine Modern Pentathlon
Individual
Turinabol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[141]
Vasyl Fedoryshyn  Ukraine Wrestling
Freestyle 60 kg
Turinabol 2nd, silver medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[142]
Artur Taymazov  Uzbekistan Wrestling
Freestyle 120 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol 1st, gold medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[143]
Tatyana Chernova  Russia Athletics
Heptathlon
Turinabol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[144]

Did not start[edit]

Athletes who were selected for the Games, but provisionally suspended before competing.

Name Country Sport Banned substance Details
Fani Halkia  Greece Athletics Methyltrienolone Pre-Games testing in Japan[145][146][147]
Maria Isabel Moreno  Spain Cycling Erythropoietin Pre-Games testing in Olympic village, Beijing[148]
Tatyana Tomashova  Russia Athletics IAAF out-of-competition tests in May and August 2007 [149]
Yelena Soboleva  Russia Athletics IAAF out-of-competition tests in May and August 2007 [150]
Svetlana Cherkasova  Russia Athletics IAAF out-of-competition tests in May and August 2007 [151]
Yuliya Fomenko  Russia Athletics IAAF out-of-competition tests in May and August 2007 [152]
Darya Pishchalnikova  Russia Athletics IAAF out-of-competition tests in May and August 2007 [153]
Gulfia Khanafeyeva  Russia Athletics IAAF out-of-competition tests in May and August 2007 [154]
Olga Yegorova  Russia Athletics IAAF out-of-competition tests in May and August 2007 [155]

2012 London[edit]

It was announced prior to the Summer games that half of all competitors would be tested for drugs, with 150 scientists set to take 6,000 samples between the start of the games and the end of the Paralympic games.[156] All medalists would also be tested. The Olympic anti-doping laboratory would test up to 400 samples every day for more than 240 prohibited substances.[156]

The head of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), John Fahey, announced on 24 July that 107 athletes had been sanctioned for doping offences in the six months to 19 June.[157] The "In-competition" period began on 16 July. During the "In-competition" period Olympic competitors can be tested at any time without notice or in advance.[158]

British sprinter Dwain Chambers, cyclist David Millar and shot putter Carl Myerscough[159] competed in London after the British Olympic Association's policy of punishing drug cheats with lifetime bans was overturned by the Court of Arbitration for Sport.[156]

Russian Darya Pishchalnikova participated in the 2012 Olympics and was awarded a silver medal. However, she tested positive for the anabolic steroid oxandrolone in the samples taken in May 2012. In December 2012, she sent an email to WADA containing details on an alleged state-run doping program in Russia. According to The New York Times, the email reached three top WADA officials but the agency decided not to open an inquiry and instead sent her email to Russian sports officials.[160] On April, 2013 Pishchalnikova was banned by the Russian Athletics Federation for ten years, and her results from May 2012 were annulled, meaning she was set on track to lose her Olympic medal.[161] Her ban by the Russian Athletics Federation was likely in retaliation.

Gold medalists at the games who had been involved in previous doping offences included Alexander Vinokourov, the winner of the men's road race,[162] Tatyana Lysenko, the winner of the women's hammer throw, Aslı Çakır Alptekin winner of the women's 1500 meters and Sandra Perković, winner of the women's discus throw.[163][164] Other competitors at the Summer games involved in previous doping cases included American athletes Justin Gatlin and LaShawn Merritt,[165] and Jamaican sprinter Yohan Blake.[166]

Spanish athlete Ángel Mullera was first selected for the 3000 m steeplechase and later removed when emails were published in which he discussed EPO use with a trainer.[167] Mullera appealed to CAS which ordered the Spanish Olympic Committee to allow him to participate.[168]

Prior to the Olympic competition, several prominent track and field athletes were ruled out of the competition due to failed tests. World indoor medallists Dimitrios Chondrokoukis, Debbie Dunn, and Mariem Alaoui Selsouli were withdrawn from their Olympic teams in July for doping, as was 2004 Olympic medallist Zoltán Kővágó.[169][170][171] At the Olympic competition, Tameka Williams admitted to taking a banned stimulant and was removed from the games.[172] Ivan Tsikhan did not compete in the hammer throw as a retest of his sample from the 2004 Athens Olympics, where he won silver, was positive.[173] Amine Laâlou,[174] Marina Marghieva,[175] Diego Palomeque,[176] and defending 50 km walk champion Alex Schwazer were also suspended before taking part in their events.[177]

Syrian hurdler Ghfran Almouhamad became the first track-and-field athlete to be suspended following a positive in-competition doping sample.[178] Nadzeya Astapchuk was stripped of the women's shot put title after her sample came back positive for the banned anabolic agent metenolone.[179] Karin Melis Mey was withdrawn before the long jump final when an earlier failed doping test was confirmed.[180]

A WADA report released in 2015 detailed an extensive Russian state-sponsored doping program implicating athletes, coaches, various Russian institutions, doctors and labs. The report stated that the London Olympic Games "were, in a sense, sabotaged by the admission of athletes who should have not been competing" and detailed incidents of bribery and bogus urine samples. The report recommended that Russia be barred from track and field events for the 2016 Olympics. It also recommended lifetime bans for five coaches and five athletes from the country, including runners Mariya Savinova, Ekaterina Poistogova, Anastasiya Bazdyreva, Kristina Ugarova, and Tatjana Myazina.[181][182]

On 15 June 2016, it was announced that four London 2012 Olympic weightlifting champions had tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs. They include Kazakhstan's Ilya Ilyin (94 kg), Zulfiya Chinshanlo (53 kg), Maiya Maneza (63 kg) and Svetlana Podobedova (75 kg). If confirmed, Kazakhstan would drop from 12th to 23rd in the 2012 medal standings. Six other lifters who competed at the 2012 Games also tested positive after hundreds of samples were reanalysed. Among them are Russia's Apti Aukhadov (silver at 85 kg), Ukraine's Yuliya Kalina (bronze at 58 kg), Belarusian Maryna Shkermankova (bronze at 69 kg), Azerbaijan's Boyanka Kostova and Belarus duo Dzina Sazanavets and Yauheni Zharnasek.[183] On 27 July 2016, IWF has reported in the second wave of re-sampling that three silver medalists from Russia, namely Natalia Zabolotnaya (at 75 kg), Aleksandr Ivanov (at 94 kg) and Svetlana Tsarukayeva (at 63 kg), together with bronze medalists Armenian Hripsime Khurshudyan (at 75+ kg), Belarusian Iryna Kulesha (at 75 kg) and Moldovan Cristina Iovu (at 53 kg) have tested positive for steroid dehydrochlormethyltestosterone.[184] Aukhadov was stripped of his silver medal by the IOC on 18 October 2016.[185] On 27 October 2016 Maiya Maneza was stripped of her gold medal.[186] In November 2016, Ilyin was stripped of the London gold medal.[65]

On 13 July 2016, the IOC announced that Yuliya Kalina of Ukraine had been disqualified from the 2012 Summer Olympics and ordered to return the bronze medal from the 58 kg weightlifting event. Reanalysis of Kalina's samples from London 2012 resulted in a positive test for the prohibited substance dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (turinabol).[187] The positions were adjusted accordingly.[188]

On 9 August 2016, the IOC announced that Oleksandr Pyatnytsya of Ukraine would be stripped of his silver medal in the javelin throw after he tested positive for the prohibited substance dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (turinabol).[189] Redistribution of medals has not yet been announced, but the likely case is the silver and bronze medals will be given to Finland and Czech Republic instead.[190]

On 20 August 2016, the IOC announced that Yevgeniya Kolodko of Russia would be stripped of her silver medal in shot put after she tested positive of dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (turinabol) and ipamorelin.[191] Medals are not reallocated yet.

On 29 August 2016, a report indicated that a retested sample for Besik Kudukhov of Russia, the silver medalist in the men's 60 kg freestyle wrestling event, had returned a positive result (later disclosed as dehydrochlormethyltestosterone).[74] Kudakhov died in a car crash in December 2013. On 27 October 2016, the IOC dropped all disciplinary proceedings against Kudukhov, stating that such proceedings cannot be conducted against a deceased person. As a result, it said, Olympic results that would have been reviewed will remain uncorrected, which is the unavoidable consequence of the fact that the proceedings cannot move forward.[192]

On 13 September 2016, the IWF reported that the men's 94 kg weightlifting bronze medalist, Moldova's Anatolie Cîrîcu, had tested positive for the dehydrochlormethyltestosterone.[193]

On 6 October 2016, the IWF reported that as a consequence of the IOC's reanalyses of samples from the 2012 Olympic Games, a sample of Norayr Vardanyan, who represented Armenia, had returned a positive result. In line with the relevant rules and regulations, the IWF imposed mandatory provisional suspensions upon Vardanyan, who remains provisionally suspended until his case is closed.[194] On 12 January 2017, the IOC disqualified Vardanyan. Through 6 October 2016, the IOC had reported Adverse Analytical Findings for 23 weightlifters from its 2016 retests of samples from the 2012 London Olympic Games, all of whom tested positive for anabolic agents.[80]

On 11 October 2016, Tatyana Lysenko of the Russian Federation was disqualified from the women's hammer throw, in which she won the gold medal. She had tested positive for a banned substance. The IOC requested the IAAF to modify the results of this event accordingly. The silver medalist Anita Włodarczyk of Poland would likely take the gold medal in her place.[195]

On 18 October 2016, the IOC disqualified Apti Aukhadov of the Russian Federation for doping and stripped him of the silver medal.[196] The IOC requested the IWF to modify the results of this event accordingly; it has not yet published modified results.[188]

On 18 October 2016, the IOC reported that Maksym Mazuryk of Ukraine, who competed in the Men’s Pole Vault event, was disqualified from the 2012 London Games, in which he ranked 18th. Re-analysis of Mazuryk’s samples resulted in a positive test for dehydrochlormethyltestosterone.

On 27 October 2016 the IOC disqualified a further eight athletes for failing doping tests at the games. This included four medal winners in weightlifting: Zulfiya Chinshanlo, Maiya Maneza and Svetlana Podobedova, all from Kazakhstan, and Maryna Shkermankova of Belarus. The others were hammer thrower Kirill Ikonnikov of Russia, women’s 69 kg weightlifter Dzina Sazanavets of Belarus, pole vaulter Dmitry Starodubtsev of Russia, and men’s +105 kg weightlifter Yauheni Zharnasek of Belarus.[186]

On 21 November 2016 the IOC disqualified a further 12 athletes for failing doping tests at the games. This included 6 medal winners in weightlifting, including Alexandr Ivanov (Russia), Anatoli Ciricu (Moldova), Cristina Iovu (Moldova), Nataliya Zabolotnaya (Russia), Iryna Kulesha (Belarus), and Hripsime Khurshudyan (Armenia).[197] Moldova has lost all its 2012 London medals. The others were hammer thrower Oleksandr Drygol and long jumper Margaryta Tverdokhlib, both of Ukraine, 85 kg weightlifter Rauli Tsirekidze of Georgia, 94 kg weightlifter Almas Uteshov of Kazakhstan, 94 kg weightlifter Andrey Demanov of Russia and 3000m steeplechaser Yuliya Zaripova of Russia, who had previously been sanctioned in March 2016 by the Court of Arbitration for Sport.

On 25 November 2016, the IOC disqualified 4 more athletes for failing drug tests at the 2012 games. They were gold medalist 94 kg weightlifter Ilya Ilin of Kazakhstan, hammer thrower Aksana Miankova and long jumper Nastassia Mironchyk-Ivanova, both of Belarus, and 58 kg weightlifter Boyanka Kostova of Azerbaijan.[83]

On 29 November 2016 the Court of Arbitration for Sport issued a decision that all results achieved by 2012 Olympic heptathlon bronze medalist Tatyana Chernova of Russia between 15 August 2011 and 22 July 2013 are annulled. It also annulled all of Yekaterina Sharmina's results between 17 June 2011 and 5 August 2015, including her 33rd-place finish in the 2012 women's 1500m.[198] CAS ruled that they "have been found to have committed an anti-doping rule violation ... of the International Athletic Association Federation (IAAF) Competition Rules after analysis of their Athlete Biological Passports (ABP) showed evidence of blood doping."[199]

On 12 January 2017, the IOC disqualified three weightlifters for failing drug tests at the 2012 games. Two competed in men's 94 kg weightlifting: Intigam Zairov of Azerbaijan and Norayr Vardanyan of Armenia. Women's 63 kg weightlifter Sibel Simsek of Turkey was disqualified. None was a medalist at these games.[84]

On 1 February 2017, the IOC disqualified three athletes due to failed doping tests, all of whom tested positive for turinabol. Russian women's discus thrower Vera Ganeeva, who finished 23rd, Turkish boxer Adem Kilicci, who ranked 5th in men's 69–75 kg boxing, and Russian 400m runner Antonina Krivoshapka, who finished 6th, were disqualified. Krivoshapka also was part of the Russian silver medal-winning women’s 4 × 400 m relay team, which was stripped of the silver medals.[200]

In December 2014, a documentary aired on German TV in which 800m gold medalist Mariya Savinova allegedly admitted to using banned substances on camera.[201] In November 2015, Savinova was one of five Russian runners the World Anti-Doping Agency recommended to receive a lifetime ban for doping during the London Olympics, along with 800m bronze medalist Ekaterina Poistogova. On 10 February 2017, the Court of Arbitration for Sport upheld a four-year ban that effectively stripped Savinova of her Olympic gold and other medals.[202]

On April 2017, the Olympics has had 29 Olympic medals stripped for doping violations.

Disqualified[edit]

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Details of test
Hussain Al-Hamdah  Saudi Arabia Athletics
5000 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 26 March 2009 onwards.[21][203]
Gamze Bulut  Turkey Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalities 2nd, silver medalist(s) IAAF sanction imposed in 2017[204]
Mariya Savinova  Russia Athletics
800 metres
Biological passport abnormalities 1st, gold medalist(s) CAS confirmed all results annulled from July 2010 to August 2013[205]
Ghfran Almouhamad  Syria Athletics
400 metres hurdles
Methylhexaneamine IOC pre-competition testing at 2012 Summer Olympics[21][206]
Elena Arzhakova  Russia Athletics
800 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 12 July 2011 onwards.[21][207][208]
Sergey Bakulin  Russia Athletics
50 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/results annulled from 25 February 2011 to 24 December 2012.[209][210]
Valeriy Borchin  Russia Athletics
20 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/results annulled from 14 August 2009 to 15 October 2012.[209][210]
Abderrahime Bouramdane  Morocco Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 14 April 2011 onwards.[209][211]
Yolanda Caballero  Colombia Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 24 October 2011 onwards.[209][211]
Aslı Çakır-Alptekin  Turkey Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalities 1st, gold medalist(s) IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 29 July 2010 onwards.[212][213]
Nicholas Delpopolo  United States Judo Cannabis IOC post-event testing at 2012 Summer Olympics.[214]
Bahar Doğan  Turkey Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 3 June 2011 onwards.[209][211]
Marta Domínguez  Spain Athletics
Steeplechase
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 5 August 2009 onwards.[209][215]
Hamza Driouch  Qatar Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 2 August 2012 onwards.[21][216][217]
Tyson Gay  United States Athletics
100 metres
4 × 100 meters
Anabolic androgenic steroids 2nd, silver medalist(s) (4 × 100 meters) USADA investigation after positive for anabolic androgenic asteroids in 2013; admittance.[21][218][219][220]
Yelizaveta Grechishnikova  Russia Athletics
10,000 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 18 August 2009 onwards.[21][208][221]
Semoy Hackett  Trinidad and Tobago Athletics
100 metres
200 metres
4 × 100 metres relay
Methylhexaneamine Positive from Division I Outdoor Track & Field Championships in June 2012[21][222][223]
Tetyana Hamera-Shmyrko  Ukraine Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 26 August 2011 onwards.[209][211]
Hassan Hirt  France Athletics
5000 metres
EPO IOC pre-Games testing.[21][224]
Vladimir Kanaikin  Russia Athletics
20 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/results annulled from 25 February 2011 to 17 December 2012.[209][210]
Olga Kaniskina  Russia Athletics
20 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalities 2nd, silver medalist(s) IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/results annulled from 15 August 2009 to 15 October 2012.[209][210]
Natallia Kareiva  Belarus Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 28 July 2010 onwards.[21][208][225][226]
Ümmü Kiraz  Turkey Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 3 June 2011 onwards.[209][211]
Sergey Kirdyapkin  Russia Athletics
50 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalities 1st, gold medalist(s) IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/results annulled from 20 August 2009 to 15 October 2012.[209][210]
Blaža Klemenčič  Slovenia Cycling
MTB
EPO UCI reanalysis of sample from 27 March 2012 in 2015. All results annulled from 27 March 2012 until 31 December 2012.[227]
Yekaterina Kostetskaya  Russia Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 30 August 2011 onwards.[21][228][229]
Zalina Marghieva  Moldova Athletics
Hammer throw
2009 WCh retest: Stanozolol, Oral Turinabol IAAF retesting of samples from 2009 IAAF World Championships[21][230]
Karin Melis Mey  Turkey Athletics
Long jump
Testosterone Positive from the 2012 European Athletics Championships in June.[21][230] Provisionally suspended after the qualifying round at the Games.
Andrei Mikhnevich  Belarus Athletics
Shot put
2005 WCh retest: Clenbuterol, Methandienone and Oxandrolone IAAF retest of sample from the 2005 IAAF World Championships. All results from August 2005 onwards annulled.[21][92]
Anna Mishchenko  Ukraine Athletics
1500 m
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 28 June 2012 onwards.[209][211]
Semiha Mutlu  Turkey Athletics
20 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 20 August 2011 onwards.[209][211]
Nadzeya Ostapchuk  Belarus Athletics
Shot put
Methenolone 1st, gold medalist(s) IOC post-event testing at 2012 Summer Olympics (two separate positive samples).[21][231]
Darya Pishchalnikova  Russia Athletics
Discus throw
Oxandrolone 2nd, silver medalist(s) Random out of competition test in May 2012. All her results (Including those at the 2012 Summer Olympics) since May 2012 were annulled by the IAAF in April 2013.[21][232]
Hysen Pulaku  Albania Weightlifting Stanozolol IOC pre-competition testing at 2012 Summer Olympics.[233]
Meliz Redif  Turkey Athletics
4 x 400 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 26 June 2012 onwards.[209][211]
Pınar Saka  Turkey Athletics
400 metres
4 x 400 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 18 June 2010 onwards.[21][208][234]
Mohammed Shaween  Saudi Arabia Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 12 June 2011 onwards.[21][228][229]
Anzhelika Shevchenko  Ukraine Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 2 July 2011 onwards.[21][208]
Liliya Shobukhova  Russia Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 9 October 2009 onwards.[235][236]
Svitlana Shmidt  Ukraine Athletics
Steeplechase
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 8 March 2012 onwards.[21][237][238][239]
Soslan Tigiev  Uzbekistan Wrestling Methylhexaneamine 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC post-event testing at 2012 Summer Olympics.[240]
Binnaz Uslu  Turkey Athletics
Steplechase
2011 WCh retest: Stanozolol IAAF retest of sample from 2011 World Championships[21][230][241]
Wang Jiali  China Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 29 May 2012 onwards.[21][242]
Nevin Yanit  Turkey Athletics
100 metres hurdles
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 28 June 2012 onwards.[21][243][244][245]
Igor Yerokhin  Russia Athletics
50 km walk
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 25 February 2011 onwards.[21][246]
Lyudmyla Yosypenko  Ukraine Athletics
Heptathlon
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 25 August 2011 onwards.[21][230]
Olga Beresnyeva  Ukraine Swimming
Open water
EPO IOC re-analysis of sample in 2015[247][248]
Yuliya Kalina  Ukraine Weightlifting
58 kg
Turinabol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016.[249]
Pavel Kryvitski  Belarus Athletics
Hammer throw
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[99]
Oleksandr Pyatnytsya  Ukraine Athletics
Javelin throw
Turinabol 2nd, silver medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[99]
Yuliya Zaripova  Russia Athletics
3000 Metres Steeplechase
Turinabol 1st, gold medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[250]
Maiya Maneza  Kazakhstan Weightlifiting
63 kg
Stanozolol 1st, gold medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[251]
Zulfiya Chinshanlo  Kazakhstan Weightlifiting
53 kg
Stanozolol & Oxandrolone 1st, gold medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[252]
Svetlana Podobedova  Kazakhstan Weightlifiting
75 kg
Stanozolol 1st, gold medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[253]
Yevgeniya Kolodko  Russia Athletics
Shot Put
Turinabol & Ipamorelin 2nd, silver medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[254]
Ekaterina Gnidenko  Russia Cycling
Keirin
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[255]
Tatyana Lysenko  Russia Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol 1st, gold medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[256]
Apti Aukhadov  Russia Weightlifting
85 kg
Turinabol & Drostanolone 2nd, silver medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[185]
Maksym Mazuryk  Ukraine Athletics
Pole Vault
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[185]
Kirill Ikonnikov  Russia Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[257]
Dzina Sazanavets  Belarus Weightlifting
69 kg
Drostanolone & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[258]
Maryna Shkermankova  Belarus Weightlifting
69 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[259]
Dmitry Starodubtsev  Russia Athletics
Pole Vault
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[260]
Yauheni Zharnasek  Belarus Weightlifting
+105 kg
Turinabol, Oxandrolone & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[261]
Besik Kudukhov  Russia Wrestling
Freestyle 60 kg
Turinabol 2nd, silver medalist(s) (Medal not stripped due to the athletes premature death) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[262]
Andrey Demanov  Russia Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[263]
Oleksandr Drygol  Ukraine Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[264]
Cristina Iovu  Moldova Weightlifting
53 kg
Turinabol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[265]
Aleksandr Ivanov  Russia Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol & Tamoxifen 2nd, silver medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[266]
Hripsime Khurshudyan  Armenia Weightlifiting
+75 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[267]
Iryna Kulesha  Belarus Weightlifting
75 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[268]
Rauli Tsirekidze  Georgia Weightlifting
85 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[269]
Marharyta Tverdokhlib  Ukraine Athletics
Long Jump
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[270]
Almas Uteshov  Kazakhstan Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[271]
Natalia Zabolotnaya  Russia Weightlifting
75 kg
Turinabol 2nd, silver medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[272]
Anatolie Cîrîcu  Moldova Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol 3rd, bronze medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[273]
Ilya Ilyin  Kazakhstan Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol 1st, gold medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[274]
Aksana Miankova  Belarus Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[275]
Nastassia Mironchyk-Ivanova  Belarus Athletics
Long Jump
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[276]
Boyanka Kostova  Azerbaijan Weightlifting
58 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[277]
Sibel Simsek  Turkey Weightlifting
63 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[278]
Intigam Zairov  Azerbaijan Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[279]
Norayr Vardanyan  Armenia Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[280]
Vera Ganeeva  Russia Athletics
Discus Throw
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[281]
Adem Kilicci  Turkey Boxing
Middleweight
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[282]
Antonina Krivoshapka  Russia Athletics
400 Metres
4 x 400 Metres Relay
Turinabol 2nd, silver medalist(s) (4 x 400 metres) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[283]
Mariya Bespalova  Russia Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[284]
Khadzhimurat Akkayev  Russia Weightlifting
105 kg
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[285]
Gulfiya Khanafeyeva  Russia Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[286]
Victoria Valyukevich  Russia Athletics
Triple Jump
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[287]
Svetlana Tsarukayeva  Russia Weightlifting
63 kg
Turinabol 2nd, silver medalist(s) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[288]
Maksim Dyldin  Russia Athletics
400 Metres
4 x 400 Metres Relay
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[289]

Did not start[edit]

Athletes who were selected for the Games, but provisionally suspended before competing.

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Details of test
Victoria Baranova  Russia Cycling
Track - sprint
Testosterone IOC pre-Games testing in Belarus[290]
Kissya Cataldo  Brazil Rowing
Single sculls
EPO International Rowing Federation pre-Games testing in Brazil[165][291]
Luiza Galiulina  Uzbekistan Gymnastics Furosemide IOC pre-Games testing in Uzbekistan.[292]
Amine Laâlou  Morocco Athletics
1500 metres
Furosemide IAAF post-competition testing at Diamond League meeting in Monte Carlo.[293]
Marina Marghieva
(Marina Nichișenco)
 Moldova Athletics
Hammer throw
Stanozolol IOC pre-Games testing.[21][230][294]
Diego Palomeque  Colombia Athletics
400 metres
Exogenous testosterone IOC pre-competition testing at 2012 Summer Olympics.[295]
Alex Schwazer  Italy Athletics
50 km walk
EPO IOC pre-Games testing in Italy.[296]
Tameka Williams  Saint Kitts and Nevis Athletics
100 metres
"Blast Off Red" Did not fail test but confessed to have used an illegal "veterinary medicine".[297]

2016 Rio de Janeiro[edit]

More than 90 competitors at the games had previously been punished for doping offences; these included the American sprinter Justin Gatlin and the Russian swimmer Yuliya Yefimova.[298] The winner of the Men's 77kg weightlifting contest, the Kazakhstani weightlifter Nijat Rahimov, had previously been banned for 2 years for doping.[299]

The Taiwanese weightlifter Lin Tzu-chi was withdrawn from the games hours before her event by her country's delegation for an abnormal drugs test.[299]

The Kenyan athletics coach John Anzrah, who travelled to Rio independently of his country's delegation was sent home after being caught posing as an athlete during a doping test.[300] This followed the sending home of Kenya's track and field manager Michael Rotich who was filmed by a newspaper offering to give athletes advanced notice of any pending drugs test in return for a one-off payment.[301]

On 13 October 2016, the IWF reported that weightlifter Gabriel Sincraian of Romania, who won bronze in the men's 85-kg event, tested positive for excess testosterone in a test connected to the Rio Olympics.[302] On 8 December 2016, the CAS affirmed the disqualification of Sincraian and the loss of the bronze medal.[303] The CAS also disqualified silver medalist 52 kg boxer Misha Aloian of Russia for doping.

Disqualified[edit]

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Details of test
Izzat Artykov  Kyrgyzstan Weightlifting
69 kg
Strychnine 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (69 kg) Positive test for strychnine and forfeiture of medal announced by CAS.[304]
Chen Xinyi  China Swimming
100 metre butterfly
Hydrochlorothiazide Tested positive for the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide; applied for B sample to be tested and hearing to be held.[305]
Anastassya Kudinova  Kazakhstan Athletics
400 metres
Drostanolone Out-of-competition test in Almaty, Kazakhstan on 13 July 2016[306]
Kléber Ramos  Brazil Cycling
Road race
CERA IOC pre-games test 31 July and out-of-competition test (blood and urine) 4 August.[307] Provisionally suspended by UCI on 12 August.[308]
Serghei Tarnovschi  Moldova Canoeing
C-1 1000 metres
C-2 1000 metres
GHRP-2 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (C-1 1000 metres) Result from pre-game test. Provisionally suspended on 18 August.[309][310] On 11 July 2017, the Court of Arbitration for Sport upheld the International Canoe Federation’s decision of 30 January 2017 imposing a period of ineligibility of four years and the disqualification of all results from 8 July 2016 onwards.[311]
Chagnaadorj Usukhbayar  Mongolia Weightlifting
56 kg
Exogenous testosterone IOC out-of-competition test on 7. August.[312]
Misha Aloian  Russia (RUS) Boxing
Men's flyweight
2nd, silver medalist(s) (Men's flyweight) On 8 December 2016, the CAS disqualified weightlifter Gabriel Sîncrăian of Romania and boxer Misha Aloian of Russia.[313]
Gabriel Sîncrăian  Romania (ROM) Weightlifting
Men's 85 kg
3rd, bronze medalist(s) (Men's 85 kg) On 8 December 2016, the CAS disqualified weightlifter Gabriel Sîncrăian of Romania and boxer Misha Aloian of Russia.[314]

Did not start[edit]

Athletes who were selected for the Games, but provisionally suspended before competing.

Name Country Sport Banned substance Details of test
Silvia Danekova  Bulgaria Athletics
Steeplechase
EPO Provisionally suspended after a failed A-sample test given a few days after arriving in Brazil.[315]
Theodora Giareni  Greece Swimming
50 metre freestyle
Sent home from the Olympics on the day of the opening ceremony after failing a pre-games test conducted in July.[316][317]
Antonis Martasidis  Cyprus Weightlifting
85 kg
Sent home from the Olympics after failing a pre-games test conducted on 25 July.[316]
Michael O'Reilly  Ireland Boxing
Middleweight
not disclosed O'Reilly admitted to taking a dietary supplement given to him by someone unrelated to his team or association.[318]
Narsingh Pancham Yadav  India Wrestling
Freestyle 74 kg
Methandienone Originally cleared to compete by the National Anti-doping Agency of India after failed tests on 25 June and 5 July. Appeal by WADA was upheld by CAS on 18 August, with a 4 years suspension handed down.[319]
Adrian Zieliński  Poland Weightlifting
94 kg
Nandrolone [320]
Tomasz Zieliński  Poland Weightlifting
94 kg
Nandrolone Sent home from the Olympics after failing a test conducted at the Polish Championships in July.[320]

Winter Olympic Games[edit]

1968 Grenoble[edit]

No athletes were caught doping at these Games.

1972 Sapporo[edit]

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Alois Schloder  West Germany Ice hockey Ephedrine

1976 Innsbruck[edit]

Name Country Sport Anti-doping rule violation Medals Ref.
Galina Kulakova  Soviet Union Cross-country skiing Ephedrine 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (5 km) [19]
Frantisek Pospisil  Czechoslovakia Ice hockey Codeine, Morphine [19][321][322]
Dr. Otto Trefny  Czechoslovakia Ice hockey Administration of prohibited substances to Frantisek Pospisil. Banned from the Olympic Games for life. [19][321][322]

1980 Lake Placid[edit]

No athletes were caught using performance-enhancing drugs at these Games.

1984 Sarajevo[edit]

The Finnish cross-country skier Aki Karvonen admitted in 1994 that he'd had blood transfusions for the Sarajevo Games.[323] Blood transfusions weren't formally banned by IOC until 1986. Karvonen won a silver and two bronze at the games.

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Pürevjavyn Batsükh  Mongolia Cross-country skiing Methandienone

1988 Calgary[edit]

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Jaroslaw Morawiecki  Poland Ice hockey Testosterone

1992 Albertville[edit]

No athletes were caught using performance-enhancing drugs at these Games. The Russian biathlete Sergei Tarasov admitted in 2015 that the Russian biathlon team had carried out illegal blood transfusions at the Games. Something went very wrong with his transfusion, and he was rushed to the hospital where they saved his life.[324]

1994 Lillehammer[edit]

No athletes were caught using performance-enhancing drugs at these Games

1998 Nagano[edit]

No athletes were caught using performance-enhancing drugs at these games. The Canadian snowboarder Ross Rebagliati, winner of the men's giant slalom, was initially disqualified and stripped of his gold medal by the International Olympic Committee's Executive Board after testing positive for marijuana.[325] Marijuana was not then on the list of prohibited substances by the IOC, and their decision was reversed by the Court of Arbitration for Sport and Rebagliati's medal reinstated.[325][326][327]

2002 Salt Lake City[edit]

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Natalia Baranova-Masalkina  Russia Cross-country skiing WADA pre-Games test: EPO[328]
Alain Baxter  Great Britain Alpine skiing Methamphetamine 3rd, bronze medalist(s) (slalom)
Olga Danilova  Russia Cross-country skiing Darbepoetin 1st, gold medalist(s) (10 km pursuit), 2nd, silver medalist(s) (10 km)
Larisa Lazutina  Russia Cross-country skiing Darbepoetin 1st, gold medalist(s) (30 km), 1st, gold medalist(s) (10 km), 2nd, silver medalist(s) (15 km freestyle)
Marc Mayer  Austria Cross-country skiing Possession of blood-transfusion equipment[329][330]
Walter Mayer  Austria Cross-country skiing/Biathlon Austrian cross-country/biathlon team coach, performed blood transfusions on Marc Mayer and Achim Walcher.[329][330]
Johann Mühlegg  Spain Cross-country skiing Darbepoetin 1st, gold medalist(s) (50 km), 1st, gold medalist(s) (30 km freestyle), 1st, gold medalist(s) (20 km pursuit)
Volker Müller  Austria Cross-country skiing/Biathlon German chiropractor working for the Austrian cross-country/biathlon team, involved in the blood transfusions on Marc Mayer and Achim Walcher.[329][330]
Vasily Pankov  Belarus Ice hockey Nandrolone
Achim Walcher  Austria Cross-country skiing Possession of blood-transfusion equipment[329][330]

2006 Turin[edit]

On 25 April 2007, six Austrian athletes were banned for life from the Olympics for their involvement in a doping scandal at the 2006 Turin Olympics, the first time the IOC punished athletes without a positive or missed doping test. The Austrians were found guilty of possessing doping substances and taking part in a conspiracy, based on materials seized by Italian police during a raid on the athletes' living quarters. The Austrians also had their competition results from Turin annulled.[331] A seventh athlete, cross-country skier Christian Hoffmann, had his case referred to the International Ski Federation for further investigation, but IOC charges were dismissed.[332][333]

The IOC has retested nearly 500 doping samples that were collected at the 2006 Turin Games. In 2014, the Estonian Olympic Committee was notified by the IOC that a retested sample from cross-country skier Kristina Šmigun had tested positive. On 24 October 2016, the World Anti-Doping Agency Athletes' Commission stated that Šmigun, who won two gold medals at the Turin Games, faces a Court of Arbitration for Sport hearing before the end of October. If Šmigun were to be stripped of her gold medals, Kateřina Neumannová of Czech Republic could be elevated to gold in the 7.5 + 7.5 km double pursuit event. Marit Bjørgen of Norway could acquire a seventh gold medal in the 10 km classical event.[334]

Did not start[edit]

On 13 February 2006, the Brazilian Olympic Committee announced that Armando dos Santos' preventive antidoping test, which had been done in Brazil on 4 January 2006, was positive for the forbidden substance nandrolone. Santos was ejected from the team, being replaced by former sprinter Claudinei Quirino, the team's substitute athlete.[335]

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Armando dos Santos  Brazil Bobsleigh nandrolone[335]

Disqualified during the Games[edit]

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Olga Pyleva  Russia Biathlon Carphedon[336] 2nd, silver medalist(s) (15 km)

Disqualified after the Games[edit]

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Roland Diethard  Austria Cross-country skiing Possession of a prohibited substance or method[337]
Johannes Eder  Austria Cross-country skiing Possession and use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or method[337]
Wolfgang Perner  Austria Biathlon Possession of a prohibited substance or method[331]
Jürgen Pinter  Austria Cross-country skiing Possession of a prohibited substance or method[338]
Wolfgang Rottmann  Austria Biathlon Possession of a prohibited substance or method[331]
Martin Tauber  Austria Cross-country skiing Possession of a prohibited substance or method[337]

2010 Vancouver[edit]

On 23 December 2016, the IOC stated that it will re-analyse all samples from Russian athletes at the Olympic Winter Games of Vancouver 2010.[339] In October 2017, the IOC stated that one sole athlete was caught from retests of doping samples from the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Games. Biathlete Teja Gregorin was confirmed as this athlete by the International Biathlon Union. A total of 1195 samples from Vancouver 2010 (70% of the 1700 available) were reanalyzed. This included all medalists and all of the 170 Russian athletes. The IOC requested all Russian samples from the 2010 Games be retested after the publication of the McLaren Report. Russia's disappointing performance at Vancouver (11th in gold medal table with a total of 3 golds) is cited as the reason behind the implementation of a doping scheme alleged to have been in operation at major events such as the 2014 Games at Sochi.[340]

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Details of test
Kornelia Marek  Poland Cross-country skiing Erythropoietin[341]
Teja Gregorin  Slovenia Biathlon
Women's Individual
Women's Sprint
Women's Pursuit
Women's Mass Start
Women's Relay
GHRP-2 & Metabolite IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[342]

2014 Sochi[edit]

According to the director of the country’s antidoping laboratory at the time, Grigory Rodchenkov, dozens of Russian athletes at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, including at least 15 medal winners, were part of a state-run doping program, meticulously planned for years to ensure dominance at the Games.[343]

In December 2016, following the release of the McLaren report on Russian doping at the Sochi Olympics, the International Olympic Committee announced the initiation of an investigation of 28 Russian athletes at the Sochi Olympic Games. La Gazzetta dello Sport reported the names of 17 athletes, of whom 15 are among the 28 under investigation.[344][345] The Russian team potentially could be stripped of up to 12 Olympic medals among these athletes alone.

Three ladies artistic skaters were named as being under investigation. They are Adelina Sotnikova, the singles gold medalist, as well as pairs skaters Tatiana Volosozhar and Ksenia Stolbova. Volosozhar and Stolbova won gold and silver medals, respectively, in pairs skating. Both also won gold medals in the team event, which also puts the other eight team medalists at risk of losing their golds. In November 2017 the proceeding against Sotnikova was dropped.[346]

Six skiers were suspended from competition on the basis of the McLaren report: Evgeniy Belov, Alexander Legkov, Alexey Petukhov, Maxim Vylegzhanin, Yulia Ivanova and Evgenia Shapovalova. Legkov won a gold medal, and Vylegzhanin won three silver medals. In November 2017 all six were disqualified, and their medals were stripped.[347][348]

The International Biathlon Union suspended two biathletes who were in the Sochi games: Olga Vilukhina and Yana Romanova, according to La Gazzetta dello Sport. Vilukhina won silver in sprint, and both women were on a relay team that won the silver medal.

The International Bobsleigh and Skeleton Federation suspended four skeleton sliders. They are among the six athletes on the skeleton team: Nikita Tregubov, Alexander Tretyakov, Sergey Chudinov, Elena Nikitina, Maria Orlova and Olga Potylitsina. Tretyakov won a gold medal, and Nikitina won a silver. These suspensions were later lifted although the doping investigation will continue.[349]

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Details of test
Nicklas Bäckström  Sweden Ice hockey Pseudoephedrine[350] 2nd, silver medalist(s) Awarded despite the doping violation.[351]
Johannes Dürr  Austria Cross-country skiing Erythropoietin[352]
Ralfs Freibergs  Latvia Ice hockey Dehydrochloromethyltestosterone[353]
William Frullani  Italy Bobsleigh Methylhexanamine[354][355]
Marina Lisogor  Ukraine Cross-country skiing Trimetazidine[356][357]
Alexandr Loginov  Russia Biathlon EPO Positive after IBU re-tested sample from 26 November 2013. All results from that date onwards annulled.[358]
Irina Starykh  Russia Biathlon EPO Tested positive for EPO in an out-of-competition test conducted Dec. 23, 2013. Withdrawn prior to competition. Starykh has been banned for 2 years.[359]
Ekaterina Iourieva  Russia Biathlon EPO In January 2014, she was reported to fail the doping test again. Withdrawn prior to competition. On July 14, 2014 Iourieva was disqualified for eight years, and all her results after December 23, 2013, were made void.[360]
Vitalijs Pavlovs  Latvia Ice hockey Methylhexanamine[361]
Evi Sachenbacher-Stehle  Germany Biathlon Methylhexanamine[354][362]
Serguei Sednev  Ukraine Biathlon EPO Positive after IBU re-tested sample from 22 January 2013. All results from that date onwards annulled.[363]
Daniel Zalewski  Poland Bobsleigh Stimulant [364]
Alexander Legkov  Russia Cross-Country Skiing
50km Freestyle
4 x 10km Cross Country
30km Skiathlon
Disappearing sample 1st, gold medalist(s) (50km Freestyle)
2nd, silver medalist(s) (4 x 10km Relay)
IOC sanction imposed in 2017[347]
Evgeniy Belov  Russia Cross-Country Skiing
30km Skiathlon
15km Classical
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[347]
Maksim Vylegzhanin  Russia Cross-Country Skiing
50km Freestyle
30km Skiathlon
4 × 10km Relay
Team Sprint
Disappearing Sample 2nd, silver medalist(s) (50km Freestyle)
2nd, silver medalist(s) (Team Sprint)
2nd, silver medalist(s) (4 x 10km Relay)
IOC sanction imposed in 2017[348]
Evgenia Shapovalova  Russia Cross-Country Skiing
Sprint
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[348]
Alexei Petukhov  Russia Cross-Country Skiing
Sprint
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[348]
Yulia Ivanova  Russia Cross-Country Skiing
10km Classical
Team Sprint
4 x 5km Relay
30km Freestyle
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[348]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Gibson, Candace. "How the First Olympics Worked". Discovery Communications. Retrieved 2009-01-05. 
  2. ^ Lovgren, Stefan. "Ancient Olympics mixed Naked Sports, Pagan Partying". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2009-01-05. 
  3. ^ "Tom Hicks". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  4. ^ "A Brief History of Anti-Doping". World Anti-Doping Agency. Retrieved 2008-09-10. 
  5. ^ Maraniss, David (2008). Rome 1960. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 1-4165-3407-5. 
  6. ^ Begley, Sharon (7 January 2008). "The Drug Charade". Newsweek. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  7. ^ "Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall". 123explore.com. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  8. ^ Brennan, Christine (14 July 2004). "Babashoff had Mettle to Speak out about Steroids". USA Today. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  9. ^ Longman, Jere (22 April 2001). "Just Following Orders, Doctors' Orders". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
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External links[edit]