Doping at the Olympic Games
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|Doping in sport|
The use of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) has had a long history at the Olympic Games. Its origins can be traced back to the Ancient Olympics where Olympians would eat lizard meat prepared a special way, in the hopes that it would give them an athletic edge. The first documented use of drugs to improve an athlete's performance was the winner of the 1904 marathon, Thomas Hicks who was injected with strychnine. The use of performance-enhancing medication has also been attributed to one death during Olympic competition. As rumors of rampant drug use by athletes began to spread, so the International Olympic Committee (IOC) decided to act. By 1967, the IOC had banned the use of performance-enhancing drugs in Olympic competition. The IOC introduced the first drug use controls at the 1968 Winter Olympics.
These controls eventually evolved into a systematic-testing regimen that all Olympic athletes must adhere to. Testing of athletes for performance-enhancing drugs includes both urine and blood tests. As of 1999, the authoritative body on the use of performance-enhancing drugs is the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). This organization oversees the testing of athletes for several sports federations and the Olympic Games. As the creators of these drugs continue to improve their sophistication, potency and transparency, WADA and its constituency also innovate new ways to detect these drugs. Athletes continue to use various medical modifications to their body as a means of improving their athletic performances.
- 1 History
- 2 Response
- 3 Prohibited drugs
- 4 Summer Olympic Games
- 5 Winter Olympic Games
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The use of performance-enhancing tactics or more formally known as PEDs, and more broadly, the use of any external device to nefariously influence the outcome of a sporting event has been a part of the Olympics since its inception in Ancient Greece. One speculation as to why men were required to compete naked was to prevent the use of extra accoutrements and to keep women from competing in events specifically designed for men. Athletes were also known to drink "magic" potions and eat exotic meats in the hopes of given them an athletic edge on their competition. If they were caught cheating, their likenesses were often engraved into stone and placed in a pathway that led to the Olympic stadium. In the modern Olympic era, chemically enhancing one's performance has evolved into a sophisticated science, but in the early years of the Modern Olympic movement the use of performance-enhancing drugs was almost as crude as its ancient predecessors.
During the early 20th century, many Olympic athletes discovered ways to practically improve their athletic abilities by having testosterone. For example, the winner of the marathon at the 1904 Games, Thomas Hicks, was given strychnine and brandy by his coach, even during the race. As these methods became more extreme, it became increasingly evident that the use of performance-enhancing drugs was not only a threat to the integrity of sport but could also have potentially fatal side effects on the athlete. The only Olympic death linked to athletic drug use occurred at the Rome Games of 1960. During the cycling road race, Danish cyclist Knud Enemark Jensen fell from his bicycle and later died. A coroner's inquiry found that he was under the influence of amphetamine, which had caused him to lose consciousness during the race. Jensen's death exposed to the world how endemic drug use was among elite athletes. By the mid–1960s, sports federations were starting to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs, and the IOC followed suit in 1967.
The first Olympic athlete to test positive for the use of performance-enhancing drugs was Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall, a Swedish pentathlete at the 1968 Summer Olympics, who lost his bronze medal for alcohol use. Liljenwall was the only athlete to test positive for a banned substance at the 1968 Olympics, as the technology and testing techniques improved, the number of athletes discovered to be chemically enhancing their performance increased as well.
The most systematic case of drug use for athletic achievement is that of the East German Olympic teams of the 1970s and 1980s. In 1990, documents were discovered that showed many East German female athletes, especially swimmers, had been administered anabolic steroids and other drugs by their coaches and trainers. Girls as young as eleven were started on the drug regimen without consent from their parents. American female swimmers, including Shirley Babashoff, accused the East Germans of using performance-enhancing drugs as early as the 1976 Summer Games. Babashoff's comments were dismissed by the international and domestic media as sour grapes since Babashoff, a clear favorite to win multiple gold medals, won three silver medals - losing all three times to either of the two East Germans Kornelia Ender or Petra Thümer, and one gold medal in a relay. There was no suspicion of cheating on the part of the East German female swimmers even though their medal tally increased from four silvers and one bronze in 1972 to ten golds (out of a possible 12), six silvers, and one bronze in 1976. No clear evidence was discovered until after the fall of the Berlin Wall, when the aforementioned documents proved that East Germany had embarked on a state-sponsored drug regimen to dramatically improve their competitiveness at the Olympic Games and other international sporting events. Many of the East German authorities responsible for this program have been subsequently tried and found guilty of various crimes in the German penal system.
A very publicized steroid-related disqualification at an Olympic Games was the case of Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson, who won the Men's 100 metres at the 1988 Seoul Olympics, but tested positive for stanozolol. His gold medal was subsequently stripped and awarded to runner-up Carl Lewis, who himself had tested positive for banned substances prior to the Olympics, but had not been banned due to a lack of consistency in the application of the rules. At that time National Olympic Committees had leeway to determine whether a specific athlete met the criteria to be banned from Olympic competition.
In the late 1990s, the IOC took the initiative in a more organized battle against doping, leading to the formation of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in 1999. The 2000 Summer Olympics and 2002 Winter Olympics have shown that the effort to eliminate performance-enhancing drugs from the Olympics is not over, as several medalists in weightlifting and cross-country skiing were disqualified due to failing a drug test. During the 2006 Winter Olympics, only one athlete failed a drug test and had a medal revoked. The IOC-established drug testing regimen (now known as the "Olympic Standard") has set the worldwide benchmark that other sporting federations attempt to emulate. During the Beijing games, 3,667 athletes were tested by the IOC under the auspices of the World Anti-Doping Agency. Both urine and blood testing was used in a coordinated effort to detect banned substances and recent blood transfusions. While several athletes were barred from competition by their National Olympic Committees prior to the Games, six athletes failed drug tests while in competition in Beijing.
Summer Olympic Games
What follows is a list of all the athletes that have tested positive for a banned substance either during or after an Olympic Games in which they competed. Any medals listed were revoked by the International Olympic Commission (IOC). In 1967 the IOC banned the use of performance-enhancing drugs, instituted a Medical Commission, and created a list of banned substances. Mandatory testing began at the following years Summer and Winter games.
1968 Mexico City
|Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall||Sweden||Modern pentathlon||Ethanol||(team)|
|Name||Country||Sport||Anti-doping rule violation||Medals||Ref.|
|Bakaava Buidaa||Mongolia||Judo||Caffeine||(63 kg)|||
|Miguel Coll||Puerto Rico||Basketball||Amphetamine|||
|Rick DeMont||United States||Swimming||Ephedrine||(men's 400 m freestyle)|||
|Aad van den Hoek||Netherlands||Cycling||Coramine||(100 km team race)|||
|Jaime Huélamo||Spain||Cycling||Coramine||(individual road race)|||
|Mohammad Reza Nasehi||Iran||Weightlifting||Ephedrine|||
|Name||Country||Sport||Anti-doping rule violation||Medals||Ref.|
|Blagoi Blagoev||Bulgaria||Weightlifting||Anabolic steroid||(82.5 kg)|||
|Mark Cameron||United States||Weightlifting||Anabolic steroid|||
|Philippe Grippaldi||United States||Weightlifting||Anabolic steroid|||
|Zbigniew Kaczmarek||Poland||Weightlifting||Anabolic steroid||(67.5 kg)|||
|Valentin Khristov||Bulgaria||Weightlifting||Anabolic steroid||(110 kg)|||
|Arne Norrback||Sweden||Weightlifting||Anabolic steroid|||
|Peter Pavlasek||Czechoslovakia||Weightlifting||Anabolic steroid|||
|Danuta Rosani||Poland||Athletics||Anabolic steroid|||
Though no athletes were caught doping at the 1980 Summer Olympics, it has been claimed that athletes had begun using testosterone and other drugs for which tests had not been yet developed. A 1989 report by a committee of the Australian Senate claimed that "there is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow Games, certainly not a gold medal winner...who is not on one sort of drug or another: usually several kinds. The Moscow Games might well have been called the Chemists' Games".
A member of the IOC Medical Commission, Manfred Donike, privately ran additional tests with a new technique for identifying abnormal levels of testosterone by measuring its ratio to epitestosterone in urine. Twenty percent of the specimens he tested, including those from sixteen gold medalists would have resulted in disciplinary proceedings had the tests been official. The results of Donike's unofficial tests later convinced the IOC to add his new technique to their testing protocols. The first documented case of "blood doping" occurred at the 1980 Summer Olympics as a runner was transfused with two pints of blood before winning medals in the 5000 m and 10,000 m.
1984 Los Angeles
The organizers of the Los Angeles games had refused to provide the IOC doping authorities with a safe prior to the start of the games. Due to a lack of security, medical records were subsequently stolen. A 1994 letter from IOC Medical Commission chair Alexandre de Mérode claimed that Tony Daly, a member of the Los Angeles organizing committee had destroyed the records. Dick Pound later wrote of his frustration that the organizing committee had removed evidence before it could be acted on by the IOC. Pound also claimed that IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch and Primo Nebiolo, President of the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) had conspired to delay the announcement of positive tests so that the games could pass without controversy.
The American cyclist Pat McDonough later admitted to "blood doping" at the 1984 Los Angeles Games. Following the games it was revealed that one-third of the U.S. cycling team had received blood transfusions before the games, where they won nine medals, their first medal success since the 1912 Summer Olympics. "Blood doping" was banned by the IOC in 1985, though no test existed for it at the time.
|Kerrith Brown||Great Britain||Judo||Furosemide|
|Mitko Grablev||Bulgaria||Weightlifting||Furosemide||(56 kg)|
|Angell Guenchev||Bulgaria||Weightlifting||Furosemide||(67.5 kg)|
|Ben Johnson||Canada||Athletics||Stanozolol||(men's 100 m)|||
|Jorge Quesada||Spain||Modern pentathlon||Propanolol|
|Andor Szanyi||Hungary||Weightlifting||Stanozolol||(100 kg)|
|Alexander Watson||Australia||Modern Pentathlon||Caffeine|
|Madina Biktagirova||Unified Team||Athletics||Norephedrine|||
|Bonnie Dasse||United States||Athletics||Clenbuterol|||
|Jud Logan||United States||Athletics||Clenbuterol|||
|Antonella Bevilacqua||Italy||Athletics||Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine|||
|Sandra Farmer-Patrick||United States||Athletics||Testosterone|||
|Mary Slaney||United States||Athletics||Testosterone|||
Five athletes tested positive for the stimulant bromantane and was disqualified by the IOC, but later reinstated after an appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport. They were; swimmers Andrey Korneyev and Nina Zhivanevskaya, Greco-Roman wrestler Zafar Guliyev and sprinter Marina Trandenkova, all from Russia, and the Lithuanian track cyclist Rita Razmaitė. Dr. Vitaly Slionssarenko, physician to the Lithuanian cycling team, was also banned, and team coach Boris Vasilyev was expelled from the games. The CAS overturned the IOC decision, because bromantane had only recently been added to the prohibited list, and the athletes and officials got off with a reprimande. The Russian had argued that bromantane wasn't a stimulant and thus not banned.
Tim Montgomery, who was part of the USA Men's 4 × 100 m relay team which won the gold, in 2008 admitted that he had used Testosterone and HGH before the Sydney Games, and said “I have a gold medal that I’m sitting on that I didn’t get with my own ability”. IOC at the time said they would look into the case, but no action has since been taken by IOC to disqualify Montgomery from the Games.
|Fritz Aanes||Norway||Wrestling||Norandrosterone and noretiochdandone|
|Lance Armstrong||United States||Cycling
(Road race and Time trial)
|Investigation concluded 2012:
Use, Possession, Trafficking, Administration of Prohibited Susbstances and Methods and Assisting, Encouraging, Aiding, Abetting, Covering Up or any other type of complicity involving one or more anti-doping rule violations and/or attempted anti-doping rule violations.
|Ashot Danielyan||Armenia||Weightlifting||Stanozolol||(+105 kg)|
|Izabela Dragneva||Bulgaria||Weightlifting||Furosemide||(48 kg)|
|Ivan Ivanov||Bulgaria||Weightlifting||Furosemide||(56 kg)|
|Marion Jones||United States||Athletics||THG|| (women's 100 m), (women's 200 m),
(women's 4x400 m relay), (women's long jump),
(women's 4x100 m relay)
|Alexander Leipold||Germany||Wrestling||Nandrolone||(76 kg)|
|Sevdalin Minchev||Bulgaria||Weightlifting||Furosemide||(62 kg)|
|Antonio Pettigrew||United States||Athletics||EPO and HGH||(men's 4 × 400 m relay)|||
|Andreea Răducan||Romania||Gymnastics||Pseudophedrine||(women's individual all-round)|
|Jerome Young||United States||Athletics||Nandrolone||(men's 4 × 400 m relay)|||
Out of the 4,500 samples that were collected from participating athletes at the games, six athletes with positive specimens were ousted from the competition. It is possible that further positive tests may still be found as samples are sealed and frozen for eight years. It is unclear who remains in charge of these samples, the host or the IOC. The quality of testing was questioned when the BBC reported that samples positive for EPO were labeled as negative by Chinese laboratories in July. The rate of positive findings is lower than at Athens four years ago, but it cannot be deduced that the prevalence of doping has decreased; possibly, doping technology has become more sophisticated and a number of drugs cannot be detected.
It was announced prior to the Summer games that half of all competitors would be tested for drugs, with 150 scientists set to take 6,000 samples between the start of the games and the end of the Paralympic games. All medalists would also be tested. The Olympic anti-doping laboratory would test up to 400 samples every day for more than 240 prohibited substances.
The head of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), John Fahey, announced on 24 July that 107 athletes had been sanctioned for doping offences in the six months to June 19. The "In-competition" period began on July 16. During the "In-competition" period Olympic competitors can be tested at any time without notice or in advance.
British sprinter Dwain Chambers, cyclist David Millar and shot putter Carl Myerscough competed in London after the British Olympic Association's policy of punishing drug cheats with lifetime bans was overturned by the Court of Arbitration for Sport.
Gold medallists at the games who had been involved in previous doping offences included Alexander Vinokourov, the winner of the men's road race, Tatyana Lysenko, the winner of the women's hammer throw, Aslı Çakır Alptekin winner of the women's 1500 meters and Sandra Perković, winner of the women's discus throw. Other competitors at the Summer games involved in previous doping cases included American athletes Justin Gatlin and LaShawn Merritt, and Jamaican sprinter Yohan Blake.
Spanish athlete Ángel Mullera was first selected for the 3000 m steeplechase and later removed when emails were published in which he discussed EPO use with a trainer. Mullera appealed to CAS which ordered the Spanish Olympic Committee to allow him to participate.
Prior to the Olympic competition, several prominent track and field athletes were ruled out of the competition due to failed tests. World indoor medallists Dimitrios Chondrokoukis, Debbie Dunn, and Mariem Alaoui Selsouli were withdrawn from their Olympic teams in July for doping, as was 2004 Olympic medallist Zoltán Kővágó. At the Olympic competition, Tameka Williams admitted to taking a banned stimulant and was removed from the games. Ivan Tsikhan did not compete in the hammer throw as a re-test of his sample from the 2004 Athens Olympics, where he won silver, was positive. Amine Laâlou, Marina Marghieva, Diego Palomeque, and defending 50 km walk champion Alex Schwazer were also suspended before taking part in their events.
Syrian hurdler Ghfran Almouhamad became the first track-and-field athlete to be suspended following a positive in-competition doping sample. Nadzeya Astapchuk was stripped of the women's shot put title after her sample came back positive for the banned anabolic agent metenolone. Karin Melis Mey was withdrawn before the long jump final when an earlier failed doping test was confirmed.
|Name||Country||Sport||Banned substance||Medals||Details of test|
|Hussain Al-Hamdah||Saudi Arabia||Athletics
|Biological passport abnormalities||IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 26 March 2009 onwards.|
400 metres hurdles
|Methylhexaneamine||IOC pre-competition testing at 2012 Summer Olympics|
|Biological passport abnormalities||IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 12 July 2011 onwards.|
Track - sprint(DNS)
|Testosterone||IOC pre-Games testing in Belarus|
|EPO||Retesting in 2015 of samples from IOC pre-Games testing in Ukraine|
|Biological passport abnormalities||(women's 1500 metres)||IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 29 July 2010 onwards.|
|EPO||International Rowing Federation pre-Games testing in Brazil|
|Nicholas Delpopolo||United States||Judo||Cannabis||IOC post-event testing at 2012 Summer Olympics.|
|Biological passport abnormalities||IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 2 Aug. 2012 onwards.|
|Luiza Galiulina||Uzbekistan(DNS)||Gymnastics(DNS)||Furosemide||IOC pre-Games testing in Uzbekistan.|
|Tyson Gay||United States||Athletics
|Anabolic androgenic ateroids||USADA investigation after positive for anabolic androgenic ateroids in 2013; admittance.|
|Biological passport abnormalities||IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 18 August 2009 onwards.|
|Semoy Hackett||Trinidad and Tobago||Athletics
4 × 100 metres relay
|Methylhexaneamine||Positive from Division I Outdoor Track & Field Championships in June 2012|
|EPO||IOC pre-Games testing.|
|Biological passport abnormalities||IAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 28 July 2010 onwards.|
|Biological passport abnormalities||IAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 30 August 2011 onwards.|
1500 metres (DNS)
|Furosemide||IAAF post-competition testing at Diamond League meeting in Monte Carlo.|
Hammer throw (DNS)
|Stanozolol||IOC pre-Games testing.|
|2009 WCh retest: Stanozolol, Oral Turinabol||IAAF retesting of samples from 2009 IAAF World Championships|
|Karin Melis Mey||Turkey||Athletics
|Testosterone||Positive from the 2012 European Athletics Championships in June.|
|2005 WCh retest: Clenbuterol, Methandienone and Oxandrolone||IAAF retest of sample from the 2005 IAAF World Championships. All results from August 2005 onwards annulled.|
|Methenolone||(women's shot put)||IOC post-event testing at 2012 Summer Olympics (two separate positive samples).|
400 metres (DNS)
|Exogenous testosterone||IOC pre-competition testing at 2012 Summer Olympics.|
|Oxandrolone||(women's discus throw)||Random out of competition test in May 2012. All her results (Including those at the 2012 Summer Olympics) since May 2012 were annulled by the IAAF in April 2013.|
|Hysen Pulaku||Albania||Weightlifting||Stanozolol||IOC pre-competition testing at 2012 Summer Olympics.|
|Biological passport abnormalities||IAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 18 June 2010 onwards.|
50 km walk (DNS)
|EPO||IOC pre-Games testing in Italy.|
|Mohammed Shaween||Saudi Arabia||Athletics
|Biological passport abnormalities||IAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 12 June 2011 onwards.|
|Biological passport abnormalities||IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 2 July 2011 onwards.|
|Biological passport abnormalities||IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 9 October 2009 onwards.|
|Biological passport abnormalities||IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 8 March 2012 onwards.|
|Soslan Tigiev||Uzbekistan||Wrestling||Methylhexaneamine||(freestyle 74 kg)||IOC post-event testing at 2012 Summer Olympics.|
|USA's Men's 4 × 100 meter relay team||United States||Athletics
4 × 100 meters
|DHEA (Tyson Gay)||USADA investigation after Tyson Gays positive for Anabolic Androgenic Steroids in 2013; admittance.|
|2011 WCh retest: Stanozolol||IAAF retest of sample from 2011 World Championships|
|Biological passport abnormalities||IAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 29 May 2012 onwards.|
|Tameka Williams||Saint Kitts and Nevis||Athletics
100 metres (DNS)
|"Blast Off Red"||Did not fail test but confessed to have used an illegal "veterinary medicine".|
100 metres hurdles
|Biological passport abnormalities||IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 28 June 2012 onwards.|
50 km walk
|Biological passport abnormalities||IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 25 February 2011 onwards.|
|Biological passport abnormalities||IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 25 August 2011 onwards.|
Winter Olympic Games
No athletes were caught doping at these Games.
|Alois Schloder||West Germany||Ice hockey||Ephedrine|
|Name||Country||Sport||Anti-doping rule violation||Medals||Ref.|
|Galina Kulakova||Soviet Union||Cross-country skiing||Ephedrine||(5 km)|||
|Frantisek Pospisil||Czechoslovakia||Ice hockey||Codeine, Morphine|||
|Dr. Otto Trefny||Czechoslovakia||Ice hockey||Administration of prohibited substances to Frantisek Pospisil. Banned from the Olympic Games for life.|||
1980 Lake Placid
No athletes were caught using performance-enhancing drugs at these Games.
The Finnish cross-country skier Aki Karvonen admitted in 1994 that he'd had blood transfusions for the Sarajevo Games. Blood transfusions weren't formally banned by IOC until 1986. Karvonen won a silver and two bronze at the games.
|Pürevjavyn Batsükh||Mongolia||Cross-country skiing||Methandienone|
|Jaroslaw Morawiecki||Poland||Ice hockey||Testosterone|
No athletes were caught using performance-enhancing drugs at these Games. The Russian biathlete Sergei Tarasov admitted in 2015 that the Russian biathlon team had carried out illegal blood transfusions at the Games. Something went very wrong with his transfusion, and he was rushed to the hospital where they saved his life.
No athletes were caught using performance-enhancing drugs at these Games
No athletes were caught using performance-enhancing drugs at these games. The Canadian snowboarder Ross Rebagliati, winner of the men's giant slalom, was initially disqualified and stripped of his gold medal by the International Olympic Committee's Executive Board after testing positive for marijuana. Marijuana was not then on the list of prohibited substances by the IOC, and their decision was reversed by the Court of Arbitration for Sport and Rebagliati's medal reinstated.
2002 Salt Lake City
|Natalia Baranova-Masalkina||Russia||Cross-country skiing||WADA pre-Games test: EPO|
|Alain Baxter||Great Britain||Alpine skiing||Methamphetamine||(slalom)|
|Olga Danilova||Russia||Cross-country skiing||Darbepoetin||(10 km pursuit), (10 km)|
|Larisa Lazutina||Russia||Cross-country skiing||Darbepoetin||(30 km), (10 km), (15 km freestyle)|
|Marc Mayer||Austria||Cross-country skiing||Possession of blood-transfusion equipment|
|Walter Mayer||Austria||Cross-country skiing/Biathlon||Austrian cross-country/biathlon team coach, performed blood transfusions on Marc Mayer and Achim Walcher.|
|Johann Mühlegg||Spain||Cross-country skiing||Darbepoetin||(50 km), (30 km freestyle), (20 km pursuit)|
|Volker Müller||Austria||Cross-country skiing/Biathlon||German chiropractor working for the Austrian cross-country/biathlon team, involved in the blood transfusions on Marc Mayer and Achim Walcher.|
|Vasily Pankov||Belarus||Ice hockey||Nandrolone|
|Achim Walcher||Austria||Cross-country skiing||Possession of blood-transfusion equipment|
|Roland Diethard||Austria||Cross country skiing||Possession of a prohibited substance or method|
|Johannes Eder||Austria||Cross country skiing||Possession and use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or method|
|Christian Hoffmann||Austria||Cross country skiing||Investigation concluded in 2011: Blood doping|
|Wolfgang Perner||Austria||Biathlon||Possession of a prohibited substance or method|
|Jürgen Pinter||Austria||Cross country skiing||Possession of a prohibited substance or method|
|Olga Pyleva||Russia||Biathlon||Carphedon||(15 km)|
|Wolfgang Rottmann||Austria||Biathlon||Possession of a prohibited substance or method|
|Martin Tauber||Austria||Cross country skiing||Possession of a prohibited substance or method|
|Kornelia Marek||Poland||Cross-country skiing||Erythropoietin|
|Name||Country||Sport||Banned substance||Medals||Details of test|
|Nicklas Bäckström||Sweden||Ice hockey||Pseudoephedrine||Awarded despite the doping violation.|
|Johannes Dürr||Austria||Cross-country skiing||Erythropoietin|
|Ralfs Freibergs||Latvia||Ice hockey||Dehydrochloromethyltestosterone|
|Marina Lisogor||Ukraine||Cross-country skiing||Trimetazidine|
|Alexandr Loginov||Russia||Biathlon||EPO||Positive after IBU re-tested sample from 26 November 2013. All results from that date onwards annulled.|
|Vitalijs Pavlovs||Latvia||Ice hockey||Methylhexanamine|
|Serguei Sednev||Ukraine||Biathlon||EPO||Positive after IBU re-tested sample from 22 January 2013. All results from that date onwards annulled.|
- List of sporting scandals
- List of stripped Olympic medals
- List of doping cases in cycling
- List of doping cases in sport
- World Anti-Doping Agency
- Technology doping
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- Olympics ban settles doping row, New Straits Times, 2 September 1972
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- Doping Cases Involve Two Athletes, philly.com, 16 July 1996
- "I feel like I've been in jail" Farmer-Patrick adamant, Lawrence Journal-World, 4 June 1997
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- Gold medalist banned, Eugene Register-Guard, 15 October 1997
- Olympic News, Sports Library
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- Olympic doping's list of shame, news24.com, 24 August 2004
- Stephen Wilson, Associated Press: IOC Official Says Bromantan Produced by Russian Army, AP News Archive, 31 July 1996
- Pat Butcher: Bromantan is Russians' 'rocket fuel', The Independent, 3 August 1996
- ATLANTA: DAY 12 -- NOTEBOOK;Three Ejected for Drug Use, The New York Times, 31 July 1996
- Arbitrators Reinstate Russians and British Swimmer May Sue, LA Times, 5 August 1996
- Burnat, P; Payen, A; Le Brumant-Payen, C; Hugon, M; Ceppa, F (1997). "Bromontan, a new doping agent". Lancet 350 (9082): 963–4. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(05)63310-7. PMID 9314900.
- Special Court overturns IOC decisins vs. Russians, Manila Standard, 6 August 1996
- Matt Tabbi: Russians Fume as 3rd Olympian Disqualified, The Moscow Times, 31 july 1996
- Russians Want a Drug Lifted From Banned List, The New York Times, 1 August 1996
- [http://articles.latimes.com/1996-08-02/news/ss-30488_1_banned-drug Russian Is Ousted for Banned Drug, LA Times, 2 August 1996
- Reprieve for McMahon as IOC take lenient line, The Irish Times, 2 August 1996
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